FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Nikolay Semyonov
Semyonov (right) and Kapitsa, portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921.
Semyonov (right) and Kapitsa, portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921.

Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Семёнов) (April 15 (April 3, Old Style), 1896September 25, 1986) was a Russian/Soviet physicist and chemist. Semyonov was awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on the mechanism of chemical transformation. Image File history File links Boris Kustodiyev. ... Image File history File links Boris Kustodiyev. ... Semenov (on the right) and Kapitsa (on the left), portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921 Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (Russian Пётр Леонидович Капица) (July 9, 1894 – April 8, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian physicist who discovered superfluidity with some contribution from John F. Allen and Don Misener in 1937. ... Self-Portrait in front of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, 1912 Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Russian: ) (March 7, 1878–May 28, 1927) was a Russian art deco painter. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Articles with similar titles include physician, a person who practices medicine. ... It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Life

Semyonov was born in Saratov and graduated from the department of physics of Petrograd University (19131917), where he was a student of Abram Fyodorovich Ioffe. In 1918, he moved to Samara, where he was enlisted into Kolchak's White Army during Russian Civil War. Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in southern European Russia. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Университет) is one of the oldest Russian educational institutions, established in the city of Saint Petersburg on January 28, 1724 by a decree of Peter the Great. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Abram Fedorovich Ioffe (Russian: , October 29, 1880 [O.S. October 17] – October 14, 1960) was a prominent Soviet/Russian physicist born in the Ukraine. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is one of the largest cities in Russia after Moscow and St. ... Admiral Kolchak Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ... White Army redirects here. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel...


In 1920, he returned to Petrograd and took charge of the electron phenomena laboratory of the Petrograd Physico-Technical Institute. He also became he vice-director of the intstitute. In 1921, he married philologist Maria Boreishe-Liverovsky (student of Zhirmunsky). She died two years later. In 1923, Nikolay married Maria's niece Natalia Nikolayevna Burtseva. She brought Nikolay a son (Yuri) and a daughter (Lyudmila). 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... e- redirects here. ... Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute is one of Russias largest research centers specialized in physics and technology. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


During that difficult time, Semyonov, together with Pyotr Kapitsa, discovered a way to measure the magnetic field of an atomic nucleus (1922). Later the experimental setup was improved by Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach and became known as Stern-Gerlach experiment. Semenov (on the right) and Kapitsa (on the left), portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921 Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (Russian Пётр Леонидович Капица) (July 9, 1894 – April 8, 1984) was a Russian physicist who discovered superfluidity with contribution from John F. Allen and Don Misener in 1937. ... In physics, a magnetic field is an axial vector field that traces out solenoidal lines of force in and around closed electric circuits and bar magnets. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Otto Stern Otto Stern (February 17, 1888 – August 17, 1969) was an German physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Walther Gerlach (1 August 1889 - 10 August 1979) was a German physicist. ... In quantum mechanics, the Stern–Gerlach experiment, named after Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, is a celebrated experiment in 1920 on deflection of particles, often used to illustrate basic principles of quantum mechanics. ...


In 1925, Semyonov, together with Yakov Frenkel, studied kinetics of condensation and adsorbtion of vapors. In 1927, he studied ionisation in gases and published an important book, Chemistry of the Electron. In 1928, he, together with Vladimir Fock, created a theory of thermal disruptive discharge of dielectrics. Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yakov Frenkel Yakov Ilich Frenkel, Russian: (February 10, 1894, Rostov-on-Don – January 23, 1952, St. ... Kinetics refers to two different areas of science: Chemical kinetics studies reaction rates. ... Water vapor condensing over a cup of hot tea Condensation is the change in matter of a substance to a denser phase, such as a gas (or vapor) to a liquid. ... In chemistry, adsorption of a substance is its concentration on a particular surface. ... Vapor (US English) or vapour (British English) is the gaseous state of matter. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow robert ford An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock (or Fok, Владимир Александрович Фок) (22 December 1898 - December 27, 1974) was a Soviet physicist, who did foundational work on quantum mechanics. ... A Disruptive discharge is the result of a dielectric being stressed beyond its dielectric strength. ... A dielectric, or electrical insulator, is a substance that is highly resistant to electric current. ...


He lectured at the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute and was appointed Professor in 1928. In 1931, he organized the Institute of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences (which has moved to Chernogolovka in 1943) and became its first director. In 1932, he became a full member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Main Building, Photo of 1902 Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian: ; abbreviated SPbSPU) is a major Russian technical university situated in Saint Petersburg. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Chernogolovka is a town 44km North-East from Moscow, Russia, administratively in Moscow Oblast. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Significant works

Semyonov's outstanding work on the mechanism of chemical transformation includes an exhaustive analysis of the application of the chain theory to varied reactions (19341954) and, more significantly, to combustion processes. He proposed a theory of degenerate branching, which led to a better understanding of the phenomena associated with the induction periods of oxidation processes. A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ...


Semyonov wrote two important books outlining his work. Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions was published in 1934 with an English edition in 1935. It was the first book in the U.S.S.R. to develop a detailed theory of unbranched and branched chain reactions in chemistry. Some Problems of Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity, first published in 1954, was revised in 1958; there are also English, American, German, and Chinese editions. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1956, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (together with Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood) for this work. Semyonov also became a Hero of Socialist Labor twice, received two Stalin Prizes, five Orders of Lenin, and many other awards. Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood was an English physical chemist. ... Hero of Socialist Labor (Герой Социалистического Труда in Russian, or Geroy Sotsialisticheskogo Truda) was an honorary title in the Soviet Union and the highest degree of distinction for exceptional achievements in national economy and culture. ... The USSR State Prize (Russian:Госуда́рственная пре́мия СССР) was the Soviet Unions highest civilian honour. ... The Order of Lenin (Russian: Орден Ленина, Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was the highest national order of the Soviet Union. ...


References

  • (English) Biography of Nikolay Semyonov at NobelPrize.org.
  • (English) Semyonov's Nobel Lecture.
  • (Russian) Semyonov's Biography.
  • (Russian) Another Semyonov's Biography.

External links

  • Biography - nobelprize.org
  • N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m