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Encyclopedia > Nine Years War (Ireland)

The Nine Years War (Irish: Cogadh na Naoi mBliana) in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrone's Rebellion. It was fought between the forces of Gaelic Irish chieftains Hugh O'Neill (Earl of Tyrone), Hugh Roe O'Donnell and their allies, against the Elizabethan English government of Ireland. The war was fought in all parts of the country, but primarily in the northern province of Ulster. It ended in defeat for the Irish chieftains, which led ultimately to their exile in the Flight of the Earls and to the Plantation of Ulster. It is not be confused with the Nine Years War of the 1690s, part of which was also fought in Ireland. Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic (Goidelic), a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (c. ... The title of Earl of Tyrone was an Irish peerage title created several times. ... Red Hugh ODonnell (Aodh Rua Ó Domhnaill in Irish) (1571- 10 September 1602) was an Irish lord who led a rebellion against English government in Ireland from 1593 and helped to lead the Nine Years War, a revolt against English occupation, from 1595 to 1603. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533–24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 Population (estimate) 1,931,981 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... In September 1607, Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory ODonnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell set sail from Rathmullan, a village on the shore of Lough Swilly in County Donegal, with ninety of their followers. ... Å“The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ... The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the Orleans War, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between... For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ...

Contents


Causes

The Nine Years War was caused by the collision between the ambition of the Gaelic Irish chieftain Hugh O’Neill and the advance of the English state in Ireland, from control over the Pale to ruling the whole island. In resisting this advance, O’Neill managed to rally other Irish septs who were dissatisfied with English government and those Catholics who opposed the spread of Protestantism in Ireland. The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ... The Pale refers to at least two geographic areas: The Pale of Settlement in which imperial Russia allowed Jews to live. ... See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. ...


The rise of Hugh O’Neill

Hugh O'Neill came from the powerful O’Neill sept (or clan) of Tyrone, who dominated that centre of the northern province of Ulster 1. His father was killed and he was banished from Ulster as a child by Shane O'Neill. He was brought up in the Pale and was sponsored by the English authorities as a reliable lord. In 1587, he persuaded Elizabeth I to make him Earl of Tyrone (or Tir Eoin), the English title his father had held. However the real power in Ulster lay not in the legal title of Earl of Tyrone, but in the position of The O’Neill, or chief of the sept of O’Neill, then held by Turlough Luineach O'Neill. It was this position that commanded the obedience of all the O’Neills and their dependants in central Ulster; in 1595, after much bloodshed, Hugh O’Neill managed to secure it for himself. Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (c. ... The name Tyrone can refer to: A county in Northern Ireland; see County Tyrone An Earl of Tyrone A small steam train which runs between Bushmills and the Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 Population (estimate) 1,931,981 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 Population (estimate) 1,931,981 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Shane ONeill (c. ... The Pale refers to at least two geographic areas: The Pale of Settlement in which imperial Russia allowed Jews to live. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533–24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Turlough Luineach ONeill (c. ...


Within the O’Neill territory he tied the peasantry to the land, making them effectively serfs and pressing them into military service. From Red Hugh O'Donnell, his ally, he took a supply of Scottish mercenaries (known as Redshanks; he also hired large contingents of Irish mercenaries known as buanadha under leaders such as Richard Tyrell. To arm his soldiers, O'Neill bought muskets, ammunition and pikes from Scotland and England. From 1591, O’Donnell, on O’Neill’s behalf, had been in contact with Phillip II of Spain, appealing for military aid against their common enemy and citing also their shared Catholicism. With the aid of Spain, O Neill was able to arm and feed over 8000 men, unprecedented for a Gaelic lord, and so was well prepared to resist any English attempts to govern Ulster. Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Red Hugh Roe ODonnell (1571-1603) was an Irish Chieftain who led ODonnells Rebellion from 1593-1596 and later helped lead the Nine Years War, a revolt against English occupation, from 1593-1603. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore long gun. ... A modern recreation of a company of pikemen. ... Philip II of Spain (1527 – September 13, 1598), King of Spain (r. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Roman Catholic Church. ...


Government advances into Ulster

By the early 1590’s, northern Ireland was attracting the attention of Lord Deputy Fitzwilliam, who had been charged with bringing the province under crown control. A provincial presidency was proposed; the candidate for office was Henry Bagenal, an English colonist settled in Newry, who would seek to impose the authority of the crown through sheriffs to be appointed by the Dublin government. O’Neill had eloped with Bagenal’s sister, Mabel, and married her against her brother's wishes; the bitterness of this episode was made more intense after Mabel's early death a few years after the marriage, when she was clearly in despair from her husbands's neglect and the jealousy of his mistresses. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ...


In 1591, Fitzwilliam broke up the MacMahon lordship in Monaghan when The MacMahon, hereditary leader of the sept, resisted the imposition of an English sheriff; he was hanged and his lordship divided. There was an outcry, with several sources alleging corruption against Fitzwilliam, but the same policy was soon applied in Longford (territory of the O’Farrells) and Breifne (Cavan — territory of the O’Reillys). Any attempt to further the same in the O’Neill and O’Donnell territories was bound to be resisted by force of arms. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Sheriff is both a political and a legal office held under English common law, Scots law or U.S. common law, or the person who holds such office. ... Longford (An Longfort in Irish) is the county town of County Longford in the Midlands of Ireland. ... Cavan (An Cabhán in Irish, meaning the hollow) is the main town and administrative centre of County Cavan in the Republic of Ireland. ...


The most significant difficulty for English forces in confronting O’Neill lay in the natural defences that Ulster enjoyed. By land there were only two viable points of entry to the province for troops marching from the south: at Newry in the east, and Sligo in the west — the terrain in between was largely mountains, woodland, bog and marshes. Sligo Castle was held by the O’Connor sept, but suffered constant threat from the O’Donnels; the route from Newry into the heart of Ulster ran through several easily defended passes and could only be maintained in wartime with a punishing sacrifice by the Crown of men and money. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... OConnor may refer to several different topics: // People Bryan D. OConnor C. Y. OConnor Feargus OConnor Flannery OConnor Hazel OConnor John Cardinal OConnor Larry OConnor Luke OConnor Richard OConnor Sandra Day OConnor Sinéad OConnor T.P. O... ODonnell Coat of Arms another ODonnell Coat of Arms HeatherODonnell is my best friend. ...


The English did have a foothold within the province, around Carrickfergus above Belfast Lough, where a small colony had been planted in the 1570s; but here too the terrain was unfavourable, since Lough Neagh and the river Bann, the lower stretch of which ran through the dense forest of Glenconkyne, formed an effective barrier on the eastern edge of the O’Neill territory. A further difficulty lay in the want of a port on the northern sea coast where the English might launch an amphibious attack into O’Neill's rear. The strategic situation was complicated by interference from Scots clans, which were supplying O’Neill with soldiers and materials and playing upon the English need for local assistance, while keeping an eye to their own territorial influence in the Route (modern County Antrim). WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Belfast Lough (Loch Lao in Irish) is a large intertidal sea lough situated at the mouth of the River Lagan on the east coast of Northern Ireland. ... Lough Neagh Lough Neagh (pronounced ; Irish Loch nEathach ) in Northern Ireland is the largest lough, or body of freshwater by surface area, in the British Isles, with an area of 388 square kilometres. ... The River Bann is the largest river in Northern Ireland. ... County Antrim ( in [Gaelic) is one of the six Irish counties that form Northern Ireland. ...


War Breaks Out

In 1592 Red Hugh O'Donnell had driven an English sheriff, Captain Willis, out of his territory, Tir Connell. In 1593, Maguire and O’Donnell had combined to resist Willis’ introduction as Sheriff into Maguire’s Fermanagh and begun attacking the English outposts along the southern edge of Ulster. All the while, O’Neill had stood aloof, hoping as a compromise to be named as Lord President of Ulster himself. Elizabeth I, though, had feared that O’Neill had no intention of being a simple landlord. Rather, his ambition was to usurp her sovereignty and be, "a Prince of Ulster". For this reason she refused to grant O’Neill provincial presidency or any other position which would have given him authority to govern Ulster on the crown’s behalf. Once it became clear that Henry Bagenal was marked to assume the presidency of Ulster, O’Neill accepted that the English offensive was inevitable and so joined his allies in open rebellion with an attack on the English fort on the Blackwater river. Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Red Hugh Roe ODonnell (1571-1603) was an Irish Chieftain who led ODonnells Rebellion from 1593-1596 and later helped lead the Nine Years War, a revolt against English occupation, from 1593-1603. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... County Fermanagh (Fear Manach in Irish) is often referred to as Northern Irelands Lake District. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 Population (estimate) 1,931,981 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533–24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... This article is unconnected to the various rivers named Blackwater: see Blackwater River (note capitalization) Blackwater rivers are rivers with waters colored like clear tea to coffee. ...


Irish victory at Yellow Ford

The English authorities in Dublin Castle were slow to comprehend the depth of the rebellion. After failed negotiations in 1596, English armies tried to break into Ulster but were repulsed by a trained army including musketeers in prepared positions; after a stinging defeat at the Battle of Clontibret, successive English offensives were driven back in the following years. At the battle of the Yellow Ford in 1598 up to 2000 English troops were killed in battle having been ambushed on the march to Armagh. The rest were surrounded in Armagh itself but negotiated safe passage for themselves in return for evacuating the town. O Neill's personal enemy, Henry Bagenal, had been in command of the army and was killed during the early engagements. It was the heaviest defeat ever suffered by the English army in Ireland up to that point. Dublin Castle. ... The Battle of Clontibret (1595) was fought in modern County Monaghan in Ulster in northern Ireland during the Nine Years War, between the crown forces of Queen Elizabeth and the rebel army of Hugh ONeill, 3rd Earl of Tyrone. ... Battle of the Yellow Ford - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ...


The victory prompted uprisings all over the country, with the assistance of mercenaries in O'Neill's pay and contingents from Ulster, and it is at this point that the war developed in its full force. Hugh O’Neill appointed his supporters as chieftains and earls around the country, notably James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald as the Earl of Desmond and Florence MacCarthy as the MacCarthy Mór. In Munster as many as 9000 men came out in rebellion. The Munster Plantation, the colonisation of the province with English settlers, was utterly destroyed, the colonists, among them Edmund Spenser, fled for their lives. The title of Earl of Desmond has been held historically by lords in Ireland, first as a title outside of the peerage system and later as part of the English-controlled Peerage of Ireland. ... Finian MacDonagh MacCarthy, known to the English as Florence MacCarthy, was born in 1560 the son of Donagh, the chief of the MacCarthy Reagh clan. ... An Irish Chief of the Name was a person recognised by the Chief Herald of Ireland as the most senior known male descendant of the last inaugurated or de facto chief of that name in power in Gaelic Ireland at or before the end of the sixteenth century, see Irish... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland involved the seizure of land owned by the native Irish and granting of it to colonists (planters) from Britain. ... Edmund Spenser Edmund Spenser (c. ...


Only a handful of native lords remained consistently loyal to the crown and even these found their kinsmen and followers defecting to the rebels. However all the fortified cities and towns of the country sided with the English colonial government. Hugh O’Neill, unable to take walled towns, made repeated overtures to inhabitants of the Pale to join his rebellion, appealing to their Catholicism and to their alienation from the Dublin government and the provincial administrations. For the most part, however, the Old English remained hostile to their hereditary enemies. The Pale refers to at least two geographic areas: The Pale of Settlement in which imperial Russia allowed Jews to live. ... The Old English were a wave of early medieval Norman, French, Welsh, English, Breton and Flemish settlers who went to Ireland to claim territory and lands in the wake of the Norman invasion. ...


The Earl of Essex’s command

Main article: Essex in Ireland

In 1599, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex arrived in Ireland with over 17,000 English troops. He took the advice of the Irish privy council, to settle the south of the country with garrisons before making an attempt on Ulster, but this dissipated his forces and he ended up suffering numerous setbacks on a desultory progress through south Leinster and Munster. Those expeditions he did organise were disastrous, especially an expedition crossing the Curlew mountains to Sligo, which was mauled by O’Donnell at the Battle of Curlew Pass. Thousands of his troops, shut up in unsanitary garrisons, died of diseases such as typhoid and dysentery. During the Nine Years War, Queen Elizabeth I of England was troubled by the need to appoint a new commander for a military campaign in Ireland. ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 - 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. He was born at Netherwood in 1566, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex and... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... The Battle of Curlew Pass was fought on the 15th of August 1599, during the Nine Years War (Ireland), between an English force under Sir Conyers Clifford and a rebel Irish force led by Red Hugh ODonnell. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Dysentery is an illness involving severe diarrhea that is often associated with blood in the feces. ...


When he did to turn to Ulster, Essex entered a parley with O Neill and agreed a truce that was heavily criticised by his enemies in London. Anticipating a recall to England, he set out for London in 1600 without the Queen's permission, where he was executed after attempting a court putsch. He was succeeded in Ireland by Lord Mountjoy, who proved to be a far more able commander. Two veterans of Irish warfare, George Carew and Arthur Chichester, were given commands in Munster and Ulster respectively. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Charles Blount (pr. ... George Carew (d. ...


The end of the rebellion in Munster

Carew managed more or less to quash the rebellion in Munster by mid 1601, using a mixture of conciliation and force. By the summer of 1601 he had retaken most of the principal castles in Munster and scattered the rebel forces. Fitzthomas and Florence MacCarthy were arrested and kept captive in the Tower of London, where both eventually died. Most of the rest of the local lords submitted once O’Neills mercenaries had been expelled from the province. Finian MacDonagh MacCarthy, known to the English as Florence MacCarthy, was born in 1560 the son of Donagh, the chief of the MacCarthy Reagh clan. ... For the film with this title, see Tower of London (1939 film). ...


The Battle of Kinsale and the Collapse of the Rebellion

Mountjoy managed to penetrate the interior of Ulster by sea-borne landings at Derry under Henry Dowcra and Carrigfergus under Arthur Chichester. Dowcra and Chichester, helped by Niall Garbh O’Donnell, a rival of Red Hugh, devastated the countryside and killed the civilian population at random. Their military assumption was that without crops and people, the rebels could neither feed themselves nor raise new fighters. This attrition quickly began to bite, and it also meant that the Ulster chiefs were tied down in Ulster to defend their own territories. Although O’Neill managed to repulse another land offensive by Mountjoy at the battle of Moyry Pass near Newry in 1600, his position was becoming desperate. Niall Garve ODonnell (1560 - 1626), who was incensed at the elevation of his cousin Hugh Roe to the chieftainship in 1592, was further alienated when the latter deprived him of his castle of Lifford, and a bitter feud between the two ODonnells was the result. ... The Battle of Moyry Pass was fought in October 1600 in county Armagh, northern Ireland during the Nine Years War (Ireland). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... 1597 1598 1599 - 1600 - 1601 1602 1603 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1570s 1580s 1590s - 1600s - 1610s 1620s 1630s |- | align=center | Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century |} // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the...


In 1601, the long promised Spanish expedition finally arrived in the form of 3500 soldiers at Kinsale, Cork, virtually the southern tip of Ireland. Mountjoy immediately besieged them with 7000 men. O’Neill, O’Donnell and their allies marched their armies south to sandwich Mountjoy, whose men were starving and wracked by disease, between them and the Spaniards. On the 24 of December, O’Neill and O’Donnell took the decision to attack the English. The rebels however were not used to fighting pitched battles and were routed by the English forces in what is known as the battle of Kinsale. Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... Market Street in Kinsale, one of the towns oldest thoroughfares Kinsale (Cionn tSáile in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ... Siege of Kinsale - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


The Irish headed home to Ulster to defend their own lands. The Ulstermen lost many more men in the retreat through freezing and flooded country than they had at the actual battle of Kinsale. the last rebel stronghold in the south was taken at the Siege of Dunboy by George Carew. Red Hugh O'Donnell left for Spain, where he died in 1602, pleading in vain for another Spanish landing. He left his son Rory to defend Tir Connell. Both he and Hugh O’Neill were reduced to guerrilla tactics, fighting in small bands, as Mountjoy, Dowcra, Chichester and Niall Garbh O’Donnell swept the countryside. The Siege of Dunboy took place towards the end of the Nine Years War (Ireland) in 1602 and was a sequel to the siege of Kinsale. ... George Carew (29 May 1555-27 March 1629), Baron Carew of Clopton and Earl of Totnes, served in the Irish wars under Queen Elizabeth I and became President of Munster. ... Red Hugh Roe ODonnell (1571-1603) was an Irish Chieftain who led ODonnells Rebellion from 1593-1596 and later helped lead the Nine Years War, a revolt against English occupation, from 1593-1603. ... This page is about the year. ...


The End of the War

Mountjoy smashed the O’Neill’s inauguration stone at Tullaghogue, symbolically destroying the O’Neill clan. Famine soon hit Ulster as a result of the English scorched earth strategy. Chichester’s forces found that the locals were reduced to cannibalism. O’Neill’s uirithe or sub-lords (O’Hagan, O’Quinn, MacCann) began to surrender and Rory O'Donnell surrendered on terms at the end of 1602. However, with a secure base in the large and dense forests of Tir Eoin, O’Neill held out until 30 March 1603, when he surrendered on good terms to Mountjoy. Elizabeth I had died a week before. Tullyhogue Fort is large mound on the outskirts of Cookstown with a depressed center, surrounded by trees. ... A famine is a phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are so undernourished that death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Rory ODonnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell (1575–1608) 1602 Rory ODonnell succeeded his brother Hugh Roe O’Donnell, Lord of Tyrconnell, as the Irish chieftain of the clan ODonnell, At the time his brother was rebelling against King James I. 1603 he went to London to submit... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533–24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


Aftermath

The rebels got surprisingly good terms from the new King of England James I, at the end of the war. O’Neill, O’Donnell and the other surviving Ulster chiefs received full pardons and the return of their estates. The stipulations were that they abandon their Irish titles, their private armies, their control over their dependants and swear loyalty only to the Crown of England. In 1604, Mountjoy declared an amnesty for rebels all over the country. The reason for this apparent mildness was that the English could not afford to continue the war any longer. Elizabethan England did not have a standing army, nor could it force its Parliament to pass enough taxation to pay for long wars. Moreover, it was already involved in a war in the Spanish Netherlands. As it was, the war in Ireland (which cost over £2 million) came very close to bankrupting the English exchequer by its close in 1603. James VI of Scotland/James I of England (Charles James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ...


Irish sources claimed that as many as 60,000 people had died in the Ulster famine of 1602–3 alone. Even if this is an exaggeration, counting the unknown number killed in battle or massacred, an Irish death toll of over 100,000 is possible. At least 30,000 English soldiers died in Ireland in the Nine Years War, mainly from disease. So the total death toll for the war was probably at least 100,000 people, if not more.


Although O’Neill and his allies got good terms at the end of the war, they were never trusted by the English authorities and the distrust was mutual. O’Neill, O’Donnell and the other Gaelic lords from Ulster left Ireland in 1607 in what is known as the Flight of the Earls. They intended to organise an expedition from a Catholic power in Europe to re-start the war, but were unable to find any military backers. As a result, their lands were confiscated and colonised in the Plantation of Ulster. The Nine Years War was therefore an important step in the English colonisation of Ireland. In September 1607, Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory ODonnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell set sail from Rathmullan, a village on the shore of Lough Swilly in County Donegal, with ninety of their followers. ... Å“The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ...


Footnotes

Note 1: The O Neill dynasty claimed descent from the Ui Neill line which derived its origins from the ancient hero, Niall of the Nine Hostages, and the sons of Banbha. Niall of the Nine Hostages (Irish: Niall Noigíallach) was a High King of Ireland who was active in the early-to-mid 5th century, dying - according to the latest estimates - around 450-455. ... In Irish mythology, Banba, sometimes spelled Banbha, was the patron spirit of Ireland, wife of King MacCuill, and a goddess of war and fertility. ...


Sources

LENNON, Colm (March 1995). Sixteenth Century Ireland — The Incomplete Conquest. Dublin, St. Martin's Press. 0312124627.


Hayes MCCOY, Gerard Anthony (June 1989). Irish Battles. Belfast, Appletree Press. 0862812127.


CANNY, Nicholas P (May 1976). The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: A Pattern Established, 1565–76. Sussex, Harvester Press Ltd. 0855270349.


CANNY, Nicholas P (May 3rd, 2001). Making Ireland British, 1580–1650. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 0198200919.

  • Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors 3 vols. (London, 1885–1890)
  • John O'Donovan (ed.) Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters (1851).
  • Calendar of State Papers: Carew MSS. 6 vols (London, 1867-1873).
  • Calendar of State Papers: Ireland (London)
  • Steven G. Ellis Tudor Ireland (London, 1985) ISBN 0582493412.
  • Hiram Morgan Tyrone's War (1995).
  • Standish O'Grady (ed.) "Pacata Hibernia" 2 vols. (London, 1896).
  • Cyril Falls Elizabeth's Irish Wars (1950; reprint London, 1996) ISBN 0094772207.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
War of the Grand Alliance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2465 words)
The war was fought to resist French expansionism along the Rhine, as well as, on the part of England, to safeguard the results of the Glorious Revolution from a possible French-backed restoration of James II of England.
The war began with the French invasion of the Palatinate in 1688, ostensibly to support the claims of Louis XIV's sister-in-law, the Duchess of Orleans, to the territory following the death of her nephew in 1685 and the territory's inheritance by the junior Neuburg branch of the family.
Charles of Lorraine and Maximilian of Bavaria (lately comrades in the Turkish war) besieged Mainz, and the elector of Brandenburg besieged Bonn.
Nine Years War (Ireland) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2463 words)
The war was fought in all parts of the country, but primarily in the northern province of Ulster.
It is not be confused with the Nine Years War of the 1690s, part of which was also fought in Ireland.
The Nine Years War was caused by the collision between the ambition of the Gaelic Irish chieftain Hugh O’Neill and the advance of the English state in Ireland, from control over the Pale to ruling the whole island.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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