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Encyclopedia > Nile
Nile
River
The River in Egypt
Name origin: "Nile"(Arabic: 'nīl) comes from the Greek word Neilos (Νειλος)
Countries Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia, Flag of Sudan Sudan, Flag of Egypt Egypt, Flag of Rwanda Rwanda, Flag of Tanzania Tanzania, Flag of Uganda Uganda
Cities Khartoum, Cairo
Primary source White Nile
 - coordinates 2°16′55.92″S 29°19′52.32″E / -2.2822, 29.3312
Secondary source Blue Nile
 - location Lake Tana, Ethiopia
 - coordinates 12°2′8.8″N 37°15′53.11″E / 12.035778, 37.2647528
Source confluence near Khartoum
Mouth
 - location Mediterranean Sea
Length 6,650 km (4,132 mi)
Basin 3,400,000 km² (1,312,747 sq mi)
Discharge
 - average 2,830 /s (99,941 cu ft/s)

The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎, transliteration: an-nīl, Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.[1] However, recent findings suggest that the Amazon River may be longer.[2] Nile may refer to: The Nile River in northeast Africa, one of the worlds longest rivers River Nile, a state of Sudan Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA See also Niles, disambiguation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct by the 17th century Language family: Afro-Asiatic  Egyptian  Writing system: hieroglyphs, cursive hieroglyphs, hieratic, and demotic (later, occasionally Arabic script in government translations) Language codes ISO 639-1: none... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This is a list of rivers by length. ... This article is about the river. ...


The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile, the latter being the source of most of the Nile's water and fertile soil, but the former being the longer of the two. The White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source in southern Rwanda 2°16′55.92″S, 29°19′52.32″E, and flows north from there through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and southern Sudan, while the Blue Nile starts at Lake Tana in Ethiopia 12°2′8.8″N, 37°15′53.11″E, flowing into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital Khartoum. Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... The Greater Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... Lake Tana (also spelled Tana, Amharic: ጣና ሐይቅ Ṭānā Hāyḳ,Lake Tana, originally Tsana, Geez ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called Dembiya after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ...


The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population of Egypt and all of its cities, with the exception of those near the coast, lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan; and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along the banks of the river. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. This article is about arid terrain. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...

Contents

Etymology of the word Nile

The word "Nile"(Arabic: 'nīl) comes from the Greek word Neilos (Νειλος), meaning river valley. In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called iteru, meaning "great river", represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the right (literally itrw).[3] In Coptic, the words piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic) meaning "the river" (lit. p(h).iar-o "the.canal-great") come from the same ancient name. Image File history File links Iteru. ... Image File history File links Iteru. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct by the 17th century Language family: Afro-Asiatic  Egyptian  Writing system: hieroglyphs, cursive hieroglyphs, hieratic, and demotic (later, occasionally Arabic script in government translations) Language codes ISO 639-1: none... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Tributaries and distributaries

East Africa, showing the course of the Nile River, with the "Blue" and "White" Niles marked in those colours

The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometres (1,256,591 sq mi), about 10% of the area of Africa.[4] Image File history File links River_Nile_route. ... Image File history File links River_Nile_route. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ...


There are two great tributaries of the Nile, joining at Khartoum: the White Nile, starting in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile, beginning in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift, the southern part of the Great Rift Valley. Below the Blue and White Nile confluence the only remaining major tributary is the Atbara River, which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana, and is around 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. It flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very fast. It joins the Nile approximately 300 kilometres (200 mi) north of Khartoum. Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... The Atbara is a river in northeast Africa, which rises in northwest Ethiopia and flows about 805 km (500 miles) to the Nile in the east of Sudan. ...


The Nile is unusual in that its last tributary (the Atbara) joins it roughly halfway to the sea. From that point north, the Nile diminishes because of evaporation.


The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. It flows over 6 groups of cataracts, from the first at Aswan to the sixth at Sabaloka (just north of Khartoum) and then turns to flow southward for a good portion of its course, before again returning to flow north to the sea. This is called the "Great Bend of the Nile." The six cataracts of the Nile Fourth Cataract Sixth Cataract The six primary cataracts of the Nile are shallow stretches between Aswan and Khartoum where the waters surface is broken by numerous small boulders and stones lying on the river bed, as well as many small rocky islets. ...


North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries) that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta. For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Rosetta Rosetta is the anglicised name of the city of Rashid, a harbor on the Mediterranean coast in Egypt. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ...


White Nile

Main article: White Nile
The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahar Dar, Ethiopia forms the upstream of the Blue Nile. It is also known as Tis Issat Falls after the name of the nearby village.
The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahar Dar, Ethiopia forms the upstream of the Blue Nile. It is also known as Tis Issat Falls after the name of the nearby village.

The source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake itself has feeder rivers of considerable size. The most distant stream emerges from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda, via the Rukarara, Mwogo, Nyabarongo and Kagera rivers, before flowing into Lake Victoria in Tanzania near the town of Bukoba. The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x565, 178 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Blue Nile Blue Nile Falls Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x565, 178 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Blue Nile Blue Nile Falls Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahar Dar The Blue Nile Falls are a waterfall on the Blue Nile river in Ethiopia. ... Lake Tana (also spelled Tana, Amharic: ጣና ሐይቅ Ṭānā Hāyḳ,Lake Tana, originally Tsana, Geez ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called Dembiya after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia. ... Bahir Dar is a city in north western Ethiopia and the capital of the Amhara Administrative Region (kilil). ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kagera is the northern province of Tanzania. ... Bukoba is a town in northwest Tanzania on the western shore of Lake Victoria. ...


The Nile leaves Lake Victoria at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda, as the Victoria Nile. It flows for approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) farther, through Lake Kyoga, until it reaches Lake Albert. After leaving Lake Albert, the river is known as the Albert Nile. It then flows into Sudan, where it becomes known as the Bahr al Jabal ("River of the Mountain"). The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometres (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters. When the Nile flooded it left this rich material named silt. The Ancient Egyptians used this soil to farm. From Lake No, the river flows to Khartoum. An anabranch river called Bahr el Zeraf flows out of the Nile's Bahr al Jabal section and rejoins the White Nile. Jinja may be: Jinja, a city in Uganda close to the source of the Nile River Jinja, the district in Uganda named after the above city Jinja, a Shinto shrine Jinja, a Template engine This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... (White Nile is also a state of Sudan) The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main branches of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... Map showing the location of Lake Kyoga in Uganda. ... For other uses, see Lake Albert (disambiguation). ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main branches of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... Bahr al Jabal is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan, with an area of 22,956 km2. ... Lake No is a lake in Sudan. ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... An anabranch is a section of a river or stream that diverts from the main course and rejoins later. ...


The term "White Nile" is used in both a general sense, referring to the entire river above Khartoum, and a limited sense, the section between Lake No and Khartoum.


Blue Nile

Main article: Blue Nile

The Blue Nile (Ge'ez ጥቁር ዓባይ Ṭiqūr ʿĀbbāy (Black Abay) to Ethiopians; Bahr al Azraq to Sudanese) springs from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands. The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the "Nile proper". 90% of the water and 96% of the transported sediment carried by the Nile[5] originates in Ethiopia, with 59% of the water from the Blue Nile alone (the rest being from the Tekezé, Atbarah, Sobat, and small tributaries). The erosion and transportation of silt only occurs during the Ethiopian rainy season in the summer, however, when rainfall is especially high on the Ethiopian Plateau; the rest of the year, the great rivers draining Ethiopia into the Nile (Sobat, Blue Nile, Tekezé, and Atbarah) flow weakly. For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Abay River is a river in Ethiopia. ... Lake Tana (also spelled Tana, Amharic: ጣና ሐይቅ Ṭānā Hāyḳ,Lake Tana, originally Tsana, Geez ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called Dembiya after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia. ... The Tekezé River is a major river of Ethiopia, and forms a section the westernmost border of Ethiopia and Eritrea for part of its course. ... The Sobat River is a river of Northeastern Africa. ... Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background. ...


Lost headwaters

Formerly Lake Tanganyika drained northwards along the African Rift Valley into the Albert Nile, making the Nile about 900 miles (1,400 km) longer, until blocked in Miocene times by the bulk of the Virunga Volcanoes. See List of rivers by length. Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Virunga Mountains are a chain of volcanoes in East Africa, along the northern border of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda. ... View of the Nile River, the longest in the world, from a cruiseboat, between Luxor and Aswan in Egypt. ...


Politics

Composite satellite image of the White Nile (see also the Nile delta)
Composite satellite image of the White Nile (see also the Nile delta)

The usage of the Nile River has been vastly associated with East and horn of African politics for many decades. Various countries, including Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya have complained about the Egyptian domination of the Nile water resources. The Nile Basin Initiative was one of the most important programs to promote equal usage and peaceful cooperation between the "Nile Basin States." [6] Yet many fear, the Egyptian domination of the waters still causes massive economic obstacles in the area. Download high resolution version (400x2325, 131 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (400x2325, 131 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Description: The Nile River and delta as seen from space by the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite. ...


The Nile still supports much of the population living along its banks, with the Egyptians living in otherwise inhospitable regions of the Sahara. The river flooded every summer, depositing fertile silt on the plains. The flow of the river is disturbed at several points by cataracts, which are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, forming an obstacle to navigation by boats. The Sudd wetlands in Sudan also forms a formidable obstacle for navigation and flow of water, to the extent that Sudan had once attempted to dig a canal (the Jonglei Canal) to bypass this stagnant mass of water.[7] The six cataracts of the Nile Fourth Cataract Sixth Cataract The six primary cataracts of the Nile are shallow stretches between Aswan and Khartoum where the waters surface is broken by numerous small boulders and stones lying on the river bed, as well as many small rocky islets. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... Sudd Swamp from space, May 1993. ...


The Nile was, and still is, used to transport goods to different places along its long path; especially since winter winds in this area blow up river, the ships could travel up with no work by using the sail, and down using the flow of the river. While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the construction of the Aswan High Dam (finished in 1970) to provide hydroelectricity ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil. Map of Egypt showing the location of Aswan and Lake Nasser. ...


Cities on the Nile include Khartoum, Aswan, Luxor (Thebes), and the GizaCairo conurbation. The first cataract, the closest to the mouth of the river, is at Aswan to the north of the Aswan Dams. The Nile north of Aswan is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas. In addition, many "floating hotel" cruise boats ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping in at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way. It used to be possible to sail on these boats all the way from Cairo to Aswan, but security concerns have shut down the northernmost portion for many years. Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... Thebes Thebes (, ThÄ“bai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Gizeh is also a popular brand in Germany of cigarette rolling papers; see Mascotte (rolling papers). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Map of Egypt showing the location of Aswan and Lake Nasser. ... For the fictional moon, see Felucca (Ultima). ... The front of the Edfu Temple. ... Kom Ombo (كوم أمبو) is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for its temple. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


More recently, drought during the 1980s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan but Egypt was protected from drought by water impounded in Lake Nasser. Beginning in the 1980s techniques of analysis using hydrology transport models have been used in the Nile to analyze water quality. View of Lake Nasser from Abu Simbel Map showing the location of Lake Nasser Lake Nasser (Arabic: Buhayrat Nasir) is a vast artificial lake in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. ... River in Madagascar relatively free of sediment load An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters. ...


Hydrology

The Nile makes its way through the Sahara
The Nile makes its way through the Sahara

The flow rate of the Albert Nile at Mongalla is almost constant throughout the year and averages 1,048 m³/s (37,000 cu ft/s). After Mongalla, the Nile is known as the Bahr El Jebel which enters the enormous swamps of the Sudd region of Sudan. More than half of the Nile’s water is lost in this swamp to evaporation and transpiration. The average flow rate in the Bahr El Jebel at the tails of the swamps is about 510 m³/s (18,000 cu ft/s). From here it soon meets with the Sobat River and forms the White Nile. Vaporization redirects here. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ...


The Bahr al Ghazal and the Sobat River are the two most important tributaries of the White Nile in terms of drainage area and discharge. The Bahr al Ghazal's drainage basin is the largest of any of the Nile's sub-basins, measuring 520,000 square kilometres (200,000 sq mi) in size, but it contributes a relatively small amount of water, about 2 m³/s (71 cu ft/s) annually, due to tremendous volumes of water being lost in the Sudd wetlands. The Sobat River, which joins the Nile a short distance below Lake No, drains about half as much land, 225,000 km² (86,900 sq mi), but contributes 412 cubic metres per second (14,500 cu ft/s) annually to the Nile.[8] When in flood the Sobat carries a large amount of sediment, adding greatly to the White Nile's color.[9] A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ...


The average flow of the White Nile at Malakal, just below the Sobat River, is 924 m³/s (32,600 cu ft/s), the peak flow is approximately 1,218 m³/s (43,000 cu ft/s) in early March and minimum flow is about 609 m³/s (21,500 cu ft/s) in late August. The fluctuation there is due the substantial variation in the flow of the Sobat which has a minimum flow of about 99 m³/s (3,500 cu ft/s) in August and a peak flow of over 680 m³/s (24,000 cu ft/s) in early March.


From here the White Nile flows to Khartoum where it merges with the Blue Nile to form the Nile River. Further upstream the Atbara River, the last significant Nile tributary, merges with the Nile. During the dry season (January to June) the White Nile contributes between 70% and 90% of the total discharge from the Nile. During this period of time the natural discharge of the Blue Nile can be as low as 113 m³/s (4,000 cu ft/s), although upstream dams regulate the flow of the river. During the dry period, there will typically be no flow from the Atbara River.


The Blue Nile contributes approximately 80-90% of the Nile River discharge. The flow of the Blue Nile varies considerably over its yearly cycle and is the main contribution to the large natural variation of the Nile flow. During the wet season the peak flow of the Blue Nile will often exceed 5,663 m³/s (200,000 cu ft/s) in latter August (variation by a factor of 50).


Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. Peak flows of over 8,212 m³/s (290,000 cu ft/s) would occur during the later portions of August and early September and minimum flows of about 552 m³/s (19,500 cu ft/s) would occur during later April and early May. The Nile basin is complex, and because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions, evaporation/evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. A mainstem is defined as the principal river within a given drainage basin, in the case where a number of tributaries discharge into a larger watercourse. ... Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ...


History

The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches.
The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches.

The Nile (iteru in Ancient Egyptian) was the lifeline of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan. The Nile has been the lifeline for Egyptian culture since the Stone Age. Climate change, or perhaps overgrazing, desiccated the pastoral lands of Egypt to form the Sahara desert, possibly as long ago as 8000 BC, and the inhabitants then presumably migrated to the river, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and a more centralized society. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1213 KB) Summary The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, Rwanda/Tanzania Taken by SteveRwanda Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1213 KB) Summary The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, Rwanda/Tanzania Taken by SteveRwanda Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... The Kagera River is a river is a remote source of the Nile. ... The Ruvubu at its confluence with the Kagera. ... The border crossing at Rusumo Falls. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct by the 17th century Language family: Afro-Asiatic  Egyptian  Writing system: hieroglyphs, cursive hieroglyphs, hieratic, and demotic (later, occasionally Arabic script in government translations) Language codes ISO 639-1: none... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


The river Nile froze twice in recorded history, in 829[10][11] and 1010.[12]


The Eonile

The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands. Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile. An Eonile canyon, now filled by surface drift, represents an ancestral Nile called the Eonile that flowed during the later Miocene (23-5.3 million years before the present). The Eonile transported clastic sediments to the Mediterranean, where several gas fields have been discovered within these sediments. Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... In geology, the term clastic refers to sediments formed from fragments of pre-existing rock. ...


During the late-Miocene Messinian Salinity Crisis, when the Mediterranean Sea was a closed basin and evaporated empty or nearly so, the Nile cut its course down to the new base level until it was several hundred feet below world ocean level at Aswan and 8,000 feet (2,400 m) below Cairo. This huge canyon is now full of later sediment. // The Messinian Salinity Crisis, also referred to as the Messinian Event, is a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated partly or completely dry during the Messinian period of the Miocene epoch, approximately 6 million years ago. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Nile until the Virunga Volcanoes blocked its course in Rwanda. That would have made the Nile much longer, with its longest headwaters in northern Zambia. Christiaan Toussaint (born on May 20, 1987) and Jurgen Lomp (born on January 23, 1988) are two promosing Tech Trance producers under the name of Virunga. ...


The integrated Nile

There are two theories in relation to the age of the integrated Nile. The first one is that the integrated drainage of the Nile is of young age, that the Nile basin was formerly broken into series of separate basins, only the most northerly (the Proto Nile basin) feeding a river following the present course of the Nile in Egypt and in the far north of the Sudan.[13] Said (1981) stresses the fact that Egypt itself supplied most of the waters of the Nile during the early part of its history. The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile and the Atbara/Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times.[14] The Tekezé River is a major river of Ethiopia, and forms a section the westernmost border of Ethiopia and Eritrea for part of its course. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ...


Salama (1987) suggested that during the Tertiary there were a series of separate closed continental basins, each basin occupying one of the major Sudanese Rift System: Mellut Rift, White Nile Rift, Blue Nile Rift, Atbara Rift and Sag El Naam Rift.[15] The Mellut Rift Basin is nearly 12 km deep at its central part. This rift is possibly still active, with reported tectonic activity in its northern and southern boundaries. The Sudd swamps which forms the central part of the Basin is possibly still subsiding. The White Nile Rift System, although shallower than Bahr El Arab, is about 9 km deep. Geophysical exploration of the Blue Nile Rift System estimated the depth of the sediments to be 5–9 km. These basins were not interconnected except after their subsidence ceased and the rate of sediment deposition was enough to fill up the basins to such a level that would allow connection to take place. The filling up of the depressions led to the connection of the Egyptian Nile with the Sudanese Nile, which captures the Ethiopian and Equatorial head waters during the latest stages of tectonic activities of Eastern, Central and Sudanese Rift Systems.[16] The connection of the different Niles occurred during the cyclic wet periods. The River Atbara overflowed its closed basin during the wet periods which occurred about 100,000 to 120,000 years B.P. The Blue Nile was connected to the main Nile during the 70,000–80,000 years B.P. wet period. The White Nile system in Bahr El Arab and White Nile Rifts remained a closed lake until the connection of the Victoria Nile some 12,500 years B.P.


Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization

Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world) ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BCE.
Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world) ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BCE.

Sustenance played a crucial role in the founding of Egyptian civilization. The Nile is an unending source of sustenance. The Nile made the land surrounding it extremely fertile when it flooded or was inundated annually. The Egyptians were able to cultivate wheat and crops around the Nile, providing food for the general population. Also, the Nile’s water attracted game such as water buffalo; and after the Persians introduced them in the 7th century BC, camels. These animals could be killed for meat, or could be captured, tamed and used for ploughing — or in the camels' case, travelling. Water was vital to both people and livestock. The Nile was also a convenient and efficient way of transportation for people and goods. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Oikoumene, from the Greek Οικουμένη, which is the present participle of the verb Οικώ, meaning to inhabit. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ...

Dhows on the Nile
Dhows on the Nile

The structure of Egypt’s society made it one of the most stable in history. In fact, it might easily have surpassed many modern societies. This stability was an immediate result of the Nile’s fertility. The Nile also provided flax for trade. Wheat was also traded, a crucial crop in the Middle East where famine was very common. This trading system secured the diplomatic relationship Egypt had with other countries, and often contributed to Egypt's economic stability. Also, the Nile provided the resources such as food or money, to quickly and efficiently raise an army for offensive or defensive roles. For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ...


The Nile played a major role in politics and social life. The pharaoh would supposedly flood the Nile, and in return for the life-giving water and crops, the peasants would cultivate the fertile soil and send a portion of the resources they had reaped to the Pharaoh. He or she would in turn use it for the well-being of Egyptian society. For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


The Nile was a source of spiritual dimension. The Nile was so significant to the lifestyle of the Egyptians, that they created a god dedicated to the welfare of the Nile’s annual inundation. The god’s name was Hapi, and both he and the pharaoh were thought to control the flooding of the Nile River. Also, the Nile was considered as a causeway from life to death and afterlife. The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Ra, the sun, underwent birth, death, and resurrection each time he crossed the sky. Thus, all tombs were located west of the Nile, because the Egyptians believed that in order to enter the afterlife, they must be buried on the side that symbolized death. A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... Hapi was one of the sons of Horus depicted in funerary literature as protecting the throne of Osiris in the Underworld. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ...


The Greek historian, Herodotus, wrote that ‘Egypt was the gift of the Nile’, and in a sense that is correct. Without the waters of the Nile River for irrigation, Egyptian civilization would probably have been short-lived. The Nile provided the elements that make a vigorous civilization, and contributed much to its lasting three thousand years. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


That far-reaching trade has been carried on along the Nile since ancient times can be seen from the Ishango bone, possibly the earliest known indication of Ancient Egyptian multiplication, which was discovered along the headwaters of the Nile River (near Lake Edward, in northeastern Congo) and was carbon-dated to 20,000 BC. The Ishango bone is a tally stick, made of bone, which contains sequences of prime numbers, and some series of multiples. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Egyptian mathematics. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Lake Edward is the smallest of the Great Lakes of Africa. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ...


The search for the source of the Nile

The Great Bend of the Nile in Sudan, looking north across the Sahara Desert towards Northern Sudan.
The Great Bend of the Nile in Sudan, looking north across the Sahara Desert towards Northern Sudan.

Despite the attempts of the Greeks and Romans (who were unable to penetrate the Sudd), the upper reaches of the Nile remained largely unknown. Various expeditions had failed to determine the river's source, thus yielding classical Hellenistic and Roman representations of the river as a male god with his face and head obscured in drapery. Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a military expedition had penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian highlands, but no European in Antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana, let alone retraced the steps of this expedition farther than Meroe. Astronaut photo of the GreatBend of the Nile in Sudan File links The following pages link to this file: Nile ... Astronaut photo of the GreatBend of the Nile in Sudan File links The following pages link to this file: Nile ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Sudd Swamp from space, May 1993. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... Agatharchides (Αγαθαρχιδης), or Agatharchus (Αγαθαρχος), was a Greek grammarian, born at Cnidos. ... 309–246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: , 309 BC–246 BC), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice. ... Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ...


Europeans learned little new information about the origins of the Nile until the 15th and 16th centuries, when travelers to Ethiopia visited not only Lake Tana, but the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake. Although James Bruce claimed to have been the first European to have visited the headwaters, modern writers with better knowledge give the credit to the Jesuit Pedro Páez. Páez’ account of the source of the Nile (History of Ethiopia c. 1622) was not published in full until the early 20th century. The work is a long and vivid account of Ethiopia. The account is however featured in several contemporary works, including Balthazar Telles (Historia geral da Ethiopia a Alta, 1660), Athanasius Kircher (Mundus Subterraneus, 1664) and by Johann Michael Vansleb (The Present State of Egypt, 1678). Europeans had been resident in the country since the late 15th century, and it is entirely possible one of them had visited the headwaters even earlier but was unable to send a report of his discoveries out of Ethiopia. Jerónimo Lobo also describes the source of the Blue Nile, visiting shortly after Pedro Páez. His account is likewise utilized by Balthazar Telles. James Bruce (December 14, 1730 – April 27, 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) where he traced the Blue Nile. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Pedro Páez (1564 - May 3, 1622) was a Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia. ... Athanasius Kircher ( ) (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ... Johann Michael Vansleb (November 1, 1635 in Erfurt - 1679) was a German theologian, linguist and Egypt traveller. ... Jerónimo Lobo (1593 - 29 January 1678) was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary. ...


The White Nile was even less understood, and the ancients mistakenly believed that the Niger River represented the upper reaches of the White Nile; for example, Pliny the Elder wrote that the Nile had its origins "in a mountain of lower Mauretania", flowed above ground for "many days" distance, then went underground, reappeared as a large lake in the territories of the Masaesyles, then sank again below the desert to flow underground "for a distance of 20 days' journey till it reaches the nearest Ethiopians." [17] A merchant named Diogenes reported the Nile’s water attracted game such as water buffalo; and after the Persians introduced them in the 7th century BC, camels. Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Bold text:For the modern country, see Mauritania. ...


Lake Victoria was first sighted by Europeans in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore whilst on his journey with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the great Lakes. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after the then Queen of the United Kingdom. Burton, who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled. A very public quarrel ensued, which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day, but much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery. The well known British explorer and missionary David Livingstone failed in his attempt to verify Speke's discovery, instead pushing too far west and entering the Congo River system instead. It was ultimately the Welsh explorer Henry Morton Stanley who confirmed the truth of Speke's discovery, circumnavigating Lake Victoria and reporting the great outflow at Ripon Falls on the Lake's northern shore. It was on this journey that Stanley was said to have greeted the British explorer with the famous words "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" upon discovering the Scotsman ill and despondent in his camp on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. This list of explorers is sorted by surname. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... This article is about the country. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... Ripon Falls at the northern end of Lake Victoria in Uganda is often considered the source of the river Nile. ...


Modern achievements

The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city
The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city

The White Nile Expedition, led by South African national Hendri Coetzee, became the first to navigate the Nile's entire length. The expedition took off from the source of the Nile in Uganda on January 17, 2004 and arrived safely at the Mediterranean in Rosetta, 4 months and 2 weeks later. National Geographic released a feature film about the expedition towards in late 2005 entitled The Longest River. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 2. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the organization. ...


On April 28, 2004, geologist Pasquale Scaturro and his partner, kayaker and documentary filmmaker Gordon Brown became the first people to navigate the Blue Nile, from Lake Tana in Ethiopia to the beaches of Alexandria on the Mediterranean. Though their expedition included a number of others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to remain on the expedition for the entire journey. They chronicled their adventure with an IMAX camera and two handheld video cams, sharing their story in the IMAX film "Mystery of the Nile", and in a book of the same title. The team was forced to use outboard motors for most of their journey, and it was not until January 29, 2005 when Canadian Les Jickling and New Zealander Mark Tanner reached the Mediterranean Sea, that the river had been paddled for the first time under human power. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night LHemisferic (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències) Valencia, Spain IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater... Mystery of the Nile is an IMAX film documenting the first successful expedition to navigate the entire length of the Blue Nile and Nile from its source in Ethiopia to the Mediterranean sea. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ...


A team led by South Africans Peter Meredith and Hendri Coetzee on 30 April 2005, became the first to navigate the most remote headstream, the remote source of the Nile, the Akagera river, which starts as the Rukarara in Nyungwe forest in Rwanda. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kagera River is a river is a remote source of the Nile. ...


On March 31, 2006, three explorers from Britain and New Zealand lead by Neil McGrigor claimed to have been the first to travel the river from its mouth to a new "true source" deep in Rwanda's Nyungwe rainforest. 2°16′55.92″S, 29°19′52.32″E.[18] is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Crossings

This is a list of crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean: Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...

Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...

Gallery

Media

  • Scenery of the Nile

    River and mountain scenery on the Nile, from here


    Life on the banks of the Nile

    People living on the banks of the Nile, from here


  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

See also

NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ... East Africa and the Nile basin The Nile River is the worlds longest river flowing 6,700 kilometers through ten countries in northeastern Africa – Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt with varying climates. ... Categories: | ...

References

  1. ^ River Encarta (Accessed 3 October 2006)
  2. ^ BBC NEWS World Americas Amazon river 'longer than Nile'
  3. ^ What did the ancient Egyptians call the Nile river? Open Egyptology. (Accessed 17 October 2006 - Login required or enter as Guest)
  4. ^ EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal
  5. ^ Marshall et al., Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic change from Lake Tana, source of the Blue NilePDF (247 KiB), 2006
  6. ^ The Nile Basin Initiative
  7. ^ Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer, pp. 286-287. ISBN 140200866X. ; online at Google Books
  8. ^ Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer, pp. 276, 287-288. ISBN 140200866X. ; online at Google Books
  9. ^ Sobat River. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  10. ^ HISTORY The 9th century
  11. ^ Landmarks of World History AD 600 - 899
  12. ^ Eleventh Century History
  13. ^ Said, R. (1981). The geological evolution of the River Nile. Springer-verleg.
  14. ^ Williams, M.A.J. and Williams, F. (1980). Evolution of Nile Basin. In M.A.J. Williams and H. Faure (eds), The Sahara and the Nile. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 207–224.
  15. ^ Salama, R.B. (1987). "The evolution of the River Nile, The buried saline rift lakes in Sudan". J. African Earth Sciences 6 (6): pp 899–913. 
  16. ^ Salama, R.B. (1997). Rift Basins of Sudan. African Basins, Sedimentary Basins of the World. 3. Edited by R.C. Selley (Series Editor K.J. Hsu) p. 105–149. ElSevier, Amsterdam.
  17. ^ Natural History, 5.10
  18. ^ [1][dead link]

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...

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