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Encyclopedia > Nine Years War

The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the Orleans War, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between France and the League of Augsburg — which, by 1689, was known as the "Grand Alliance". The war was fought to resist French expansionism along the Rhine, as well as, on the part of England, to safeguard the results of the Glorious Revolution from a possible French-backed restoration of James II. The North American theatre of the war, fought between English and French colonists, was known in the English colonies as King William's War. The only atomic weapons ever used in war - the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan by the United States on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombs over Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 people. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to some dispute as to Europes actual borders. ... For colonies not among the Thirteen colonies, see European colonization of the Americas or English colonization of the Americas. ... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Romansch: Rein, Italian: Reno) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a conspiracy between some parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau. ... James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697), was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ...

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The League of Augsburg

The League of Augsburg was formed in 1686 between the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, and various German princes (including the Palatinate, Bavaria, and Brandenburg) to resist French aggression in Germany. The alliance was joined by Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640 – May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna, daughter of Philip III of Spain. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Surrounding but excluding the national capital Berlin, Brandenburg is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden/Provinciën; also Dutch Republic or United Provinces in short) was a European republic between 1581 and 1795, which is now known as the Netherlands. ...


France had expected a benevolent neutrality on the part of James II's England, but after James's deposition and replacement by his son-in-law William of Orange, Louis's inveterate enemy, England declared war on France in May of 1689, and the League of Augsburg became known as the "Grand Alliance", with England, Portugal, Spain, the United Provinces, and most of the German states joined together to fight France. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st... William III of England (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots...


Opening campaigns

The war began with the French invasion of the Palatinate in 1688, ostensibly to support the claims of Louis XIV's sister-in-law, the Duchess of Orleans, to the territory following the death of her nephew in 1685 and the territory's inheritance by the junior Neuburg branch of the family. The harshness of Louis's activities united all of Germany behind the Emperor, who was, however, still busy fighting a war in Hungary against the Ottoman Empire. A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Elisabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz Elisabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz (Charlotte Elizabeth, Duchesse dOrléans), (May 27, 1652 in Heidelberg - 9 October or December 8, 1722 in St. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


In pursuit of his new aggressive policy in Germany, Louis sent his troops into that country in the autumn of 1688. Some of their raiding parties plundered the country as far south as Augsburg, for the political intent of their advance suggested terrorism rather than conciliation as the best method. The League of Augsburg at once took up the challenge, and the addition of new members by the Treaty of Vienna in May 1689 converted it into the Grand Alliance of Spain, Holland, Sweden, Savoy and certain Italian states, Great Britain, the Emperor, and Brandenburg.


Louvois had completed the work of organizing the French army on a regular and permanent basis, and had made it not merely the best, but also by far the most numerous in Europe, for Louis disposed in 1688 of no fewer than 375,000 soldiers and 60,000 sailors. The infantry was uniformed and drilled, and the socket bayonet and the flintlock musket had been introduced. The only relic of the old armament was the pike, which was retained for one-quarter of the foot, though it had been discarded by the Imperialists in the course of the Turkish wars described below. The first artillery regiment was created in 1684, to replace the former semi-civilian organization by a body of artillerymen susceptible of uniform training and amenable to discipline and orders. François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... Two flintlock pistols Flintlock is the general term for any firearm based on the flintlock mechanism. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


In 1689 Louis had six armies on foot. That in Germany, which had executed the raid of the previous autumn, was not in a position to resist the principal army of the coalition. Louvois therefore ordered it to lay waste the Palatinate, and the devastation of the country around Heidelberg, Mannheim, Speyer, Oppenheim and Worms was pitilessly and methodically carried into effect in January and February of 1689. There had been devastations in previous wars, even the high-minded Turenne had used the argument of fire and sword to terrify a population or a prince, while the whole story of the last ten years of the great war had been one of incendiary armies leaving traces of their passage that it took a century to remove. But here the devastation was a purely military measure, executed systematically over a given strategic front for no other purpose than to delay the advance of the enemys army. It differed from the method of Turenne or Oliver Cromwell in that the sufferers were not those people whom it was the purpose of the war to reduce to submission, but others who had no interest in the quarrel. The feudal theory that every subject of a prince at war was an armed vassal, and therefore an enemy of the prince's enemy, had in practice been obsolete for two centuries past; by 1690 the organization of war, its causes, its methods and its instruments had passed out of touch with the people at large, and it had become thoroughly understood that the army alone was concerned with the armys business. Thus it was that this devastation excited universal reprobation; and that, in the words of a modern French writer, the idea of Germany came to birth in the flames of the Palatinate. Heidelberg is a scenic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, halfway between Stuttgart and Frankfurt. ... Basic information Country: Germany Federal state: Land Baden-Württemberg Regions: Rhein-Neckar District: Independent municipality Population: 324,787 (Mai 2005) Additional information Area: 144. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Oppenheim is a small town (about 7000 inhabitants) on the Upper Rhine (Rheinhessen), between Mainz and Worms. ... Worm can refer to: The worm, a collection of animal phyla. ... Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) was Marshal of France. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ...


As a military measure this action was, moreover, quite unprofitable; for it became impossible for Marshal Duras, the French commander, to hold out on the east side of the middle Rhine, and he could think of nothing better to do than to go farther south and to ravage Baden and Breisgau, which was not even a military necessity. The grand army of the Allies, coming farther north, was practically unopposed. Charles of Lorraine and Maximilian of Bavaria (lately comrades in the Turkish war) besieged Mainz, and the elector of Brandenburg besieged Bonn. The latter, following the evil precedent of his enemies, shelled the town uselessly instead of making a breach in its walls and overpowering its French garrison. Mainz had to surrender on the September 8, 1688. The governor of Bonn, not in the least intimidated by the bombardment, held out until the army that had taken Mainz reinforced the elector of Brandenburg, and then, rejecting the hard terms of surrender offered him by the latter, he fell in resisting a last assault on October 12, 1688. Only 850 men out of his 6000 were left to surrender on the 16th, and the Duke of Lorraine, less truculent than the Elector, escorted them safely to Thionville. Boufflers, with another of Louis's armies, operated from Luxembourg (captured by the French in 1684) and Trarbach towards the Rhine, but in spite of a minor victory at Kochheim on August 21, he was unable to relieve either Mainz or Bonn. At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Romansch: Rein, Italian: Reno) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ... Breisgau is the name of a landscape in southwest Germany, placed between the river Rhine and the foothills of the Black Forest near Freiburg im Breisgau in the state of Baden-Württemberg. ... Charles IV (* April 5, 1604 in Nancy – September 18, 1675 in Allenbach), was the titular Duke of Lorraine from 1661 to 1670 See also: Dukes of Lorraine family tree Categories: French people stubs | Dukes of Lorraine | 1604 births | 1675 deaths ... Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Mainz (French: Mayence) is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Bonn is a city in Germany (19th largest), in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the north of the Siebengebirge. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Thionville (German: Diedenhofen), is a town and commune in the Moselle département, in the Lorraine région, France. ... Louis François, duc de Boufflers, comte de Cagny (January 10, 1644 - August 22, 1711) was a Marshal of France. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Irish campaign of 1690-91

For the main article, see Williamite war in Ireland For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ...


To try to restore James II and knock England out of the Grand Alliance, Louis XIV supplied men, military and financial aid to James' Jacobite supporters in Ireland. William of Orange was forced to go to Ireland to fight the subsequent war - defeating James at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and ending his hopes of regaining his throne. The war dragged on until July 1691, when William's general Ginkel inflicted a crushing defeat on the French and Irish forces at the battle of Aughrim. James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715), reigned as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death at the age of 77. ... This article concerns the political movement supporting the restoration of the House of Stuart, not the earlier Jacobean period. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James II of England William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 {{{notes}}} William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland... The Battle of Aughrim was the decisive battle of the Williamite war in Ireland. ...


Campaign in the Netherlands

In the war's principal theatre, in continental Europe, the early military campaigns, which mostly occurred in the Spanish Netherlands, were generally successful for France. After a setback at the Battle of Walcourt in August 1689, in which the French were defeated by an allied army under Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, the French under Marshal Luxembourg were successful at the Battle of Fleurus in 1690, but Louis prevented Luxembourg from following up on his victory. The French were also successful in the Alps in 1690, with Marshal Catinat defeating the Duke of Savoy at the Battle of Staffarda and occupying Savoy. The Turkish recapture of Belgrade in October of the same year proved a boon to the French, preventing the Emperor from making peace with the Turks and sending his full forces west. The French were also successful at sea, defeating the Anglo-Dutch fleet at Beachy Head, but failed to follow up on the victory by sending aid to the Jacobite forces in Ireland or pursuing control of the Channel. This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Piney, called de Luxembourg (January 8, 1628 - January 4, 1695), marshal of France, the comrade and successor of the great Condé, was born at Paris, France. ... The Battle of Fleurus took place on July 1, 1690. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Anne Hilarion de Tourville Earl of Torrington Strength 75 ships 56 ships Casualties None 7 Dutch ships lost The naval Battle of Beachy Head or Bataille de Béveziers took place on 30 June 1690 near Beachy Head, a promontory near Eastbourne, on the...


The French followed up on their success in 1691 with Luxembourg's capture of Mons and Halle and his defeat of Waldeck at the Battle of Leuze, while Marshal Catinat continued his advance into Italy, and another French army advanced into Catalonia, and in 1692 Namur was captured by a French army under the direct command of the King, and the French beat back an allied offensive under William of Orange at the Battle of Steenkerque. The central square and town hall of Mons Mons (Dutch: Bergen) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut, of which it is the capital. ... Halle (French: Hal) is a municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Namur is the name of a city in Belgium, capital of Wallonia, as well as a province and a diocese named after it. ... The Battle of Steenkerque (Steenkerque also spelled Steenkerke or Steenkirk) was fought on August 3, 1692, as a part of the Nine Years War. ...


Naval battles

The naval side of the war was not marked by any very conspicuous exhibition of energy or capacity, but it was singularly decisive in its results. At the beginning of the struggle the French fleet kept the sea in face of the united fleets of Great Britain and Holland. It displayed even in 1690 a marked superiority over them. Before the struggle ended it had been fairly driven into port, and though its failure was to a great extent due to the exhaustion of the French finances, yet the inability of the French admirals to make a proper use of their fleets, and the incapacity of the kings ministers to direct the efforts of his naval officers to the most effective aims, were largely responsible for the result.


Early French dominance

When the war began in 1689, the British Admiralty was still suffering from the disorders of the reign of King Charles II, which had been only in part corrected during the short reign of James II. The first squadrons were sent out late and in insufficient strength. The Dutch, crushed by the obligation to maintain a great army, found an increasing difficulty in preparing their fleet for action early. Louis XIV, with as yet unexhausted resources, had it within his power to strike first. The opportunity offered him was a very tempting one. Ireland was still loyal to James II, and would therefore have afforded an admirable basis of operations to a French fleet, but no serious attempt was made to profit by the advantage thus presented. In March 1689, King James was landed and reinforcements were prepared for him at Brest. A British squadron under the command of Arthur Herbert, sent to intercept them, reached the French port too late, and on returning to the coast of Ireland sighted the convoy off the Old Head of Kinsale on May 10. The French admiral Chateaurenault held on to Bantry Bay, and an indecisive encounter took place on May 11. The troops and stores for King James were successfully landed. Then both admirals, the British and the French, returned home, and neither in that nor in the following year was any serious effort made by the French to gain command of the sea between Ireland and England. Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Charles II or The Merry Monarch (29 May 1630–6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Location within France Brest, at the tip of Brittany Brest is a city in the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington (c. ... Market Street in Kinsale, one of the towns oldest thoroughfares Kinsale (Cionn tSáile in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Bantry Bay is a bay located in southwest Ireland, in County Cork. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ...


English and Dutch resurgence

A great French fleet entered the English Channel, and gained a success over the combined British and Dutch fleets on July 10, 1690 in the Battle of Beachy Head, which was not followed up by vigorous action. During the following year, while James's cause was finally ruined in Ireland, the main French fleet was cruising in the Bay of Biscay, principally for the purpose of avoiding battle. During the whole of 1689, 1690 and 1691, British squadrons were active on the Irish coast. One raised the siege of Londonderry in July 1689, and another convoyed the first British forces sent over under the Duke of Schomberg. Immediately after Beachy Head in 1690, a part of the Channel fleet carried out an expedition under the Earl of Marlborough, which took Cork and reduced a large part of the south of the island. Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche, IPA: , the sleeve), also for some time known in England as the British Sea, is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Anne Hilarion de Tourville Earl of Torrington Strength 75 ships 56 ships Casualties None 7 Dutch ships lost The naval Battle of Beachy Head or Bataille de Béveziers took place on 30 June 1690 near Beachy Head, a promontory near Eastbourne, on the... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... For context see the Williamite war in Ireland and Jacobitism. ... Friedrich Hermann (or Frédéric Armand), 1st Duke of Schomberg (originally Schönberg) (December 1615 or January 1616–1690), was both a marshal of France and an English general of all his Majestys Forces. Descended from an old family of the Palatinate, he was born at Heidelberg, the son of Hans... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, KG, PC (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) was an English military officer during the War of the Spanish Succession. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ...


In 1691 the French did little more than help to carry away the wreckage of their allies and their own detachments. In 1692 a vigorous but tardy attempt was made to employ their fleet to cover an invasion of England at the Battle of La Hougue. It ended in defeat, and the allies remained masters of the Channel. The defeat of La Hougue did not do so much harm to Louis's naval power, and in the next year, 1693, he was able to strike a severe blow at the Allies. The Battle of Barfleur, 29 May 1692 by Richard Paton, painted 18th century. ...


In this instance, the arrangements of the allied governments and admirals were not good. They made no effort to blockade Brest, nor did they take effective steps to discover whether or not the French fleet had left the port. The convoy was seen beyond the Scilly Isles by the main fleet. But as the French admiral Tourville had left Brest for the Straits of Gibraltar with a powerful force and had been joined by a squadron from Toulon, the whole convoy was scattered or taken by him, in the latter days of June, near Lagos Bay. Although this success was a very fair equivalent for the defeat at La Hogue, it was the last serious effort made by the navy of Louis XIV in this war. Want of money compelled him to lay his fleet up. Tresco, the second largest Island of Scillonia The Isles of Scilly (Cornish: Ynysek Syllan) form an archipelago of islands off the Cornish coast. ... Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville (1642–1701) was a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. Aged 17, a Knight of Malta, he fought his first naval fight on a frigate of... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


The allies were now free to make full use of their own, to harass the French coast, to intercept French commerce, and to cooperate with the armies acting against France. Some of the operations undertaken by them were more remarkable for the violence of the effort than for the magnitude of the results. The numerous bombardments of French Channel ports, and the attempts to destroy St Malo, the great nursery of the active French privateers, by infernal machines, did little harm. A British attack on Brest in June 1694 was beaten off with heavy loss, the scheme having been betrayed by Jacobite correspondents. Yet the inability of the French king to avert these enterprises showed the weakness of his navy and the limitations of his power. The protection of British and Dutch commerce was never complete, for the French privateers were active to the end, but French commerce was wholly ruined. Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. ... This article concerns the political movement supporting the restoration of the House of Stuart, not the earlier Jacobean period. ...


Cooperation with the Spanish Navy

It was the misfortune of the allies that their co-operation with armies was largely with the forces of a power so languid and so bankrupt as Spain. Yet the series of operations directed by Russel in the Mediterranean throughout 1694 and 1695 demonstrated the superiority of the allied fleet, and checked the advance of the French in Catalonia. Capital Barcelona Official languages Catalan and Spanish In Val dAran, also Aranese. ...


Contemporary with the campaigns in Europe was a long series of cruises against the French in the West Indies, undertaken by the British navy, with more or less help from the Dutch and a little feeble assistance from the Spanish. They began with the cruise of Captain Lawrence Wright in 1690–1691, and ended with that of Admiral John Nevell in 1696–1697. It cannot be said that they attained to any very honorable achievement, or even did much to weaken the French hold on their possessions in the West Indies and North America. Some, and notably the attack made on Quebec by Sir William Phips in 1690, with a force raised in the British colonies, ended in defeat. None of them was so triumphant as the plunder of Cartagena in South America by the Frenchman Pointis, in 1697, at the head of a semi-piratical force. Too often there was absolute misconduct. In the buccaneering and piratical atmosphere of the West Indies, the naval officers of the day, who calculated on distance from home to secure them immunity, sank nearly to the level of pirates and buccaneers. The indifference of the age to the laws of health, and its ignorance of them, caused the ravages of disease to be frightful. In the case of Admiral Nevil's squadron, the admiral himself and all his captains except one died during the cruise, and the ships were unmanned. Yet it was their own vices which caused these expeditions to fail, and not the strength of the French defence. When the war ended, the navy of King Louis XIV had disappeared from the sea. Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 2nd 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176,928... Sir William Phips (or Phipps) (February 2, 1651 or 1650 – February 18, 1694 or 1695), colonial governor of Massachusetts, was born at Woolwich, Maine, near the mouth of the Kennebec River. ... For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Cartagena, formally known as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena of Indies) or Cartagena la Heroica (The Heroic), is a large seaport on the north coast of Colombia. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Continuing campaign in the Netherlands

The war continued, however, as did the French successes on land. 1693 saw another victory by Luxembourg over William at Landen, and the capture of Charleroi by the French. The French also continued their successes in Piedmont with a decisive victory at Marsaglia, while in 1694 the French advanced into Catalonia and besieged Barcelona until forced to withdraw by an English fleet. The Battle of Landen (or Neerwinden), in the current Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in the Netherlands on July 29, 1693 between the French army of Marshal Luxembourg and the Allied army of King William III of England. ... Charleroi (Walloon: Tchålerwè) is a city and a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia, an autonomous community in Spain. ...


The French cause was significantly handicapped by the death of Luxembourg in 1695. In the campaign that followed that summer, William was successful, capturing Namur in September. The Treaty of Turin in 1696 ended Savoy's part in the war, and the French were now free to send more troops to the northern front, where they repulsed further offensive efforts by William. Namur is the name of a city in Belgium, capital of Wallonia, as well as a province and a diocese named after it. ...


Peace

The war ultimately came to an inconclusive conclusion with the Treaty of Ryswick, which restored the status quo ante. Louis also agreed to surrender fortifications at Mons, Luxembourg, and Kortrijk to the Spanish, although this was widely seen as a decision taken to improve his chances of a Bourbon inheritance of the Spanish throne following the death of the childless Carlos II. The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... The central square and town hall of Mons Mons (Dutch: Bergen) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut, of which it is the capital. ... Central Kortrijk from the main square. ... Charles II of Spain. ...


The period was marked by famine and recession. A famine is a phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are so undernourished that death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys real Gross Domestic Product in two or more successive quarters of a year. ...


See also

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... // Events April 11 - War of the Spanish Succession: Treaty of Utrecht June 23 - French residents of Acadia given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia Canada first Orrery built by George Graham Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713... A world war is a military conflict affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Flight Of The Earls.Net - Nine Years War (474 words)
Indeed the war is just as remarkable for being littered by a series of English military embarrassments such as the defeat at the eponymous battle of the Biscuits (1594) where an English supply column was routed.
The war had cost crown coffers a staggering £2 million while the imminent death of Elizabeth I in 1603 changed the political complexion of the war.
During the war, marines, under Sir Arthur Chichester, outflanked the natural defence of the river Blackwater, engaging in highly controversial depredations, including the mass slaughter of women and children.
Nine Years War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2437 words)
The war was fought to resist French expansionism along the Rhine, as well as, on the part of England, to safeguard the results of the Glorious Revolution from a possible French-backed restoration of James II.
The war began with the French invasion of the Palatinate in 1688, ostensibly to support the claims of Louis XIV's sister-in-law, the Duchess of Orleans, to the territory following the death of her nephew in 1685 and the territory's inheritance by the junior Neuburg branch of the family.
Charles of Lorraine and Maximilian of Bavaria (lately comrades in the Turkish war) besieged Mainz, and the elector of Brandenburg besieged Bonn.
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