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Encyclopedia > Niqqud
Hebrew alphabet
א    ב    ג    ד    ה    ו
ז    ח    ט    י    כך
ל    מם    נן    ס    ע    פף
צץ    ק    ר    ש    ת
History · Transliteration
Niqqud · Dagesh · Gematria
Cantillation · Numeration

In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Hebrew: נִקּוּד, Biblical נְקֻדּוֹת, Standard Nekudot Tiberian Nəquddôṯ ; "dots") is the system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. Several orthographic systems for representing Hebrew vowels were developed in the Early Middle Ages. The most widespread system (and the only one still used to a significant degree today) was created by the Masoretes of Tiberias (see Masoretic Text, Tiberian Hebrew) in the second half of the first millennium in the Land of Israel. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Aleph ‎ is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, together with Arabic descended from Phoenician . Its original sound value was a glottal stop. ... Bet or Beth is the second letter of the Phoenician alphabet, the Hebrew alphabet, and the Aramaic alphabet. ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ...   Dalet or Daleth is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... He is the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician , Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic . Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative (). The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan , Latin E and Cyrillic Ye. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... or (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the reconstructed name of the eighth letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew (also ) , Arabic (in abjadi order), and Berber . Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal , or velar (the... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Arabic alphabet , Persian alphabet . ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its sound value is IPA: . The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Lambda (Λ), Latin L, and Cyrillic El (Л). // Lamedh is believed to have come from a pictogram of an ox goad... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... → [Nun] is the 14th letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic, representing . ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... Pe is the seventeenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... Qoph or Qop is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel points. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gen. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Masoretes (baalei masorah) were scribes based primarily in at least three places, Tiberias (the best known); Eretz Yisrael, or the land of Israel; and Babylonia. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


Niqqud marks are small compared to the consonants they are positioned adjacent to, and thus can be added without requiring the retranscription of texts the writers of which did not anticipate their eventual addition.


Non-speakers of Hebrew give their greatest attention to vowel points (usually without using the word "niqqud") in the context of controversy over the interpretation of those written with the Tetragrammaton -- written as יְהוָה in Hebrew. The interpretation affects discussion of the authentic ancient pronunciation of the name whose other conventional English forms are "Jehovah" and "Yahweh". It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Jehovah is an English transcription of , which is a specific vocalized spelling of (i. ... Tetragrammaton redirects here. ...

Gen. 1:9 And God said, "Let the waters be collected".
Letters in black, vowel points in red, trope in blue

Contents

Image File history File links Example_of_biblical_Hebrew_trope. ... Image File history File links Example_of_biblical_Hebrew_trope. ... In music, a trope is one of three things. ...

Short table

Israeli Hebrew has five vowel phonemes, /i e a o u/, but many more written symbols for them. Niqqud consists of the following vowels.

Name Symbol Israeli Hebrew Keyboard Input Hebrew Alternate
Names
IPA Transliteration English
Example
Letter Key
Hiriq /i/ i seek 4 חִירִיק
Tzeire /e/ and /ei/ e and ei men 5 צֵירֵי
Segol /e/, (/ei/ with
succeeding yod)
e, (ei with
succeeding yod)
men 6 סֶגּוֹל
Patakh /a/ a far 7 פַּתַח
Kamatz /a/, (or /o/) a, (or o) far 8 קָמַץ
Sin dot (left) /s/ s sour 9 שׂי"ן
Shin dot (right) /ʃ/ sh shop 0 שׁי"ן
Holam /o/ o cone - חוֹלָם
Dagesh or Mappiq

Shuruk
N/A N/A N/A = דָּגֵשׁ or מפיק
/u/ u cool שׁוּרוּק
Kubutz /u/ u cool קוּבּוּץ
Below: Two vertical dots underneath the letter (called sh'va) make the vowel very short.
Sh'va /ɛ/ or /-/ apostrophe, e,
or nothing
silent ~ שְׁווָא
Reduced Segol /e/ e men 1 חֲטַף סֶגּוֹל Hataf Segol
Reduced Patakh /a/ a far 2 חֲטַף פַּתַח Hataf Patakh
Reduced Kamatz /o/ o cone 3 חֲטַף קָמָץ Hataf Kamatz

Note Ⅰ: The symbol "O" represents whatever Hebrew letter is used.
Note Ⅱ: The letter "ש" is used since it can only be represented by that letter..
Note Ⅲ: The dagesh, mappiq, and shuruk are different, however, they look the same and are inputted in the same manner.
Note Ⅳ: The letter "ו" is used since it can only be represented by that letter.
The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ...


Vowel comparison table

Vowel Comparison Table
Vowel Length IPA Transliteration English
Example
Long Short Very Short
ָ ַ ֲ /a/ a far
ֵ ֶ ֱ /e/ e temp
וֹ ָ ֳ /o/ o coke
וּ ֻ n/a /u/ u tube
יִ ִ /i/ i ski
Note Ⅰ: By adding two vertical dots (sh'va) ְ
the vowel is made very short.
Note Ⅱ: The short o and long a have the same niqqud.
Note Ⅲ: The short o is usually promoted to a long o
in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation
Note Ⅳ: The short u is usually promoted to a long u
in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...

Long table

This table uses the consonants ב ,ח or ש, where appropriate, to demonstrate where the niqqud is placed in relation to the consonant it is pronounced after. Any other consonants shown are actually part of the vowel. Note that there is some variation among different traditions in exactly how some vowel points are pronounced. The table below shows how most Israelis would pronounce them, but the classic Ashkenazi pronunciation, for example, differs in several respects. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ...

This demonstration is known to work in Internet Explorer and Mozilla browsers in at least some circumstances, but in most other Windows browsers the niqqud do not properly combine with the consonants. This is because, currently, the Windows text display engine does not combine the niqqud automatically. Except as noted, the vowel pointings should appear directly beneath the consonants and the accompanying "vowel letter" consonants for the mālê (unchangeable long) forms appear after.
Symbol Type Common Name Alternate Names Scientific Name Hebrew IPA Transliteration Comments
בְ Israeli Sh'va sheva šəva שְׁווָא /ə/ ə, e, ', or nothing See also shva.
Tiberian šəwâ שְׁוָא
חֱ Israeli Reduced Segol hataf segol ḥataf seggol חֲטַף סֶגּוֹל /e/ e
Tiberian ḥăṭep̄ səḡôl חֲטֶף סְגוֹל /ɛ/ ĕ
חֲ Israeli Reduced Patach hataf patach ḥataf pátaḥ חֲטַף פַּתַח /a/ a
Tiberian ḥăṭep̄ páṯaḥ חֲטֶף פַּתַח ă
חֳ Israeli Reduced Kamatz hataf kamatz ḥataf qamaẓ חֲטַף קָמָץ /o/ o
Tiberian ḥăṭep̄ qāmeṣ חֲטֶף קָמֶץ /ɔ/ ŏ
בִ Israeli Hiriq ḥiriq חִירִיק /i/ i Usually promoted to Hiriq Malei in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation.
Tiberian ḥîreq חִירֶק /i/ or /iː/) i or í
בִי Israeli Hiriq Malei hiriq yod ḥiriq male חִירִיק מָלֵא /i/ i
Tiberian ḥîreq mālê חִירֶק מָלֵא /iː/ î
בֵ Israeli Zeire tzeirei, tsere ẓere צֵירֵי /e/ e
Tiberian ṣērê צֵרֵי /eː/ ē
בֵי, בֵה, בֵא Israeli Zeire Malei tsere yod, tzeirei yod ẓere male צֵירֵי מָלֵא /e/ e More commonly ei (IPA /ei/).
Tiberian ṣērê mālê צֵרֵי מָלֵא /eː/ ê
בֶ Israeli Segol seggol סֶגּוֹל /e/ e
Tiberian səḡôl סְגוֹל /ɛ/ or /ɛː/ e or é
בֶי, בֶה, בֶא Israeli Segol Malei segol yod seggol male סֶגּוֹל מָלֵא /e/ e With succeeding yod, it is more commonly ei (IPA /ei/)
Tiberian səḡôl mālê סְגוֹל מָלֵא /ɛː/
בַ Israeli Patach pátaḥ פַּתַח /a/ a A patach on a letter ח at the end of a word is sounded before the letter, and not after. Thus, נֹחַ (Noah) is pronounced /no-ax/. This only occurs at the ends of words and only with patach and ח, ע, and הּ (that is, ה with a dot (mappiq) in it). This is sometimes called a patach g'nuvah, or "stolen" patach (more formally, "furtive patach"), since the sound "steals" an imaginary epenthetic consonant to make the extra syllable.
Tiberian páṯaḥ פַּתַח /a/ or /aː/ a or á
בַה, בַא Israeli Patach Malei pátaḥ male פַּתַח מָלֵא /a/ a
Tiberian páṯaḥ mālê פַּתַח מָלֵא /aː/
ב Israeli Kamatz Gadol kamatz qamaẓ gadol קָמַץ גָּדוֹל /a/ a
Tiberian qāmeṣ gāḏôl קָמֶץ גָּדוֹל /ɔː/ ā
בָה, בָא Israeli Kamatz Malei kamatz he qamaẓ male קָמַץ מָלֵא /a/ a comm
Tiberian qāmeṣ mālê קָמֶץ מָלֵא /ɔː/ â
ב Israeli Kamatz Katan kamatz hatuf qamaẓ qatan קָמַץ קָטָן /o/ o Usually promoted to Holam Malei in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation. Also, not to be confused with Hataf Kamatz.
Tiberian qāmeṣ qāṭān קָמֶץ קָטָן /ɔ/
בֹ Israeli Holam ḥolam חוֹלָם /o/ o Usually promoted to Holam Malei in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation. The holam is written above the consonant on the left corner, or slightly to the left of (i.e., after) it at the top.
Tiberian ḥōlem חֹלֶם /oː/ ō comm
בוֹ, בֹה, בֹא Israeli Holam Malei ḥolam male חוֹלַם מָלֵא /o/ o The holam is written in the normal position relative to the main consonant (above and slightly to the left), which places it directly over the vav.
Tiberian ḥōlem mālê חֹלֶם מָלֵא /oː/ ô
בֻ Israeli Kubutz qubbuẓ קוּבּוּץ /u/ u Usually promoted to Shuruk in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation.
Tiberian scien ִבּוּץ /u// or /uː// u or ú comm
בוּ, בוּה, בוּא Israeli Shuruk šuruq שׁוּרוּק /u/ u The shuruk is written after the main consonant, because it is essentially a vav with a piercing; the piercing is written identically to a dagesh (see below).
Tiberian šûreq שׁוּרֶק /uː/ û
בּ Israeli Dagesh dageš דָּגֵשׁ varied varied Though Standard Hebrew indicates doubled consonants in transliteration, such doubling (but not consonant hardening) is almost universally ignored in Israeli Hebrew. For most consonants the dagesh is written within the consonant, near the middle if possible, but the exact position varies from letter to letter; some letters do not have an open area in the middle, and in these cases it is written usually beside the letter, as with yod. A dagesh used to signify a hardening (of letters בגדכפת), but not a doubling is known as a dagesh qal, whereas that which doubles the length of a letter is known as a dagesh hazaq. The guttural consonants (אהחע) and resh (ר) do not take a dagesh, although the letter he (ה) may appear with a mappiq (which is written the same way as dagesh) at the end of a word to indicate that the letter is not only being used to signify a vowel, but is consonantal. See Dagesh.
Tiberian dāḡēš דָּגֵשׁ Not actually a vowel. It hardens or doubles the consonant it modifies. The resulting form can still take a niqqud vowel.
שׁ Israeli Shin dot shin dot שׁי"ן /ʃ/ š/sh Niqqud, but not a vowel. The dot for shin is written over the right (first) branch of the letter. It is usually written as sh.
Tiberian šin dot š
שׂ Israeli Sin dot sin dot שׂי"ן /s/ s Niqqud, but not a vowel. The dot for sin is written over the left (third) branch of the letter
Tiberian śin dot שׂי"ן /s/ ś Some linguistic evidence indicates that it was originally IPA /ɬ/, though poetry and acrostics show that it has been pronounced /s/ since quite ancient times).
בֿ Israeli Rafe Not used in Hebrew. Still occasionally seen in Yiddish (actually more often as the spelling becomes more standardized, embracing YIVO rules) to distinguish פּ /p/ from ֿפ /f/ (note that this letter is always pronounced /f/ when in the final position). Some ancient manuscripts have a dagesh or a rafe on nearly every letter. It is also used to indicate that a letter like ה or א is silent. In the particularly strange case of the Ten Commandments, which have two different traditions for their Cantillations which many texts write together, there are cases of a single letter with both a dagesh and a rafe, if it is hard in one reading and soft in the other.
Tiberian Niqqud, but not a vowel. Used as an "anti-dagesh", to show that a בגדכפת letter is soft and not hard, or (sometimes) that a consonant is single and not double, or that a letter like ה or א is completely silent

Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer, abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ... An example of a Web browser (Konqueror) A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Windows redirects here. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... In articulatory phonetics, the term guttural consonant is sometimes used to describe any of several consonantal speech sounds whose primary place of articulation is near the back of the oral cavity, specifically some velar consonants, uvular consonants, pharyngeal consonants, and epiglottal consonants (q. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... YIVO, (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), founded in 1925 as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט), or Yiddish Scientific Institute, is the most authoritative source for orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. ... Gen. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ...

Niqqud and the Keyboard

For the Hebrew letters there is a standardized Hebrew keyboard. But when it comes to niqqud, different computer systems and programs provide for adding the signs in different ways. A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and Roman (QWERTY) letters. ...


Nevertheless, a standard is beginning to emerge in the keystrokes that enter niqqud in Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Word and Open Office alike. In these applications, to enter niqqud the typist first switches to a Hebrew layout, then presses "Caps Lock." Then, to enter any specific niqqud, one presses "shift" and simultaneously presses one of the following keys: Windows redirects here. ... Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... OpenOffice. ...

Niqqud Input
Input Key Type Result
~ Sh'va
1 Reduced Segol
2 Reduced Patach
3 Reduced Kamatz
4 Hiriq
5 Zeire
6 Segol
7 Patach
8 Kamatz
9 Sin dot (left)
0 Shin dot (right)
- Holam
= Dagesh or Mappiq

Shuruk
Kubutz

Note Ⅰ: The letter "O" represents whatever Hebrew letter is used.
Note Ⅱ: The letter "ש" is used since it can only be represented by that letter..
Note Ⅲ: The dagesh, mappiq, and shuruk are different, however, they look the same and are inputted in the same manner.
Note Ⅳ: The letter "ו" is used since it can only be represented by that letter.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ...


Rules for Writing Without Niqqud

In modern Israeli orthography niqqud is seldom used, except in specialised texts such as dictionaries. For purposes of disambiguation, a system of spelling-without-niqqud (known in Hebrew as כתיב מלא [ktiv male, literally "full spelling"]) has developed. This was formally standardised in the Rules for the Spelling-Without-Niqqud (כללי הכתיב חסר הניקוד) enacted by the Academy of the Hebrew Language in 1996.[1] The Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית) is the Supreme Foundation for the Science of the Hebrew Language, that was founded by the Israeli Government in 1953. ...


Disputes among Protestant Christians

Protestant literalists who believe that the Hebrew text of the Old Testament is the inspired Word of God are divided on the question of whether or not the vowel points should be considered an inspired part of the Old Testament. In 1624, Louis Cappel, a French Huguenot scholar at Saumur, published a work in which he concluded that the vowel points were a later addition to the biblical text and that the vowel points were added not earlier than the fifth century AD. This assertion was hotly contested by Swiss theologian Johannes Buxtorf in 1648. Brian Walton's 1657 polyglot bible followed Cappel in revising the vowel points. In 1675, the 2nd and 3rd canons of the so-called Helvetic Consensus of the Swiss Reformed Church confirmed Buxtorf's view as orthodox and affirmed that the vowel points were inspired. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... Louis Cappel (1585-1658), was a French Protestant churchman and scholar. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Saumur is a small city and commune in the Maine-et-Loire département of France on the Loire River, with an approximate population of 30,000 (in 2001). ... Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629) was a celebrated Hebraist, born in Westphalia, member of a family of Orientalists; professor of Hebrew for 39 years at Basel and was known by the title, Master of the Rabbis. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopaedia. ... Brian Walton (1600 - November 29, 1661) was an English divine and scholar. ... The Helvetic Consensus (Latin: Formula consensus ecclesiarum Helveticarum) is a Swiss Reformed symbol drawn up in 1675 to guard against doctrines taught at the French academy of Saumur, especially Amyraldism. ... The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zurich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basle (Johannes Oecolampadius), Berne (Berchtold Haller and Niklaus Manuel), St. ...


See also

Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... In Arabic orthography, harakat are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds. ... A Qre perpetuum or standing Qre is a technical orthographic device to indicate the pronunciation of certain words in the masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh). ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ...

References

  1. ^ Rules of the Spelling-Without-Niqqud

External links

  • A free online course to learn the Hebrew Vowel System
  • Rules of the Spelling Without Niqqud - a simplified version of the Rules, published on the Academy of the Hebrew Language website.

The Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית) is the Supreme Foundation for the Science of the Hebrew Language, that was founded by the Israeli Government in 1953. ...

Technical problems on Wikimedia

  • Important: There is currently a serious bug affecting niqqud in all Wikimedia projects. See Wikipedia:Niqqud for a discussion of the problem in English, and click the language link in the sidebar for an extensive analysis of the problem in Hebrew.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Niqqud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1008 words)
In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew Nəquddôṯ "vowels") is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet.
Niqqud marks are small compared to the consonants they are positioned adjacent to, and thus can be added, without requiring the retranscription of texts whose writers did not anticipate their eventual addition.
This table uses the consonants ב, ח or ש, where appropriate, to demonstrate where the niqqud is placed in relation to the consonant it is pronounced after.
Niqqud - Wikipedia (430 words)
An Niqqud (pe Nikkud) a zo anv ur sistem implijet gant al lizherenneg hebraek evit diswel dre skrapù ha pikoù penaos e vez distaget ar vogalennoù.
Sinoù bihanoc'h evit ar c'hensonennoù ar an niqqud hag skrivet e vezont a-is ha tro-dro dezhi evit chom hep kemm stumm ar gerioù skrivet gant lizherennoù a ra dave d'ar c'hensonennoù nemetken.
Kudennoù a van c'hoazh evit diskwel war skramm an urzhiataerezh an niqqud e lec'h ma rankfent bezañ a-is d'ar c'hensonennoù, hag aliesig a-walc'h e vezont gwelet war o lerc'h evel en daolenn-mañ a-is.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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