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Encyclopedia > Nikolai Vavilov
Nikolai Vavilov
Nikolai Vavilov

Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (Николай Иванович Вавилов, November 25 [O.S. November 13] 1887January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of the cultivated plants. He devoted his life to the study and improvement of wheat, corn, and other cereal crops that sustain the global population. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2170 × 2683 pixel, file size: 545 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) High resolution version from http://memory. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2170 × 2683 pixel, file size: 545 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) High resolution version from http://memory. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... Nikolai Vavilov A region of the world indicated by Dr. Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov to be an original center for the domestication of plants. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Look up corn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about cereals in general. ...


He was born into a merchant family in Moscow, the older brother of renowned physicist Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov. After graduating from the Moscow Agricultural Institute, he worked at the Bureau for Applied Botany and at the Bureau of Mycology and Phytopathology during the years 1911-1912. From 1913 through 1914 he travelled in Europe and studied plant immunity, in collaboration with the British biologist William Bateson, who founded the science of genetics. Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov (Russian Сергей Иванович Вавилов) (March 12, 1891–January 25, 1951) was a Soviet physicist, the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences from July 1945 until his death, and the brother of Nikolai Vavilov. ... In a medical sense, immunity is a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... William Bateson (August 8, 1861—February 8, 1926) was a British geneticist. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ...


While developing his theory on the centres of origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov organized a series of botanical-agronomic expeditions, collected seeds from every corner of the globe, and created, in Leningrad, the largest collection of plant seeds in the world [1] (a seedbank that was diligently preserved even throughout the 28 months of the Siege of Leningrad). He also formulated the law of homologous series in variation.[2] He was a member of the USSR Central Executive Committee, President of All-Union Geographical Society and a recipient of the Lenin Prize. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Seedbanks store seeds as a source for planting in case seed reserves elsewhere should be destroyed. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The Russian Geographical Society is a learned society, founded on 6 August 1845 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Lenin Prize (Russian: Ле́нинская пре́мия) was one of the highest awards in the Soviet Union. ...


In 1940 he was jailed as a defender of the "bourgeois pseudoscience" (genetics) in a struggle with Lysenkoism, and died of malnutrition in a prison in 1943. The majority of his genetic samples were seized by a German collecting command set up in 1943, and the samples were transferred to the SS Institute for Plant Genetics, which had been established at the Lannach Castle near Graz, Austria.[3] However, the command was only able to collect the samples stored in agricultural research stations located within the territories occupied by the German armies, mainly in Ukraine and Crimea. The main gene bank in Leningrad was thus not affected. The leader of the German command was Heinz Brücher, an SS officer who was also a plant genetics expert. Bourgeois pseudoscience (Буржуазная лженаука) was a cliche in the Soviet Union of certain scientific disciplines that were deemed inadmissible from the ideological point of view. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Heinz Brücher (January 14, 1915 - December 17, 1991) was a member of special science unit SS Ahnenerbe, PhD (1938, Tübingen) in botany. ...


Today, the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry in St.Petersburg still maintains one of the world's largest collections of plant genetic material ([1]). The Institute originated as the Bureau of Applied Botany in 1894, but was reorganized in 1924 into the All-Union Research Institute of Applied Botany and New Crops, and in 1930 into the Research Institute of Plant Industry. Nikolai I. Vavilov was the head of the institute from 1921 to 1940. In 1968 the Institute was renamed after Vavilov in time for its 75 anniversary. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


During most of his carear Vavilov was assited by his deputy Georgy Balabajev.


The standard botanical author abbreviation Vavilov is applied to species he described. In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...

Contents

Timeline

  • 1887 - born November 25, in Moscow.
  • 1911 - graduated from the Moscow Agricultural Institute.
  • 1917-1921 - professor of the agronomy department of the Saratov University.
  • 1919 - theory of the immunity for plants.
  • 1920 - formulation of the law of homology series in genetical mutability.
  • mid 1920s - Vavilov befriends the young peasant Trofim Lysenko and begins taking him to scientific meetings
  • 1921(-1940) - chairman of the applied botanics and selection section in Petrograd, which in 1924 was reorganized into the All-Union Institute of Applied Botanics and New Crops and in 1930, into the All-Union Institute of Plant Cultivation, with Vavilov being director until August, 1940.
  • 1926 - Lenin Award.
  • 19301940 - head of the genetics laboratory in Moscow, later reorganized into the Institute of Genetics of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
  • 19311940 - President of the All-Union Geographical Society.
  • Late 1930s - Lysenko, who has conceived a hatred for genetics is put in charge of all of Soviet agriculture
  • 1940 - arrested for allegedly wrecking Soviet agriculture; delivered more than a hundred hours of lectures on science while in prison
  • 1943 - died imprisoned and suffering from dystrophia (faulty nutrition of muscles, leading to paralysis), in the Saratov prison.

The USSR Academy of Sciences established the Vavilov Award (1965) and the Vavilov Medal (1968). 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in southern European Russia. ... Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...


Works

  • Земледельческий Афганистан. (1929) (Agricultural Afghanistan)
  • Селекция как наука. (1934) (Selection as science)
  • Закон гомологических рядов в наследственной изменчивости. (1935) (The law of homology series in genetical mutability)
  • Учение о происхождении культурных растений после Дарвина. (1940) (The theory of origins of cultivated plants after Darwin)

For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...

Works in English

  • The Origin, Variation, Immunity and Breeding of Cultivated Plants (translated by K. Starr Chester). 1951. Chronica Botanica 13:1–366
  • Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants (translated by Doris Love). 1992. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-40427-4
  • Five Continents (translated by Doris Love). 1997. IPGRI, Rome; VIR, St. Petersburg ISBN 92-9043-302-7

See also

VASKhNIL (Russian language: ВАСХНИЛ) was the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences of the Soviet Union. ...

References

  1. ^ The significance of Vavilov's scientific expeditions. PGR Newsletter 124. Bioversity International.
  2. ^ Popov I. Yu (2002). Periodical systems in biology.
  3. ^ Heinz Brücher and the SS botanical collecting command to Russia 1943. PGR Newsletter 129. Bioversity International.

External links

  • Vavilov, Centers of Origin, Spread of Crops
  • Vavilov Centre for Plant Industry
  • THEORETICAL BASIS OF OUR RESEARSHES

  Results from FactBites:
 
CERN Courier - Sergei Vavilov: luminary of - IOP Publishing - article (3218 words)
Vavilov served in various technical regiments, but by the end of 1917 the Russian front had collapsed because of the revolution and he was taken prisoner.
Vavilov analysed all the measurements and arrived at the firm conclusion: "This is not a luminescence, this is a new optical phenomenon not known to science." He also presented a first explanation - that the new radiation was produced by Compton electrons knocked out from the atoms of the liquid by gamma rays.
Vavilov shielded the head of the Optics Division, Grigori Landsberg, the head of the Theory Division, Tamm (whose brother, the chief engineer of the chemical factory, was arrested), and others; he wrote directly to the chief prosecutor when Sergei Rytov, head of the Radiophysics Division, was arrested in 1937 (he was released in 1939).
Nikolai Vavilov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (374 words)
Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (Николай Иванович Вавилов, November 25/(November 13), 1887January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian botanist and geneticist.
The standard botanical author abbreviation Vavilov is applied to species he described.
The USSR Academy of Sciences established the Vavilov Award (1965) and the Vavilov Medal (1968).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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