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Nintendo Entertainment System
Nintendo Family Computer
Manufacturer Nintendo
Type Video game console
Generation Third generation (8-bit era)
First available JPN July 15, 1983
USA October 18, 1985
CAN February 1986
EUR1 September 1986[1]
EUR/AUS 1987[1]
Controller input 2 controller ports[3]
1 expansion slot
Units sold 60 million
Top-selling game Super Mario Bros.[4] (pack-in / separately)
Super Mario Bros. 3
Predecessor Color TV Game
Successor Super Nintendo Entertainment System

The Nintendo Entertainment System (often referred to as the NES or simply Nintendo), was an 8-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Brazil, Europe, and Australia in 1985. In most of Asia, including Japan (where it was first launched in 1983), the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Singapore, it was released as the Family Computer (ファミリーコンピュータ Famirī Konpyūta?) or simply, the Famicom (ファミコン Famikon?) listen . In South Korea, the hardware was licensed to Hyundai Electronics, which marketed it as the Comboy (컴보이).[5] Image File history File links Neslogo. ... Image File history File links Famicom_Family_logo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nintendo_entertainment_system. ... Nintendo Family Computer (sold in Japan). ... A console manufacturer is a company that manufactures and distributes video game consoles. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... “Game console” redirects here. ... Video games were introduced as a commercial entertainment medium in 1971, becoming the basis for an important entertainment industry in the late 1970s/early 1980s in the United States, Japan, and Europe. ... In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... This article is about the country in East Asia. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Motto (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean  -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment  -  Act of Union February... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... This is a list of video game console and handheld game console sales. ... This is a list of video games that have sold one million copies or more. ... This article is about the Super Mario Brothers video game for the NES. For other uses, see Super Mario Bros. ... Pack-in games are those games that have been included with home video game systems, as gratuity. ... Super Mario Bros. ... Packaging for the Color TV game (6) Nintendos Color TV Game Series debuted in 1977 with the Color TV Game 6. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... NES may refer to: Nintendo Entertainment System, an 8-bit video game console released by Nintendo in 1985 Nuclear export signal, a short amino acid sequence in a protein National Election Studies, a wide-ranging and comprehensive academic survey performed after every United States election by the University of Michigan... “Game console” redirects here. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... “Game console” redirects here. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Famicom. ... Hynix Semiconductor Inc. ...


The most successful gaming console of its time in Asia and North America[citation needed] (Nintendo claims to have sold over 60 million NES units worldwide[6]), it helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. It set the standard for subsequent consoles in everything from game design (the breakthrough platform game, Super Mario Bros., was the system’s first major success) to controller layout. The NES was the first console for which the manufacturer openly courted third-party developers. ET for the Atari 2600 is considered by many to be emblematic of the crash along with the Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man. ... Game design is the process of designing the content and rules of a game. ... A simple platform sequence from the game Wonder Boy Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by jumping to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles. ... This article is about the Super Mario Brothers video game for the NES. For other uses, see Super Mario Bros. ... In the video game industry, a third-party developer is a developer that is not directly tied to the primary product the consumer is using. ...


The slogan for the NES in North America is "Now You're Playing With Power!"

Contents

History

Nintendo’s successes in video arcades encouraged the company to enter the home console market with the Famicom. A port of Nintendo’s arcade hit Donkey Kong was a launch title for the system.

Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to produce a cartridge-based console. Masayuki Uemura designed the system, which was released in Japan on July 15, 1983 for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo’s successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr., and Popeye. The Nintendo Family Computer (Famicom) was slow to gather momentum; during its first year, many criticized the system as unreliable, prone to programming errors and rampant freezing. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984. The Nintendo Entertainment System (North America, Europe, Australia, Asia, and Brazil) The Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, is an 8-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australia, Asia, and Brazil. ... Image File history File links screenshot Nintendo Entertainment System Donkey_Kong by me This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Image File history File links screenshot Nintendo Entertainment System Donkey_Kong by me This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... arcade, see Arcade. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ... Super Mario Brothers, a launch title for the NES A launch title is a video game that has been made available to consumers synchronously with its respective video game console, meaning they are the only available games at the time of the consoles launch. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... Masayuki Uemura designed the Nintendo Entertainment System and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System videogame consoles. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... This article is about the video game character. ... Donkey Kong, Jr. ... Popeye is a 1982 arcade game released by Nintendo; it is based on the Popeye comic/cartoon characters licensed from King Features Syndicate. ... A software bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from behaving as intended (e. ... A crash in computing is a condition where a program (either an application or part of the operating system) stops performing its expected function and also stops responding to other parts of the system. ... A product recall is a request to return to the maker a batch or an entire production run of a product, usually due to the discovery of safety issues. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ...


Encouraged by its successes, Nintendo soon turned its attention to the North American market. Nintendo entered into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the name Nintendo Enhanced Video System; however, this deal eventually fell through.[7][8] Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller, and a special BASIC cartridge under the name "Nintendo Advanced Video System" likewise never materialized. This article is about a corporate game company. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ...


Finally, in June 1985, Nintendo unveiled its American version of the Famicom at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES). Nintendo rolled out its first systems to limited American markets on October 18, 1985, following up with a full-fledged North American release of the console in February of the following year.[9] Nintendo simultaneously released eighteen launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Donkey Kong Jr. Math, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Mach Rider, Pinball, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and, Super Mario Bros.. 1985 1985 in games 1984 in video gaming 1986 in video gaming Notable events of 1985 in video gaming. ... The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Super Mario Brothers, a launch title for the NES A launch title is a video game that has been made available to consumers synchronously with its respective video game console, meaning they are the only available games at the time of the consoles launch. ... 10-Yard Fight is a 1983 American football arcade game, developed by Irem and published by Nintendo. ... Baseball gameplay, infield view Baseball gameplay, outfield view Baseball is a simple baseball video game made by Nintendo in 1983 for the Nintendo Family Computer, making it one of the first games released for the Famicom. ... Clu Clu Land ) is an arcade and Nintendo Entertainment System game released in 1985. ... Donkey Kong Jr. ... Duck Hunt is a video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) game console system in which players use the NES Zapper to shoot ducks on screen for points. ... Excitebike for the Nintendo Family Computer. ... Golf is a game made for the NES. This was the first golfing game to feature Mario. ... Gyromite was a video game released in 1985 for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ... Hogans Alley is a 1984 arcade game by Nintendo. ... Ice Climber ) is a climbing platform video game developed and published by Nintendo for the release of the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. ... Kung Fu was released on the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. ... Mach Rider is a driving video game created by Nintendo. ... // Pinball the Arcade Game The top screen of Pinball. ... Stack-Up (a. ... Tennis is a video game released for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1986. ... Wild Gunman on the NES, Nintendo 1985 Wild Gunman is a light gun game created by Nintendo. ... Wrecking Crew was a game for the Nintendo Family Computer (also known as the Nintendo Entertainment System) starring Mario. ... This article is about the Super Mario Brothers video game for the NES. For other uses, see Super Mario Bros. ...


In Europe and Australia, the system was released to two separate marketing regions (A and B). Distribution in region B, consisting of most of mainland Europe (excluding Italy), was handled by a number of different companies, with Nintendo responsible for most cartridge releases; most of region B saw a 1986 release. Mattel handled distribution for region A, consisting of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, Australia and New Zealand, starting the following year. Not until 1990 did Nintendo’s newly created European branch take over distribution throughout Europe.[10] Despite the system’s lackluster performance outside of Japan and North America, by 1990 the NES had outsold all previously released consoles.[11]

Shortly before ceasing production of the system in North America, Nintendo released a radically redesigned console (known as the AV Family Computer in Japan and the NES 2 in North America) that corrected a number of problems with the original hardware.

As the 1990s dawned, however, renewed competition from technologically superior systems such as the 16-bit Sega Mega Drive (known as the Sega Genesis in North America) marked the end of the NES’s dominance. Eclipsed by Nintendo’s own Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), the NES’s user base gradually waned. Nintendo continued to support the system in America through the first half of the decade, even releasing a new version of the console, the NES 2, to address many of the design flaws in the original NES hardware.[12] The final games released for the system were as follows: in Japan, Adventure Island 4 in 1994, and, in America, among unlicensed titles, Sunday Funday was the last, whereas Wario's Woods was the last licensed game (also the only one with an ESRB rating).[13] In the wake of ever decreasing sales and the lack of new software titles, Nintendo of America officially discontinued the NES by 1995. Despite this, Nintendo of Japan kept producing new Nintendo Famicoms for a niche market up until October 2003, when Nintendo of Japan officially discontinued the line. Even as developers ceased production for the NES, a number of high-profile video game franchises and series for the NES were transitioned to newer consoles and remain popular to this day. Nintendo’s own Super Mario Bros., The Legend of Zelda, and Metroid franchises debuted on the NES, as did Capcom’s Mega Man franchise, Konami’s Castlevania franchise, and Square Enix’s Final Fantasy and Dragon Quest franchises. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 353 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My NES. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 353 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My NES. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The AV Famicom The AV Family Computer was a redesign of the original Family Computer video game console released by Nintendo in Japan in the early 1990s. ... The NES 2 alongside its similarly redesigned dog bone game controller The NES 2 is a compact redesign of the original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console from Nintendo. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... The Sega Mega Drive ) is a video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988, North America in 1989, and the PAL region in 1990. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ... The NES 2 alongside its similarly redesigned dog bone game controller The NES 2 is a compact redesign of the original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console from Nintendo. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sunday Funday was released for the Nintendo Entertainment System by Wisdom Tree, formerly a subsidiary label of Color Dreams, in 1995. ... Warios Woods (ワリオの森 Wario no Mori) is a puzzle game made by Nintendo for the Super NES in 1994, and then later released on the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1994 and the Satellaview BS-X in 1997. ... This article is about the Super Mario Brothers video game for the NES. For other uses, see Super Mario Bros. ... This article is about the first game in the series. ... This article is about the first game in the series. ... For the original NASA meaning, see capsule communicator. ... Mega Man firing his weapon while in Shadow Mans stage from Mega Man 3 (NES). ... Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ... Original NES Castlevania Logo Castlevania is a video game series, created and developed by Konami. ... SQUARE ENIX (Japanese: スクウェア・エニックス) is a Japanese producer of popular video games and manga. ... This article is about the Final Fantasy franchise. ... Dragon Quest logo Dragon Quest ), published as Dragon Warrior in North America until the 2005 release of Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, is a series of role-playing games produced by Enix (now Square Enix). ...


In the years following the official "death" of the NES in the West, a collector’s market based around video rental shops, garage sales, and flea markets led some gamers to rediscover the NES. Coupled with the growth of console emulation, the late 1990s saw something of a second golden age for the NES. The secondhand market began to dry up after 2000, and finding ROMs (digital copies of games for use on emulators) no longer represented the challenge it had in the past. Parallel to the rise of interest in emulation was the emergence of a dedicated NES hardware "modding" scene. Such hobbyists perform tasks such as moving the NES to a completely new case, or just dissecting it for parts or fun. The controllers are particular targets for modding, often being adapted to connect with personal computers by way of a parallel or USB port. Some NES modders have transformed the console into a portable system by adding AA batteries and an LED or LCD screen.[14] [15] A rental shop is a store where a consumer can borrow reusable products for a fee for a certain period of time before returning them. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A console emulator is a program for a computer, or other computing device, that can emulate a video game console or handheld, so a computer can be used to play games that were created for that console or to develop games for that console. ... Modding is a slang expression that is derived from the verb, modify, and the noun, modification. The term can refer to the act of modifying a piece of hardware or software to perform a function not intended by someone with legal rights concerning that modification. ... This article is about the Centronics style port. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Portable communications devices refer to hand-held or wearable devices. ... An AA battery is a standard battery size commonly used in medium portable electronic devices that need more life time than AAA batteries but same power. ... “LED” redirects here. ... “LCD” redirects here. ...


Size: 85mm tall, 255mm wide, 19.7mm deep approx.


Bundle packages

Super Mario Bros. was one of the titles packaged alongside the NES deck for the North American launch of the console.
Super Mario Bros. was one of the titles packaged alongside the NES deck for the North American launch of the console.

For its North American release, the NES was released in two different configurations, or "bundles". The console deck itself was identical, but each bundle was packaged with different Game Paks and accessories. The first of these sets, the Control Deck, retailed from US$199.99, and included the console itself, two game controllers, and a Super Mario Bros. game cartridge. The second bundle, the Deluxe Set, retailed for US$249.99, and consisted of the console, a R.O.B., a NES Zapper (electronic gun), and two game paks: Duck Hunt and Gyromite. screenshot Nintendo Entertainment System Super_Mario_Bros by me This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... screenshot Nintendo Entertainment System Super_Mario_Bros by me This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... This article is about the Super Mario Brothers video game for the NES. For other uses, see Super Mario Bros. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... For other uses of R.O.B., see Rob. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Duck Hunt is a video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) game console system in which players use the NES Zapper to shoot ducks on screen for points. ... Gyromite was a video game released in 1985 for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ...


For the remainder of the NES’s commercial lifespan in North America, Nintendo frequently repackaged the console in new configurations to capitalize on newer accessories or popular game titles. Subsequent bundle packages included the NES Action Set, released in November 1988 for US$199.99, which replaced both of the earlier two sets, and included the console, the NES Zapper, two game controllers, and a multicart version of Super Mario Bros. and Duck Hunt. The Action Set became the most successful of the packages released by Nintendo. One month later, in December 1988, to coincide with the release of the Power Pad floor mat controller, Nintendo released a new Power Set bundle, consisting of the console, the Power Pad, the NES Zapper, two controllers, and a multicart containing Super Mario Bros., Duck Hunt, and World Class Track Meet.[16] In 1990, a Sports Set bundle was released, including the console, a NES Satellite infrared wireless multitap adaptor, four game controllers, and a multicart featuring Super Spike V'Ball and Nintendo World Cup.[17] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... In video game parlance, a multicart is a cartridge that contains more than one game. ... The Power Pad (known in Japan as Family Trainer, and in Europe and briefly in the United States as Family Fun Fitness) is a floor mat game controller released in the United States for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ... The Power Pad (known in Japan as Family Trainer, and in Europe and briefly in the United States as Family Fun Fitness) is a floor mat game controller released in the United States for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ... This article is about the Super Mario Brothers video game for the NES. For other uses, see Super Mario Bros. ... Duck Hunt is a video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) game console system in which players use the NES Zapper to shoot ducks on screen for points. ... World Class Track Meet is a Nintendo video game released in 1988 for use with the PowerPad feature of the Nintendo Entertainment System. ... The NES Satellite The NES Satellite was a Nintendo Entertainment System accessory created by Nintendo, and was released in 1989. ... PlayStation 2 Multitap Hudson Soft released a Super Famicom Multitap in the shape of Bombermans face. ... Super Spike VBall. ... Nintendo World Cup is a football (soccer) video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System and Game Boy, developed by Technos and released in 1990. ...


It is difficult to count the total number of games released on the NES. One can look at the number of games licensed by Nintendo of America or Japan, or combine them, or even add the numerous unlicensed titles. All told, well over 1,000 games are available on the NES platform.


Two more bundle packages were released using the original model NES console. The Challenge Set included the console, two controllers, and a Super Mario Bros. 3 game pak. The Basic Set, first released in 1987, included only the console and two controllers with no pack-in cartridge. Instead, it contained a book called the The Official Nintendo Player's Guide, which contained detailed information for every NES game made up to that point. Finally, the redesigned NES 2 was released as part of the final Nintendo-released bundle package, once again under the name Control Deck, including the new style NES 2 console, and one redesigned "dogbone" game controller. Released in October 1993, this final bundle retailed for $49.99, and remained in production until the discontinuation of the NES in 1995.[12] Super Mario Bros. ... The Official Nintendo Players Guide is the first players guides put out by Nintendo of America. ... The NES 2 alongside its similarly redesigned dog bone game controller The NES 2 is a compact redesign of the original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console from Nintendo. ...


Regional differences

The Famicom Disk System was a peripheral available only for the Japanese Famicom that utilized games stored on "Disk Cards", reminiscent of 3.5" floppy diskettes.
The Famicom Disk System was a peripheral available only for the Japanese Famicom that utilized games stored on "Disk Cards", reminiscent of 3.5" floppy diskettes.

Although the Japanese Famicom and the international NES included essentially the same hardware, there were certain key differences between the two systems: Image File history File links The Famicom Disk System. ... Image File history File links The Famicom Disk System. ... Legend of Zelda Famicom Disk The Family Computer Disk System , FDS) was released on February 21, 1986 by Nintendo as a peripheral to their overwhelmingly popular Family Computer (Famicom) console in Japan. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ...

  • Different case design. The Famicom featured a top-loading cartridge slot, a 15-pin expansion port located on the unit’s front panel for accessories (as the controllers were hard-wired to the back of the console), and a red and white color scheme. The NES featured a front-loading cartridge slot (often jokingly compared to a toaster), and a more subdued gray, black and red color scheme. An expansion port was found on the bottom of the unit, and the cartridge connector pinout was changed.
  • 60-pin vs. 72-pin cartridges. The original Famicom and the re-released AV Family Computer both utilized a 60-pin cartridge design, which resulted in smaller cartridges than the NES (and the NES 2), which utilized a 72-pin design. Four pins were used for the 10NES lockout chip.[18] Ten pins were added that connected a cartridge directly to the expansion port on the bottom of the unit. Finally, two pins that allowed cartridges to provide their own sound expansion chips were removed, a regrettable decision. Many early games (such as Stack-Up) released in North America were simply Famicom cartridges attached to an adapter (such as the T89 Cartridge Converter) to allow them to fit inside the NES hardware. Nintendo did this to reduce costs and inventory by using the same cartridge boards in America and Japan.
  • A number of peripheral devices and software packages were released for the Famicom. Few of these devices were ever released outside of Japan.
    • Famicom Disk System (FDS). Although not included with the original system, a popular floppy disk drive peripheral was released for the Famicom in Japan only. Nintendo never released the Famicom Disk System outside of Japan, citing concerns about software bootlegging. Notable games released for the FDS include The Legend of Zelda, Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic, Metroid, and the original Super Mario Bros. 2.[19]
    • Famicom BASIC was an implementation of BASIC for the Famicom. It allowed the user to program his or her own games. Many programmers got their first experience on programming for the console this way.
    • Famicom MODEM was a modem that allowed connection to a Nintendo server which provided content such as jokes, news (mainly about Nintendo), game tips, and weather reports for Japan; it also allowed a small number of programs to be downloaded.
  • External sound chips. The Famicom had two cartridge pins that allowed cartridges to provide external sound enhancements. They were originally intended to facilitate the Famicom Disk System’s external sound chip. These pins were removed from the cartridge port of the NES, and relocated to the bottom expansion port. As a result, individual cartridges could not make use of this functionality, and many NES localizations suffered from inferior sound compared to their equivalent Famicom versions. Castlevania III: Dracula’s Curse is a notable example of this problem.
Unlike the NES, the Famicom's controllers were hardwired to the system itself. The 2nd controler eliminated the Start and Select buttons, replacing it with a microphone and a volume control slider.
Unlike the NES, the Famicom's controllers were hardwired to the system itself. The 2nd controler eliminated the Start and Select buttons, replacing it with a microphone and a volume control slider.
  • Hardwired controllers. The Famicom’s original design includes hardwired, non-removable controllers. In addition, the second controller featured an internal microphone for use with certain games and lacked SELECT and START buttons. Both the controllers and the microphone were subsequently dropped from the redesigned AV Famicom in favor of the two seven-pin controller ports on the front panel used in the NES from its inception.
  • Lockout circuitry. The Famicom contained no lockout hardware, and, as a result, unlicensed cartridges (both legitimate and bootleg) were extremely common throughout Japan and the Far East. The original NES (but not the top-loading NES 2) contained the 10NES lockout chip, which significantly increased the challenges faced by unlicensed developers. Tinkerers at home in later years discovered that disassembling the NES and cutting the fourth pin of the lockout chip would change the chip’s mode of operation from "lock" to "key", removing all effects and greatly improving the console’s ability to play legal games, as well as bootlegs and converted imports.[20] The European release of the console used a regional lockout system that prevented cartridges released in region A from being played on region B consoles, and vice versa.[10]
  • Audio/video output. The original Famicom featured an RF modulator plug for audio/video output, while the original NES featured both an RF modulator and RCA composite output cables. The AV Famicom featured only RCA composite output, and the top-loading NES 2 featured only RF modulator output. The original North American NES was the first game console to feature direct composite video output so people could hook it up to a stand-alone composite monitor.
  • Third-party cartridge manufacturing. In Japan, six companies, namely Nintendo, Konami, Capcom, Namco, Bandai, and Jaleco, manufactured the cartridges for the Famicom. This allowed these companies to develop their own customized chips designed for specific purposes, such as Konami's VRC 6 and VRC 7 sound chips that increased the quality of sound in their games.

Look up pin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the English town, see Towcester. ... The AV Famicom The AV Family Computer was a redesign of the original Family Computer video game console released by Nintendo in Japan in the early 1990s. ... The NES 2 alongside its similarly redesigned dog bone game controller The NES 2 is a compact redesign of the original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console from Nintendo. ... The RAMBO-1, a version of Tengens Rabbit lockout chip 10NES was the authentication code for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console. ... Stack-Up (a. ... T89 Cartridge Converter The T89 cartridge converter was a 60 to 72 pin adaptor that allowed people to plug a 60-pin Famicom game into a 72-pin-based NES. History The original Nintendo console released in Japan (The Famicom) used a 60-pin cartridge for games. ... In computer hardware, a peripheral device is any device attached to a computer in order to expand its functionality. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... Legend of Zelda Famicom Disk The Family Computer Disk System , FDS) was released on February 21, 1986 by Nintendo as a peripheral to their overwhelmingly popular Family Computer (Famicom) console in Japan. ... This article is about the first game in the series. ... This article is about the first game in the series. ... SMB 2 title screen (Japanese version) Super Mario Bros. ... Family BASIC or Famicom BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language that is used to program the Famicom. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i. ... Software localization is a process of translating software user interfaces from one language to another and adapting it to suit a foreign culture. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Nintendo Entertainment System D-pad Rectangular controller ... File links The following pages link to this file: Nintendo Entertainment System D-pad Rectangular controller ... “Microphones” redirects here. ... The RAMBO-1, a version of Tengens Rabbit lockout chip 10NES was the authentication code for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console. ... Regional lockout is the programming practice, code, chip, or physical barrier used to prevent the playing of media designed for a device from the country where it is marketed on the version of the same device marketed in another country. ... An RF modulator (for radio frequency modulator) is a device that takes a baseband input signal and outputs a radio frequency-modulated signal. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Composite video, also called CVBS (Composite Video Blanking and Sync), is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ... The NES 2 alongside its similarly redesigned dog bone game controller The NES 2 is a compact redesign of the original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console from Nintendo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ... For the original NASA meaning, see capsule communicator. ... Namco Ltd ) is a amusement company based in Japan, best known overseas for video games development. ... This article is about the Japanese toy manufacturer. ... Jaleco (TYO: 7954 ) was founded as Japan Leisure Corporation on October 3rd 1974. ...

Game controllers

See also: List of Nintendo Entertainment System accessories
Before the 1984 product recall, Famicom controllers were manufactured with square-shaped A and B buttons.
Before the 1984 product recall, Famicom controllers were manufactured with square-shaped A and B buttons.

The game controller used for both the NES and the Famicom featured a brick-like design with a simple four button layout: two round buttons labelled "B" and "A", a "START" button, and a "SELECT" button. Additionally, the controllers utilized the cross-shaped D-pad, designed by Nintendo employee Gunpei Yokoi for Nintendo Game & Watch systems, to replace the bulkier joysticks on earlier gaming consoles’ controllers. The array of accessories designed and released for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) (known in Japan as the Family Computer, or Famicom) is considerable. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ball (Silver), 1980. ... For other uses, see Joystick (disambiguation). ...


The original model Famicom featured two game controllers, both of which were hardwired to the back of the console. The second controller lacked the START and SELECT buttons, but featured a small microphone. Relatively few games made use of this feature. The earliest produced Famicom units initially had square A and B buttons.[21] This was changed to the circular designs because of the square buttons being caught in the controller casing when pressed down, and glitches within the hardware causing the system to freeze occasionally while playing a game. “Microphones” redirects here. ...

In addition to featuring a revised color scheme that matched the more subdued tones of the console itself, NES controllers were hot swappable and lacked the microphone featured in Famicom controllers.
In addition to featuring a revised color scheme that matched the more subdued tones of the console itself, NES controllers were hot swappable and lacked the microphone featured in Famicom controllers.

The NES dropped the hardwired controllers, instead featuring two custom 7-pin ports on the front of the console. Also in contrast to the Famicom, the controllers included with the NES were identical to each other—the second controller lacked the microphone that was present on the Famicom model, and possessed the same START and SELECT buttons as the primary controller. Image File history File links NES_controller. ... Image File history File links NES_controller. ... Hot swapping or hot plugging is the ability to remove and replace components of a machine, usually a computer, while it is operating. ...

Although several specialty controllers were marketed for the NES and the Famicom, few were commercially successful. Support for the Zapper, a light gun accessory, was limited to only 16 game titles.
Although several specialty controllers were marketed for the NES and the Famicom, few were commercially successful. Support for the Zapper, a light gun accessory, was limited to only 16 game titles.

A number of special controllers designed for use with specific games were released for the system, though very few such devices proved particularly popular. Such devices included, but were not limited to, the NES Zapper (a light gun), the Power Pad, and the ill-fated R.O.B. and Power Glove. The original Famicom featured a deepened DA-15 expansion port on the front of the unit, which was used to connect most auxiliary devices. On the NES, these special controllers were generally connected to one of the two control ports on the front of the unit. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (2001 × 1242 pixel, file size: 379 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (2001 × 1242 pixel, file size: 379 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Power Pad (known in Japan as Family Trainer, and in Europe and briefly in the United States as Family Fun Fitness) is a floor mat game controller released in the United States for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ... For other uses of R.O.B., see Rob. ... The Japanese Nintendo Power Glove, manufactured by PAX The Power Glove (1989) is a controller accessory for the Nintendo Entertainment System designed by the team of Grant Goddard and Sam Davis for Abrams/Gentile Entertainment, made by Mattel in the United States and PAX in Japan. ... A male DE-9 connector. ...


Near the end of the NES's lifespan, upon the release of the AV Famicom and the top-loading NES 2, the design of the game controllers was modified slightly. Though the original button layout was retained, the redesigned device abandoned the "brick" shell in favor of a "dog bone" shape reminiscent of the controllers of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. In addition, the AV Famicom joined its international counterpart and dropped the hardwired controllers in favor of detachable controller ports. However, the controllers included with the Famicom AV, despite being the "dog bone" type, had cables which were a short three feet long, as opposed to the standard six feet of NES controllers.


In recent years the original NES controller has become one of the most recognizable symbols of the system. Nintendo has mimicked the look of the controller in several recent products, from promotional merchandise to limited edition versions of the Game Boy Advance SP and Game Boy Micro handheld game consoles.
The Game Boy Advance SP ), released in February 2003, is an upgraded version of Nintendos Game Boy Advance. ... Game Boy Micro , trademarked Game Boy micro) is a handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. ... A handheld game console is a lightweight, portable electronic machine for playing video games. ...


Hardware design flaws

The official NES Cleaning Kit was intended to address flaws in the NES design that caused cartridge connectors to be particularly susceptible to interference from dirt and dust.
The official NES Cleaning Kit was intended to address flaws in the NES design that caused cartridge connectors to be particularly susceptible to interference from dirt and dust.

When Nintendo released the NES in the United States, the design styling was deliberately different from that of other game consoles. Nintendo wanted to distinguish its product from those of competitors, and to avoid the generally poor reputation that game consoles had acquired following the video game crash of 1983. One result of this philosophy was a front-loading zero insertion force (ZIF) cartridge socket designed to resemble the front-loading mechanism of a VCR. The ZIF connector worked quite well when both the connector and the cartridges were clean and the pins on the connector were new. Unfortunately, the ZIF connector was not truly zero insertion force. When a user inserted the cartridge into the NES, the force of pressing the cartridge down and into place bent the contact pins slightly, as well as pressing the cartridge’s ROM board back into the cartridge itself. Repeated insertion and removal of cartridges caused the pins to wear out relatively quickly, and the ZIF design proved far more prone to interference by dirt and dust than an industry-standard card edge connector.[22] Exacerbating the problem was Nintendo’s choice of materials; the slot connector that the cartridge was actually inserted into was highly prone to corrosion.[23] Add-on peripherals like the popular Game Genie cheat cartridge tended to further exacerbate this problem by bending the front-loading mechanism during gameplay.[24] Recently, third-party manufacturers have been producing gold clones of the NES connector piece to replace the existing one and prevent corrosion.[25] Image File history File links NES_Cleaning_Kit. ... Image File history File links NES_Cleaning_Kit. ... The NES Cleaning Kit was produced in 1989 by Nintendo as an accessory for use with the Nintendo Entertainment System. ... ET for the Atari 2600 is considered by many to be emblematic of the crash along with the Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man. ... A large ZIF socket (socket A) ZIF is an acronym for zero insertion force. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Game Genie cartridges for the (clockwise from top) Super NES, NES, Sega Game Gear, and the Game Boy systems. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

The 10NES authentication chip contributed to the system's reliability issues. The circuit was ultimately removed from the remodelled NES 2.
The 10NES authentication chip contributed to the system's reliability issues. The circuit was ultimately removed from the remodelled NES 2.

Problems with the 10NES lockout chip frequently resulted in the system’s most infamous problem: the blinking red power light, in which the system appears to turn itself on and off repeatedly. The lockout chip was quite finicky, requiring precise timing in order to permit the system to boot. Dirty, aging, and bent connectors would often disrupt the timing, resulting in the blink effect.[26] Alternatively, the console would turn on but only show a gray screen. Users attempted to solve this problem by blowing air onto the cartridge connectors, licking the edge connector, slapping the side of the system after inserting a cartridge, and/or cleaning the connectors with alcohol which, observing the back of the cartridge, was not endorsed by Nintendo. Many of the most frequent attempts to fix this problem ran the risk of damaging the cartridge and/or system. Blowing on the cartridge connectors was, in most cases, no better than removing and reinserting the cartridge, and tended to increase the rate of oxidation resulting in browning of the printed circuit board, while slapping the side of the system after inserting the cartridge could potentially damage the console. In 1989, Nintendo released an official NES Cleaning Kit to help users clean malfunctioning cartridges and consoles. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 384 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Fender Edwards (Me) GDFL Wikipedia For 10nes Page This Is A Cartridge Based 10NES On A Super Mario Bros. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 384 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Fender Edwards (Me) GDFL Wikipedia For 10nes Page This Is A Cartridge Based 10NES On A Super Mario Bros. ... The RAMBO-1, a version of Tengens Rabbit lockout chip 10NES was the authentication code for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... The NES Cleaning Kit was produced in 1989 by Nintendo as an accessory for use with the Nintendo Entertainment System. ...


With the release of the top-loading NES 2 toward the end of the NES's lifespan, Nintendo resolved the problems by switching to a standard card edge connector, and eliminating the lockout chip. All of the Famicom systems used standard card edge connectors, as did Nintendo’s subsequent game consoles, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and the Nintendo 64. The NES 2 alongside its similarly redesigned dog bone game controller The NES 2 is a compact redesign of the original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console from Nintendo. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ... The Nintendo 64 ), often abbreviated as N64, was Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ...


In response to these hardware flaws, "Nintendo Authorized Repair Centers" sprang up across the United States. According to Nintendo, the authorization program was designed to ensure that the machines were properly repaired. Nintendo would ship the necessary replacement parts only to shops that had enrolled in the authorization program. In practice, the authorization process consisted of nothing more than paying a fee to Nintendo for the privilege. In a recent trend, sites like Nintendo Repair Shop Inc. have sprung up to offer Nintendo repair parts, guides and services, that replace those formerly offered by the authorized repair centers.[27]


Third-party licensing

Nintendo’s near monopoly on the home video game market left it with a degree of influence over the industry exceeding even that of Atari during Atari's heyday in the early 1980s. Unlike Atari, which never actively courted third-party developers (and even went to court in an attempt to force Activision to cease production of Atari 2600 games), Nintendo had anticipated and encouraged the involvement of third-party software developers—but strictly on Nintendo’s terms. To this end, a 10NES authentication chip was placed in every console, and another was placed in every officially licensed cartridge. If the console’s chip could not detect a counterpart chip inside the cartridge, the game would not load. This article is about the economics of markets dominated by a single seller. ... This article is about a corporate game company. ... Activision, Inc. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ...

The Nintendo Seal of Quality was placed on every officially licensed NES cartridge released in North America.

Nintendo combined this with a marketing campaign introducing the Nintendo Seal of Quality. Commercials featured a purple-robed wizard instructing consumers that the Nintendo Seal of Quality was the only assurance that a game was any good—and, by implication, that any game without the Seal of Quality was bad. In reality, the seal meant that the developer had paid the license fee. Nintendo Seal of Quality, This work is copyrighted. ... Nintendo Seal of Quality, This work is copyrighted. ... Nintendos Official Seal of Quality in NTSC regions Nintendos Official Seal of Quality in PAL regions. ... Nintendos Official Seal of Quality in NTSC regions Nintendos Official Seal of Quality in PAL regions. ...


The business side of this was that game developers were now forced to pay a license fee to Nintendo, to submit to Nintendo’s quality assurance process, to buy developer kits from Nintendo, and to utilize Nintendo as the manufacturer for all cartridges and packaging. Nintendo tested and manufactured all games at its own facilities (either for part of the fee or for an additional cost), reserved the right to dictate pricing, censored material it believed to be unacceptable, decided how many cartridges of each game it would manufacture, and placed limits on how many titles it would permit a publisher to produce over a given time span (five per year). This last restriction led several publishers to establish or utilize subsidiaries to circumvent Nintendo’s policies (examples including Konami’s subsidiary Ultra, and Acclaim Entertainment’s subsidiary LJN). The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A software development kit (SDK or devkit) is typically a set of development tools that allows a software engineer to create applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating system, or similar. ... A subsidiary, in business, is an entity that is controlled by another entity. ... Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ... Founded in 1987 as a subsidiary of Konami, Ultra was a video game company created in an effort to get around Nintendos draconian licensing rules. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... LJN was an American toy company and video game publisher in operation from 1970 to 1994. ...


These practices were intended not only to keep developers on a short leash, but also to manipulate the market itself: in 1988, Nintendo started orchestrating intentional game shortages in order to increase consumer demand. Referred as "inventory management" by Nintendo of America public relations executive Peter Main, Nintendo would refuse to fill all retailer orders. Retailers, many of whom derived a large percentage of their profit from sales of Nintendo-based hardware and software (at one point, Toys "R" Us reported 17% of its sales and 22% of its profits were from Nintendo merchandise), could do little to stop these practices. In 1988, over 33 million NES cartridges were sold in the United States, but estimates suggest that the realistic demand was closer to 45 million. Because Nintendo controlled the production of all cartridges, it was able to enforce these rules on its third-party developers. These extremely restricted production runs would end up damaging several smaller software developers: even if demand for their games was high, they could only produce as much profit as Nintendo allowed.[28] Toys R Us (often typeset as Toys Я Us to fit their logo) is a toy store chain based in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ...


Unlicensed games

Unlicensed games, such as Wisdom Tree’s Bible Adventures, were often released in cartridges which looked very different from typical NES game packs.
Unlicensed games, such as Wisdom Tree’s Bible Adventures, were often released in cartridges which looked very different from typical NES game packs.

Several companies, refusing to pay the licensing fee or having been rejected by Nintendo, found ways to circumvent the console's authentication system. Most of these companies created circuits that used a voltage spike to disable the 10NES chip in the NES. A few unlicensed games released in Europe and Australia came in the form of a dongle that would be connected to a licensed game, in order to use the licensed game’s 10NES chip for authentication. This is the cover art for a video game. ... This is the cover art for a video game. ... Bible Adventures is an unlicensed Nintendo cartridge, released in 1991 by Wisdom Tree, and in 1995 for the Sega Mega Drive. ... Chained parallel port copy prevention dongles. ...


Atari Games created a line of NES products under the name Tengen, and took a different approach. Afraid of damaging NES units and being liable for it by using the voltage spike technique, the company obtained a description of the lockout chip from the United States Patent and Trademark Office by falsely claiming that it was required to defend against present infringement claims in a legal case. Tengen then used these documents to design its Rabbit chip, which duplicated the function of the 10NES. Nintendo sued Tengen for these actions, and Tengen lost because of the fraudulent use of the published patent. Tengen’s antitrust claims against Nintendo were never finally decided.[29] Atari Games was an American producer of arcade games, and originally part of Atari Inc. ... Tengen was a video game publisher and developer that was created after the video game crash of 1983-1984 by Atari Games. ... PTO headquarters in Alexandria The United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides patent and trademark protection to inventors and businesses for their inventions and corporate and product identification. ... The RAMBO-1, a version of Tengens Rabbit lockout chip 10NES was the authentication code for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ...


Although successful in its suit against Tengen, Nintendo’s overall track record at suing unlicensed developers was mixed: the case of Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. v. Nintendo of America, Inc. was found in favor of Galoob and its Game Genie device, for instance. Most unlicensed developers were eventually forced out of business or out of production by legal fees and court costs for extended lawsuits brought by Nintendo against the companies. One notable exception was Color Dreams, who produced Christian video games under the subsidiary name Wisdom Tree. This operation was never sued by Nintendo. Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. ... Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. ... Game Genie cartridges for the (clockwise from top) Super NES, NES, Sega Game Gear, and the Game Boy systems. ... A screenshot of Robo Demons, a Color Dreams game Color Dreams was a company that developed video games for the 8-bit Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). ... Christian video games refer to Christian-themed computer and video games. ... A screenshot of the Wisdom Tree logo Wisdom Tree is a manufacturer and distributor of unlicensed Christianity-themed video games, primarily for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ...


Following the introduction of the Sega Mega Drive, Nintendo began to face real competition in the industry, and in the early 1990s was forced to reevaluate its stance towards its developers, many of whom had begun to defect to other systems. When the console was reissued as the NES 2, the 10NES chip was omitted from the console, marking the end of Nintendo’s most notorious hold over its third-party developers. The Sega Mega Drive ) is a video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988, North America in 1989, and the PAL region in 1990. ... The NES 2 alongside its similarly redesigned dog bone game controller The NES 2 is a compact redesign of the original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console from Nintendo. ... The RAMBO-1, a version of Tengens Rabbit lockout chip 10NES was the authentication code for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console. ...


Companies that produced unlicensed games or accessories for the Western market include Active Enterprises, American Game Cartridges, American Video Entertainment, Camerica, Codemasters, Color Dreams, Galoob, Home Entertainment Suppliers, Panesian, S.E.I., Tengen, and Wisdom Tree. Active Enterprises was a Bahamas-based the company behind the Action 52 cartridge on the NES and Sega Genesis as well as the unreleased Cheetahmen 2 for the NES. They also had planned to create their own handheld console, the Action Gamemaster, but due to the companys failure, this... This article needs to be wikified. ... Camerica is a video game company that was notable for producing unlicensed Nintendo Entertainment System games and hardware. ... Codemasters (earlier known as Code Masters) is one of the oldest British video game developers. ... A screenshot of Robo Demons, a Color Dreams game Color Dreams was a company that developed video games for the 8-bit Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). ... Home Entertainment Suppliers Pty. ... Panesian was a Hong Kong-based company known for producing three of the rarest video games for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). ...


Hardware clones

Pirated clones of NES hardware remained in production for many years after the original had been discontinued. Such devices were frequently built to superficially resemble contemporary consoles, such as the PlayStation.
Pirated clones of NES hardware remained in production for many years after the original had been discontinued. Such devices were frequently built to superficially resemble contemporary consoles, such as the PlayStation.

A thriving market of unlicensed NES hardware clones emerged during the heyday of the console’s popularity. Initially, such clones were popular in markets where Nintendo never issued a legitimate version of the system. In particular, the Dendy (Russian: Денди), an unlicensed hardware clone produced in Russia and other nations of the former Soviet Union, emerged as the most popular video game console of its time in that setting, and it enjoyed a degree of fame roughly equivalent to that experienced by the NES/Famicom in North America and Japan. The Micro Genius (Simplified Chinese: 小天才) was marketed in Southeast Asia as an alternative to the Famicom, and Samurai was the popular PAL alternative to the NES. An example of a clone system, designed to resemble a PSOne. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 641 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1645 × 1539 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 641 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1645 × 1539 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... The Jargon File has this definition for clone: An exact duplicate: Our product is a clone of their product. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Micro Genius is a popular gaming console marketed for the Southeast Asia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ...


The unlicensed clone market has persisted, and even flourished, following Nintendo’s discontinuation of the NES. As the NES fades into memory, many such systems have adopted case designs which mimic more recent game consoles. NES clones resembling the Sega Genesis, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, and even more recent systems like the Nintendo GameCube, the Sony PlayStation 2 and the Microsoft Xbox[citation needed] have been produced. Some of the more exotic of these systems have gone beyond the functionality of the original hardware, and have included variations such as a portable system with a color LCD (e.g. Pocket Famicom). Others have been produced with certain specialized markets in mind, including various "educational computer packages" which include copies of some of the NES’s educational titles and come complete with a clone of the Famicom BASIC keyboard, transforming the system into a rather primitive personal computer.[30] These unauthorized clones have been helped by the invention of the so called NES-on-a-chip or NoaC. The Nintendo GameCube , GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. ... “PS2” redirects here. ... Xbox and a Controller S The Xbox is Microsofts game console, released on November 15, 2001. ... The Pocket Famicom The Pocket Famicom is an unlicensed handheld hardware clone of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES, known in Japan as the Nintendo Family Computer, or Famicom) produced by GameTech. ... An example of an NOAC circuit An NES-on-a-chip (NOAC) is a single CMOS integrated circuit which duplicates the functionality of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES, known in Asia as the Famicom) video game console. ...


As was the case with unlicensed software titles, Nintendo has typically gone to the courts to prohibit the manufacture and sale of unlicensed cloned hardware. Many of the clone vendors have included built-in copies of licensed Nintendo software, which constitutes copyright infringement in most countries. As recently as 2004, Nintendo of America has filed suits against manufacturers of the Power Player Super Joy III, an NES clone system that had been sold in North America, Europe, and Australia. The Power Player Super Joy III consoles (now known as Power Games) are a line of unauthorized handheld Nintendo Entertainment System/Famicom clones manufactured by NRTRADE that are sold in North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia, and Australia. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Although most hardware clones were not produced under license by Nintendo, certain companies were granted licenses to produce NES-compatible devices. The Sharp Corporation produced at least two such clones: the Twin Famicom and the SHARP 19SC111 television. The Twin Famicom was compatible with both Famicom cartridges and Famicom Disk System disks. It was available in two colors (red and black) and used hardwired controllers (as did the original Famicom), but it featured a different case design. The SHARP 19SC111 television was a television which included a built-in Famicom.[31] A similar licensing deal was reached with Hyundai Electronics, who manufactured the system under the name Comboy in the South Korean market. This deal with Hyundai was made necessary because of the South Korean government's wide ban on all Japanese "cultural products," which remained in effect until 1998 and ensured that the only way Japanese products could legally enter the South Korean market was through licensing to a third-party (non-Japanese) distributor (see also Korean-Japanese disputes).[5] Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 , LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... The FC Twin Video Game System is a Famiclone that can play NES and SNES games. ... The SHARP 19SC111 was a 19 television produced by Sharp Corporation with a built-in licensed Nintendo Entertainment System. ... Legend of Zelda Famicom Disk The Family Computer Disk System , FDS) was released on February 21, 1986 by Nintendo as a peripheral to their overwhelmingly popular Family Computer (Famicom) console in Japan. ... Hynix Semiconductor Inc. ... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... There have been disputes between Korea (both North and South) and Japan on many issues over the years. ...


Technical specifications

Chassis/casing

North American cartridges (or "Game Paks," pictured) were significantly longer than their Japanese counterparts, but were not as wide.
North American cartridges (or "Game Paks," pictured) were significantly longer than their Japanese counterparts, but were not as wide.

The original Japanese Famicom was predominantly white plastic, with dark red trim. It featured a top-loading cartridge slot, and grooves on both sides of the deck in which the hardwired game controllers could be placed when not in use. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The original version of the North American NES utilized a radically different design. The NES's color scheme was two different shades of gray, with black trim. The top-loading cartridge slot was replaced with a front-loading mechanism. The slot is covered by a small, hinged door that can be opened to insert or remove a cartridge, and closed at other times. The dimensions of this model are 10" width by 8" length by 3.5" height. When opened, the cartridge slot door adds an additional 1" height to the unit.


The remodelled NES 2 uses the same basic color scheme, although the power switch is colored a bright red. Like the original Famicom, it utilizes a top-loading cartridge slot. The NES 2 is considerably more compact than the original model, measuring 6" by 7" by 1.5".


All officially licensed North American and European cartridges are 5.5" long by 4.1" wide. Japanese cartridges are shaped slightly differently, measuring only 3" in length, but 5.3" in width.


Central processing unit

Versions of the NES console released in PAL regions incorporated a Ricoh 2A07 CPU.
Versions of the NES console released in PAL regions incorporated a Ricoh 2A07 CPU.

For its central processing unit (CPU), the NES uses an 8-bit microprocessor produced by Ricoh based on a MOS Technology 6502 core. It incorporates custom sound hardware and a restricted DMA controller on-die. NTSC (North America and Japan) versions of the console use the Ricoh 2A03 (or RP2A03), which runs at 1.79 MHz.[32] PAL (Europe and Australia) versions of console utilize the Ricoh 2A07 (or RP2A07), which is identical to the 2A03 save for the fact that it runs at a slower 1.66 MHz clock rate.[33] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Ricoh Company, Ltd. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... A channel controller is a simple CPU used to handle the task of moving data to and from the memory of a computer. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... The Ricoh 2A03 or RP2A03 was the 8-bit microprocessor in the Nintendo Family Computer and Nintendo Entertainment System video game consoles sold in Japan and North America. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... The clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz) at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transferring a value from one processor register to another. ...


Memory

The NES contains 2 KiB of onboard random access memory (RAM). A game cartridge may contain expanded RAM to increase this amount. The system supports up to 49,128 bytes (just shy of 48 KiB) for read-only memory (ROM), expanded RAM, and cartridge input/output. The process of bank switching can increase this amount by orders of magnitude.[32] A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “RAM” redirects here. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ... Bank switching (also known as paging, but only loosely related to the ordinary meaning of paging in computing) was a technique common in 8-bit microcomputer systems, to increase the amount of addressable RAM and ROM without extending the address bus. ...


Video

The NES utilizes a custom-made picture processing unit (PPU) developed by Ricoh. The version of the processor used in NTSC models of the console, named the RP2C02, operates at 5.37 MHz, while the version used in PAL models, named the RP2C07, operates at 5.32 MHz.[33] Both the RP2C02 and RP2C07 output composite video.[32] Special versions of the NES's hardware designed for use in video arcades use other variations of the PPU. The PlayChoice-10 uses the RP2C03, which runs at 5.37 MHz and outputs RGB video at NTSC frequencies. Two different variations were used for Nintendo Vs. Series hardware: the RP2C04 and the RP2C05. Both of these operate at 5.37 MHz and output RGB video at NTSC frequencies. Additionally, both utilize irregular palettes to prevent easy ROM swapping of games.[34] All variations of this PPU feature 256 bytes of on-die sprite position / attributable RAM ("OAM") and 28 bytes of on-die palette RAM to allow selection of background and sprite colors. This memory is stored on separate buses internal to the PPU. The console's 2 KiB of onboard RAM may be used for tile maps and attributes on the NES board, and 8 KiB of tile pattern ROM or RAM may be included on a cartridge. Using bank switching, virtually any amount of additional cartridge memory can be used, limited only by manufacturing costs.[32] The PPU (Picture Processing Unit) is the microprocessor on the Nintendo Entertainment System dedicated to performing graphics computations. ... Ricoh Company, Ltd. ... Composite video, also called CVBS (Composite Video Blanking and Sync), is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ... arcade, see Arcade. ... The Play Choice 10 was a stand-up arcade video game hardware unit, for which the unit owner could purchase up to ten arcade games. ... REDIRECT RGB color model ... The Nintendo Vs. ... In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ...


The system has an available color palette of 48 colors and 5 grays. Red, green, and blue can be individually darkened at specific screen regions using carefully timed code. Up to 25 colors may be used on one scanline: a background color, four sets of three tile colors, and four sets of three sprite colors. This total does not include color de-emphasis.[32] A palette, in computer graphics, is a designated subset of the total range of colors supported by a computer graphics system. ... A scanline is a line on a CRT tube, made up of dots. ...


A total of 64 sprites may be displayed onscreen at a given time without reloading sprites mid-screen. Sprites may be either 8 pixels by 8 pixels, or 8 pixels by 16 pixels, although the choice must be made globally and it affects all sprites. Up to eight sprites may be present on one scanline, using a flag to indicate when additional sprites are to be dropped. This flag allows the software to rotate sprite priorities, increasing maximum amount of sprites, but typically causing flicker.[32] A pixel (a contraction of picture element) is one of the many tiny dots that make up the representation of a picture in a computers memory. ... Flicker is visible fading between image frames displayed on cathode ray tube (CRT) based monitor. ...


The PPU allows only one scrolling layer, though horizontal scrolling can be changed on a per-scanline basis. More advanced programming methods enable the same to be done for vertical scrolling.[32] This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ...


The standard display resolution of the NES is 256 horizontal pixels by 240 vertical pixels. Typically, games designed for NTSC-based systems had an effective resolution of only 256 by 224 pixels, as the top and bottom 8 scanlines are not visible on most television sets. For additional video memory bandwidth, it was possible to turn off the screen before the raster reached the very bottom.[32] Display standards comparison The display resolution of a digital television or computer display typically refers to the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Raster can refer to either of the following items: Raster graphics, Bit array, the general-purpose data structure, or The scanning pattern of the electron beam to a screen of a Cathode Ray Tube. ...


Video output connections varied from one model of the console to the next. The original Japanese Famicom featured only radio frequency (RF) modulator output. When the console was released in North America and Europe, support for composite video through RCA connectors was added in addition to the RF modulator. The AV Famicom dropped the RF modulator entirely and adopted composite video output via a proprietary 12-pin "multi-out" connector first introduced for the Super Famicom / Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Conversely, the North American rereleased NES 2 most closely resembled the original model Famicom, in that it featured RF modulator output only.[21] Finally, the PlayChoice-10 utilized an inverted RGB video output. An RF modulator (for radio frequency modulator) is a device that takes a baseband input signal and outputs a radio frequency-modulated signal. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Audio

The NES board supported a total of five sound channels. These included two pulse wave channels of variable duty cycle (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 75%), with a volume control of sixteen levels, and hardware pitch bending supporting frequencies ranging from 54 Hz to 28 kHz. Additional channels included one fixed-volume triangle wave channel supporting frequencies from 27 Hz to 56 kHz, one sixteen-volume level white noise channel supporting two modes (by adjusting inputs on a linear feedback shift register) at sixteen preprogrammed frequencies, and one delta pulse-width modulation channel with six bits of range, using 1-bit delta encoding at sixteen preprogrammed sample rates from 4.2 kHz to 33.5 kHz, often resulting in poor sound quality[citation needed]. This final channel was also capable of playing standard pulse-code modulation (PCM) sound by writing individual 7-bit values at timed intervals.[32] In medicine, a persons pulse is the throbbing of their arteries as an effect of the heart beat. ... In telecommunication and electronics, the term duty cycle has the following meanings: The duty cycle D is defined as the ratio between the pulse duration () and the period (T) of a rectangular waveform In a periodic phenomenon, the ratio of the duration of the phenomenon in a given period to... Portamento is a musical term currently used to mean pitch bending or sliding, and in 16th century polyphonic writing refers to a type of musical ornamentation. ... Hz or hz may mean: Herero language (ISO 639 alpha-2, hz) Hertz, unit of frequency This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... A triangle wave is a waveform named for its triangular shape. ... Calculated spectrum of a generated approximation of white noise White noise is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. ... A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. ... Pulse-width modulation of a signal or power source involves the modulation of its duty cycle, to either convey information over a communications channel or control the amount of power sent to a load. ... Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, then quantized to a series of symbols in a digital (usually binary) code. ...


See also

v  d  e
Selected home game consoles
First generation
Magnavox OdysseyPongColeco Telstar
Second generation
Fairchild Channel FAtari 2600Interton VC 4000Odyssey²IntellivisionArcadia 2001Atari 5200ColecoVisionVectrex • SG-1000 • Color TV Game
Third generation
NESMaster SystemAtari 7800
Fourth Generation
TurboGrafx-16Sega Mega Drive/GenesisNeo GeoSuper Nintendo
Fifth generation
3DOAmiga CD32JaguarSaturnPlayStationNintendo 64Virtual Boy
Sixth generation
DreamcastPlayStation 2GameCubeXbox
Seventh generation
PlayStation 3WiiXbox 360

This is a list of video game consoles by the era they appeared in. ... The first generation of video game consoles lasted from 1972 until 1977. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... For other uses, see Pong (disambiguation). ... The Telstar is a video game console produced by Coleco which first went on sale in 1976. ... The second generation of video game consoles lasted from 1976 until 1984. ... The Fairchild Channel F is the worlds second cartridge-based video game console, after the Magnavox Odyssey. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The VC 4000 is an early 8-bit cartridge-based game console released in Germany in 1978 by Interton. ... Magnavox Odyssey² video game console The Magnavox Odyssey², known in Europe as the Philips Videopac G7000, in Brazil as the Philips Odyssey, in the United States as the Magnavox Odyssey² and the Philips Odyssey², and also by many other names, is a video game console released in 1978. ... The Intellivision is a video game console released by Mattel in 1979. ... Emerson Arcadia 2001, intended as a portable game console, the Arcadia 2001 was released by Emerson Radio Corp in mid-1982. ... The Atari 5200 SuperSystem, or simply Atari 5200, is a video game console that was introduced in 1982 by Atari as a replacement for the famous Atari 2600. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Vectrex is an 8-bit video game console developed by General Consumer Electric (GCE) and later bought by Milton Bradley Company. ... The SG-1000, which stands for Sega Game 1000, is a cartridge-based video game console manufactured by Sega. ... Packaging for the Color TV game (6) Nintendos Color TV Game Series debuted in 1977 with the Color TV Game 6. ... In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... The Sega Master System ) or SMS for short (1986 - 2000), is an 8-bit cartridge-based video game console that was manufactured by Sega. ... The Atari 7800 is a video game console released by Atari in June 1986 (a test market release occurred two years earlier). ... In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ... For information on the Japanese version of this console, see PC Engine The TurboGrafx 16 is a video game console released by NEC in 1989, for the North American market. ... The Sega Mega Drive ) is a video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988, North America in 1989, and the PAL region in 1990. ... Neo-Geo is the name of a cartridge-based arcade and home video game system released in 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. The system offered comparatively colorful 2D graphics and high-quality sound. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ... In the history of computer and video games, the 32-bit / 64-bit /3D era was the fifth generation of video game consoles. ... 3DO Interactive Multiplayer (most commonly referred to as the 3DO) is a line of video game consoles which were released in 1993 and 1994 by Panasonic, Sanyo and Goldstar, among other companies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Atari Jaguar is a video game console that was released in November 1993 to rival the Mega Drive/Genesis and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System as a powerful next generation platform. ... It has been suggested that Arcade Racer Joystick be merged into this article or section. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... The Nintendo 64 ), often abbreviated as N64, was Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... Nintendos Virtual Boy ) was the first portable game console capable of displaying true 3D graphics. ... The sixth-generation era (sometimes referred to as the 128-bit era; see Number of bits below) refers to the computer and video games, video game consoles, and video game handhelds available at the turn of the 21st century. ... The Dreamcast , code-named White Belt, Black Belt, Dural, Dricas, Vortex, Katana, Shark and Guppy during development) is Segas final video game console and the successor to the Sega Saturn. ... “PS2” redirects here. ... The Nintendo GameCube , GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... In the history of computer and video games, the seventh generation began on November 21, 2004 with the United States release of the Nintendo DS. The beginning of the seventh generation for home consoles came on November 22, 2005 with the release of Microsofts Xbox 360 and continued a... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of cartridges that were released for the NES video game console, organised alphabetically by name. ... This is a list of Nintendo Famicom video games arranged in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of Famicom Disk System video games. ... A list of Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, emulators from different platforms. ... In 1990 Nintendo held a special video game competition. ...

References

  1. ^ a b For distribution purposes, Europe and Australasia were divided into two regions by Nintendo. The first of these regions consisted of France, the Netherlands, West Germany, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and saw the NES released during 1986. The console was released in the second region, consisting of the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, and Italy, as well as Australia, and New Zealand, the following year.
  2. ^ The Famicom Disk System peripheral utilized floppy diskette-based games. See here for more information.
  3. ^ The original Japanese model of the Famicom included no controller ports. See here for more information.
  4. ^ With 40.24 million copies sold, Super Mario Bros. is the best-selling video game of all time. It should be noted, however, that the “NES Action Set” (also known as the “NES Power Pack”), a retail set consisting of the NES deck, two game controllers, an NES Zapper, and a Super Mario Bros./Duck Hunt multicart, accounted for the majority of these sales. Super Mario Bros. 3, with 17.28 million copies sold, is the best-selling NES game that was never packaged with the NES. [1].
  5. ^ a b Breaking the Ice: South Korea Lifts Ban on Japanese Culture (html). Trends in Japan (December 7). Retrieved on May 19, 2007.
  6. ^ Classic Systems—Nintendo Entertainment System (html). Nintendo. Retrieved on February 11, 2006.
  7. ^ Atari broke off negotiations with Nintendo in response to Coleco’s unveiling of a unlicensed port of Donkey Kong for its Coleco Adam computer system. Although the game had been produced without Nintendo’s permission or support, Atari took its release as a sign that Nintendo was dealing with one of its major competitors in the market.
  8. ^ The History of the Nintendo Entertainment System or Famicom (html). Nintendo Land. Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  9. ^ Burnham, Van (2001). Supercade: A Visual History of the Videogame Age, 1971–1984. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 375. ISBN 0-262-52420-1. 
  10. ^ a b European information (html). Nintendo Database. Retrieved on May 4, 2006.
  11. ^ Nielsen, Martin (1997). The Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) FAQ v3.0A (html). ClassicGaming.com’s Museum. Retrieved on January 5, 2005.
  12. ^ a b The Collector. The Toploader NES: Why did it fail? (html). The NES Player. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  13. ^ "Did you know..." Top 25 Things You May Not Have Known About the NES (html). Nintendo Player. Retrieved on May 19, 2007.
  14. ^ TigheKLory. NESp (html). Retrieved on December 20, 2006.
  15. ^ Game Grrl (html). Ladyada. Retrieved on December 20, 2006.
  16. ^ Liedholm, Marcus and Mattias. History of the Nintendo Entertainment System or Famicom (html). Nintendo Land. Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  17. ^ Nintendo Entertainment System > United States Software List (html). Nintendo Database. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  18. ^ Hernandez, Christopher. Nintendo NES / Famicom (html). Dark Watcher’s Console History. Retrieved on January 5, 2005.
  19. ^ Many titles produced for the Famicom Disk System were subsequently ported to cartridge format for international release. Such games include Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic (rebranded as Super Mario Bros. 2) and Konami’s Castlevania series. The original version of Super Mario Bros. 2 was released for the FDS in Japan, and didn’t see an international release until Super Mario All-Stars for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (where it was retitled Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels).
  20. ^ Horton, Kevin. The Infamous Lockout Chip (html). BlueTech. Retrieved on January 5, 2005.
  21. ^ a b Nutt, Christian; Turner, Benjamin (2003). Metal Storm: All About the Hardware. (html). Nintendo Famicom--20 years of fun. Retrieved on May 21, 2006.
  22. ^ Edwards, Benj (2005-11-07). No More Blinkies: Replacing the NES's 72-Pin Cartridge Connector (HTML). Vintage Computing and Gaming. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  23. ^ Nelson, Rob (2003-02-12). Nintendo Redivivus: how to resuscitate an old friend (HTML). Ars Technica. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  24. ^ Knibbs, Mark (1997-09-22). NES Repairs (Text). Nintendope.
  25. ^ Repairing Your NES (HTML). Snackbar-Games.com (2003-05-21). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  26. ^ Blinking Screen (html). NES Player. Retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  27. ^ What is The Nintendo Repair Shop Inc? (HTML). Nintendo Repair Shop Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  28. ^ GaZZwa. History of Videogames (part 2) (html). Gaming World. Retrieved on January 7, 2005.
  29. ^ U.S. Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit (1992). Atari Games Corp. v. Nintendo of America Inc. (html). Digital Law Online. Retrieved on March 30, 2005.
  30. ^ Davidson, Michael. Famicom Clones / Pirate Multicarts and Other Weirdness (html). Obscure Pixels. Retrieved on January 5, 2005.
  31. ^ ASSEMbler. Sharp Nintendo Television (html). ASSEMbler. Retrieved on January 17, 2007.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i NES Specifications (html). Retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  33. ^ a b NES specificaties (html). Rgame.nl. Retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  34. ^ Unisystem VS schematic (pdf). Retrieved on 6 June 2007.

Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... This is a list of video games that have sold one million copies or more. ... Duck Hunt is a video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) game console system in which players use the NES Zapper to shoot ducks on screen for points. ... In video game parlance, a multicart is a cartridge that contains more than one game. ... This is a list of video games that have sold one million copies or more. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coleco (1932 - 1989) was a company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as Connecticut Leather Company. It became a highly successful toy company in the 1980s, known for its mass-produced version of Cabbage Patch Kids and, to a lesser extent, for its video game consoles Coleco Telstar and ColecoVision. ... Memory console and keyboard for Coleco Adam computer expansion for the Colecovision The Coleco Adam was a home computer, an attempt in the early 1980s by American toy manufacturer Coleco to follow on the success of its ColecoVision game console. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ... This article is about the version of Super Mario Bros. ... Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ... Original NES Castlevania Logo Castlevania is a video game series, created and developed by Konami. ... SMB 2 title screen (Japanese version) Super Mario Bros. ... Super Mario All-Stars, known in Japan as Super Mario Collection ), is a video game that was developed and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1993. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ...

External links

Nintendo Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... “Game console” redirects here. ... Packaging for the Color TV game (6) Nintendos Color TV Game Series debuted in 1977 with the Color TV Game 6. ... Legend of Zelda Famicom Disk The Family Computer Disk System , FDS) was released on February 21, 1986 by Nintendo as a peripheral to their overwhelmingly popular Family Computer (Famicom) console in Japan. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ... Super Game Boy Box art. ... The BS-X logo. ... Nintendos Virtual Boy ) was the first portable game console capable of displaying true 3D graphics. ... The Nintendo 64 ), often abbreviated as N64, was Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... The Nintendo 64DD is an expansion system for the Nintendo 64. ... This article is about the home console. ... The Nintendo GameCube , GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... A handheld game console is a lightweight, portable electronic machine for playing video games. ... Ball (Silver), 1980. ... For the entire Game Boy series of handheld consoles, see Game Boy line. ... The Game Boy ) line is a line of battery-powered handheld game consoles sold by Nintendo. ... The Game Boy ) line is a line of battery-powered handheld game consoles sold by Nintendo. ... The Game Boy Color , shortened to GBC) is Nintendos successor to the Game Boy and was released on October 21, 1998 in Japan and in November of 1998 in the United States and 1999 in Europe. ... “GBA” redirects here. ... The Game Boy Advance SP ), released in February 2003, is an upgraded version of Nintendos Game Boy Advance. ... Game Boy Micro , trademarked Game Boy micro) is a handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. ... “NDS” redirects here. ... The Nintendo DS Lite ) (sometimes abbreviated DSLite, or simply Lite, sold as the iQue DS Lite in China) is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. ... An arcade system board is a standardized printed circuit board or group of printed circuit boards that are used as the basis for multiple arcade games with very similar hardware requirements. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Nintendo Vs. ... The Play Choice 10 was a stand-up arcade video game hardware unit, for which the unit owner could purchase up to ten arcade games. ... The Nintendo Super System is an arcade system, which was used to preview Super Nintendo games in the U.S.. It was basically a Super Nintendo set up to use a menu which allowed the player to play the games for a certain amount of time depending on how many... The Triforce is an arcade system board developed jointly by Nintendo, Namco, and Sega, with the first games appearing in 2002. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nintendo Entertainment System (212 words)
Descended from a mixure of arcade controls and Nintendo's Game & Watch, The Nintendo Entertainment System controller is the daddy of all modern console controllers.
It's the controller from the system that resurrected home-video games after the big crash of 1983 and was also the system to own during the mid to late 80s.
Nintendo patented that cross design, which is generally why most everyone else's controllers feature slightly different directional pads.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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