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Encyclopedia > Nile delta

Coordinates: 30°54′N, 31°7′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour)
NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour)

The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers some 240 km of Mediterranean coastline—and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 392 KB) False colour image of the Nile Delta, taken by NASAs Landsat 7 satellite. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 392 KB) False colour image of the Nile Delta, taken by NASAs Landsat 7 satellite. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...

Contents

Shape and composition

Nile River and Delta
Nile River and Delta

The Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta (arc-shaped), and resembles a triangle or lotus flower when seen from above. The outer edges of the delta are eroding, and some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, and large amounts of fertilizers are now used. Topsoil in the delta can be as much as 70 feet in depth. Also the topsoil falls off in the land and causes the water to rise. Description: The Nile River and delta as seen from space by the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite. ... Description: The Nile River and delta as seen from space by the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite. ... Map of Egypt showing the location of Aswan and Lake Nasser. ... Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ...


History

People have lived in the Nile Delta region for thousands of years, and have been intensively farming for at least five thousand years. The Nile River used to be flooded on an annual basis, but this ended with the construction of the Aswan Dam. Records from ancient times (Pliny the Elder), show that the delta had seven distributaries: (from east to west) the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic (also called the Herakleotic, e.g. at [Callisthenes] Alexander 1.31). There are now only two main branches, due to flood control, silting and changing relief: The Damietta (corresponding to the Phatnitic) to the east and the Rosetta (corresponding to the Bolbitinic)1 on the western part of the delta. The Rosetta Stone was found in the Nile Delta in 1787 in the port city of Rosetta (anglicized name of Rashid). In pharaonic times, this area was Lower Egypt. It was also called the "Land of Goshen". Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Rosetta is the anglicised name for the city of Rashid, a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, located 65 km east of Alexandria. ...

The Rosetta Stone, found in the Nile Delta in 1799
The Rosetta Stone, found in the Nile Delta in 1799

Download high resolution version (768x1024, 151 KB)The Rosetta Stone in British Museum, photo by User:Matijap File links The following pages link to this file: Rosetta Stone Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 151 KB)The Rosetta Stone in British Museum, photo by User:Matijap File links The following pages link to this file: Rosetta Stone Categories: GFDL images ...

Flora & Fauna

During the fall, parts of the Nile River are red with lotus flowers. The Lower Nile (North) and the Upper Nile (South) have plants that grow in abundance. The Lower Nile plant is the Egyptian lotus, and the Upper Nile plant is the Cyperus papyrus (papyrus sedge), although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, and is becoming quite rare. Binomial name Gaertn. ... Binomial name Cyperus papyrus L. Papyrus sedge, also known as Bulrush or Paper reed (Cyperus papyrus) is a monocot belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae. ...


Several hundred thousand water birds winter in the delta, including the world’s largest concentrations of little gulls and whiskered terns. Other birds making their homes in the delta include grey herons, Kentish Plovers, shovelers and cormorants. Also found are egrets and ibises. Binomial name Larus minutus Pallas, 1776 The Little Gull Larus minutus, is a small gull which breeds in northern Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Chlidonias hybridus (Pallas, 1811) The Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybridus) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. ... Binomial name Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 The Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae. ... Binomial name Charadrius alexandrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies The Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, is a small wader in the plover bird family. ... Binomial name Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758 The Shoveler or Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of North America. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Genera Egretta Ardea An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. ... Genera Threskiornis Pseudibis Thaumatibis Geronticus Nipponia Bostrychia Theristicus Cercibis Mesembrinibis Phimosus Eudocimus Plegadis Lophotibis Ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae. ...


Other animals found in the delta include frogs, turtles, tortoises, mongooses, and the Nile monitor. Nile crocodiles are no longer found in the Nile Delta. Fish found in the delta include the Striped mullet and soles. Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Varanus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1766) Nile Monitor Range The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) is a large member of the monitor lizard family (Varanidae). ... Binomial name (Laurenti, 1768) The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is one of the 3 species of crocodiles found in Africa, and the second largest species of crocodile. ... Binomial name Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 The flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) is a mullet of the genus Mugil, found in coastal tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. ...

Whiskered Tern
Whiskered Tern

Image File history File linksMetadata Chlidonias_hybrida_3_(Marek_Szczepanek). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chlidonias_hybrida_3_(Marek_Szczepanek). ...

Climate

The Nile Delta has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by little rainfall. Only 100 to 200 mm of rain falls on the delta area during an average year, and most of this falls in the winter months. The delta experiences its hottest temperatures in July and August, averaging 30°C, with a maximum of around 48°C. Winter temperatures are normally in the range of 5° to 10°C. The Nile Delta region becomes quite humid during the summer months.


Ancient and modern cities in the Delta region

This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... Bilbeis (Coptic Phelbs) is an ancient fortress city on the eastern edge of the southern Nile delta in Egypt. ... Bubastis is an Ancient Egyptian city, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt. ... Canopus (also: Canobus) was an Ancient Egyptian coastal town, located in the Nile Delta. ... Damanhur (Arabic: دمنهور ) or Hermopolis Mikra (Greek: ) or Latin: Hermopolis Parva is a city in Lower Egypt, and the capital of al-Buhayrah (Beheira or Behera) governorate. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... Leontopolis is the Greek name for the Ancient Egyptian city known as Taremu in ancient times and as Tell al Muqdam today. ... For information about the Portuguese language surname Mendes, see the article Mendez. ... Mit Abu al-Kum (Arabic ميت أبو الكوم) is a village in the Egyptian Nile Delta and the Al-Minufiyah governorate. ... Al Mansurah (Arabic المنصورة) is considered to be Egypts third largest city after Cairo, and Alexandria . ... Naucratis (nŏk´retĬs), was an ancient city of Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile, 45 mi (72 km) SE of Alexandria. ... Pelusium is a city in the eastern extremes of Egypts Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of Port Said. ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... Rosetta Rosetta is the anglicised name of the city of Rashid, a harbor on the Mediterranean coast in Egypt. ... Sais was the chief city of the fifth nome of Lower Egypt, located in the western edge of the Nile Delta. ... Tanis or The ruins of Tanis in 2004 Tanis (Τάνις), the Greek name of ancient Djanet (modern صان الحجر Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar), is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt. ... Tanta Tanta (Arabic: طنطا ) is an Egyptian city, capital of the Al Gharbiyah governorate on the Nile Delta, with an estimated 335,000 inhabitants, and is considered the capital of the Delta. ... Zagazig (Zakazik, Arabic, Az-ZaqāzÄ«q الزقازيق), is a town of Lower Egypt, in the eastern part of the Nile delta, and is the capital of the province of Ash Sharqiyah. ...

See also

This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The Prefecture Apostolic of the Delta of the Nile was a Roman Catholic missionary jurisdiction, situated in the north of khedival Egypt, comprising four of the six provinces forming Lower Egypt: Gharbieh, Charkieb, Menufieh and Kalyiubieh. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ...

References

1. p87 in W. Hayes, 'Most Ancient Egypt', JNES, 23 (1964), 73-114.


  Results from FactBites:
 
the Living Africa: the land - Nile River - Physiography (737 words)
This portion of the Nile is unnavigable due to the series of rapids that are formed while the river descends through narrow gorges.
The White Nile has a relatively constant flow, the Blue Nile in contrast is affected by the tremendous runoff resulting from the late July to October rains on the Ethiopian Plateau.
The Atbara is fed by the Angereb and Tekezo.
Nile Delta - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (639 words)
Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, and large amounts of fertilizers are now used.
The Lower Nile plant is the Egyptian lotus, and the Upper Nile plant is the Cyperus papyrus (papyrus sedge), although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, and is becoming quite rare.
The delta experiences its hottest temperatures in July and August, averaging 30°C, with a maximum of around 48°C. Winter temperatures are normally in the range of 5° to 10°C. The Nile Delta region becomes quite humid during the summer months.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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