FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Nikolai Gogol
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol
Никола́й Васи́льевич Го́голь
Микола Васильович Гоголь

Nikolai Gogol by Alexander Ivanov
Born 31 March [O.S. 19 March] 1809
Sorochyntsi, Poltava guberniya, Russian Empire (now in Ukraine)
Died 4 March [O.S. 21 February] 1852 (aged 42)
Moscow, Russian Empire
Occupation Playwright, short story writer and novelist
Nationality Russian/Ukrainian
Writing period 1840-1851

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: Никола́й Васи́льевич Го́голь, Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol; Russian pronunciation: [nʲɪkɐˈlaj vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ˈgogəlʲ]; Ukrainian: Микола Васильович Гоголь, Mykola Vasylovych Hohol) (31 March [O.S. 19 March] 1809,[1]4 March [O.S. 21 February] 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer.[1] Although his early works, such as Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, were heavily influenced by his Ukrainian upbringing and identity,[2][3] he wrote in Russian and his works belong to the tradition of Russian literature; often called the "father of modern Russian realism," he was one of the first Russian authors to criticize his country's way of life.[4] The novels Taras Bul'ba (1835; 1842 [revised edition]), Dead Souls (1842), the play The Inspector-General (1836, 1842), and the short story The Overcoat (1842) are among his masterpieces. Gogol may refer to one of the following: Nikolai Gogol, a Russian writer General Gogol, a character in James Bond series Gogol Bordello, a Gypsy punk band from New York City Gogol River, a river in Papua New Guinea See also: Googol, a large number equal to 10100. ... Image File history File links Ivanov_gogol. ... Ivanovs vast canvas illustrates the Baptism of Jesus. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Velyki Sorochyntsi (Ukrainian: , Russian: , tranlit. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... This article is about work. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works include Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... This page is about the novelist. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka is a collection of short stories by Nikolai Gogol, written from 1831-1832. ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Taras Bulba (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dead Souls (disambiguation). ... Cover of the first edition The Government Inspector, also known as The Inspector General (Russian: or Revizor), is a satirical play by the Russian playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol, published in 1836 and revised for the 1842 edition. ... Cover by Igor Grabar, 1890s For the Russian animated film, see The Overcoat (animated film). ...

Contents

Provenance and early life

Gogol was born in the Ukrainian Cossack village of Sorochyntsi, in the Poltava Governorate of the Russian Empire. (The village is now in Ukraine.) His father was Vasily Gogol-Yanovsky, a small squire and an amateur Ukrainian playwright who died when the boy was 15 years old. Some of his ancestors culturally associated themselves with Polish szlachta. For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Velyki Sorochyntsi (Ukrainian: , Russian: , tranlit. ... Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


In 1820 Gogol went to a school of higher art in Nizhyn and remained there until 1828. It was there that he began writing. He was not very popular among his school-fellows who called him their "mysterious dwarf", but with two or three of them he formed lasting friendships. Very early he developed a dark and secretive disposition, mingled of painful self-consciousness and boundless ambition. Equally early he developed an extraordinary mimic talent which later on made him a matchless reader of his own works and induced him to toy with the idea of becoming an actor. John the Apostle Church in Nizhyn. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1828, on leaving school, Gogol came to Petersburg, full of vague but glowingly ambitious hopes. He had hoped for literary fame and brought with him a Romantic poem of German idyllic life — Hanz Küchelgarten. He had it published, at his own expense, under the name of "V. Alov". Unfortunately it was met by the magazines with deserved derision. He bought all the copies and destroyed them, swearing never to write poetry again.


Gogol was one of the first masters of short prose, alongside Pushkin, Mérimée, Hoffmann, and Hawthorne. He was in touch with the "literary aristocracy", had a story published in Delvig's Northern Flowers, was taken up by Vasily Zhukovsky and Pyotr Pletnyov, and (in 1831) was introduced to Pushkin. Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (September 28, 1803–September 23, 1870) was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. ... This article is about the author and critic known as E. T. A. Hoffmann. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Anton Delvig (1798–1831) was a Russian poet. ... On the publication of Pushkins first major work in 1820, Zhukovsky presented the younger poet with this famous portrait of himself, over the inscription: To the victorious disciple from his vanquished tutor Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky (b. ... Peter A. Pletnev (1836). ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a navigational...


Literary development

Cover of the first edition of The Government Inspector (1836).
Cover of the first edition of The Government Inspector (1836).

In 1831, he brought out the first volume of his Ukrainian stories (Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka), which met immediate success. It was followed in 1832 by a second volume, and in 1835 by two volumes of stories entitled Mirgorod, as well as by two volumes of miscellaneous prose entitled Arabesques. At this time, Gogol developed a passion for Ukrainian history and tried to obtain an appointment to the history department at Kiev University. Despite the support of Alexander Pushkin and the Russian minister of education Sergey Uvarov, his appointment was blocked by a Kievan bureaucrat on the grounds that he was unqualified.[5] His fictional story Taras Bulba, based on the history of Ukrainian cossacks, was the result of this phase in his interests. During this time he also developed a close and life-long friendship with another Ukrainian then living in Russia, the historian and naturalist Mykhaylo Maksymovych. Indeed, throughout his life Gogol maintained close contact with his countrymen. According to the poet Nikolai Berg, in his interactions with fellow Ukrainians Gogol demonstrated a joyfullness and passion that contrasted with usual morose and quiet demeanor.[6] Image File history File links Nikolai_Gogol_-_Revizor_cover_(1836). ... Image File history File links Nikolai_Gogol_-_Revizor_cover_(1836). ... Cover of the first edition The Government Inspector, also known as The Inspector General (Russian: or Revizor), is a satirical play by the Russian playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol, published in 1836 and revised for the 1842 edition. ... Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka is a collection of short stories by Nikolai Gogol, written from 1831-1832. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mirgorod is a collection of short stories by Nikolai Gogol meant to be a sequel of sorts to his two volumes of Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... For other uses, see Kiev University (disambiguation). ... Pushkin redirects here. ... Uvarovs portrait by Orest Kiprensky, 1815. ... For other uses, see Taras Bulba (disambiguation). ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Mykhaylo Maksymovych(1804-1873) was a famous Ukrainian naturalist, historian, and writer. ...


In 1834 Gogol was made Professor of Medieval History at the University of St. Petersburg, a job for which "he had no qualifications. He turned in a performance ludicrous enough to warrant satiric treatment in one of his own stories. After an introductory lecture made up of brilliant generalizations which the 'historian' had prudently prepared and memorized, he gave up all pretense at erudition and teaching, missed two lectures out of three, and when he did appear, muttered unintelligibly through his teeth. At the final examination, he sat in utter silence with a black handkerchief wrapped around his head, simulating a toothache, while another professor interrogated the students."[7] This academic venture proved a failure and he resigned his chair in 1835. Categories: Russia-related stubs | Universities and colleges in Russia | Saint Petersburg ...


Between 1832 and 1836 Gogol worked at his imaginative creations with great energy, and though almost all his work has in one way or another its sources in these four years of contact with Pushkin, he had not yet decided that his ambitions were to be fulfilled by success in literature. It was only after the presentation, on April 19, 1836, of his comedy The Government Inspector (Revizor) that he finally came to believe in his literary vocation. The comedy, a violent satire of Russian provincial bureaucracy, was able to be staged thanks only to the personal intervention of Nicholas I. is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cover of the first edition The Government Inspector, also known as The Inspector General (Russian: or Revizor), is a satirical play by the Russian playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol, published in 1836 and revised for the 1842 edition. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolaj I Pavlovič), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796 – March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ...

Commemorative plaque in his house in Rome
Commemorative plaque in his house in Rome

From 1836 to 1848 he lived abroad, travelling throughout Germany and Switzerland. Gogol spent the winter of 1836-1837 in Paris, where he spent time among Russian expatriates and Polish exiles, frequently meeting with the Polish poets Adam Mickiewicz and Bohdan Zaleski. After having chosen Rome for his headquarters, he became enamoured with the Eternal City, which answered to his highly developed sense of the magnificent, and where even the visions that always obsessed him of vulgar and animal humanity assumed picturesque and poetical appearances that fitted harmoniously into the beautiful whole. Adam Mickiewicz. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The death of Pushkin produced a strong impression on Gogol. His principal work during years following poet's death was the great satirical epic (poema, or an epic poem, as the Russian subheading goes) — Dead Souls. Concurrently, he worked at other tasks — recast Taras Bulba and The Portrait, completed his second comedy, Marriage (Zhenitba), wrote the fragment Rome and his greatest short story, The Overcoat. For other uses, see Dead Souls (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taras Bulba (disambiguation). ... The Portrait is a short story by Russian author Nikolai Gogol. ... Marriage (Russian: Женитьба, Zhenitba or Zhenitba) is a play by the Russian playwright Nikolai Gogol, which was first published in 1842. ... Cover by Igor Grabar, 1890s For the Russian animated film, see The Overcoat (animated film). ...


In 1841 the first part of Dead Souls was ready, and Gogol took it to Russia to supervise its printing. It appeared in Moscow in 1842, under the title, imposed by the censorship, of The Adventures of Chichikov. The book instantly established his reputation as the greatest prose writer in the language. Nobody could have expected that it would be the last work of fiction published during his lifetime. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Creative decline and death

After the triumph of Dead Souls, Gogol came to be regarded by his contemporaries as a great satirist who lampooned the unseemly sides of Imperial Russia. Little did they know that the 33-year-old author viewed himself primarily as a prophet and preacher, for whom Dead Souls was but the first part of a modern-day counterpart to The Divine Comedy. The first part represented the Inferno; the second part was to depict the gradual purification and transformation of the rogue Chichikov under the influence of virtuous publicans and governors — Purgatory.[8] For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ...

Gogol in the 1840s.
Gogol in the 1840s.

From Palestine he returned to Russia and passed his last years in restless movement throughout the country. While visiting the capitals, he stayed with various friends such as Mikhail Pogodin and Sergei Aksakov. During this period of his life he also spent much time with his old Ukrainian friends, Maksymovych and Osyp Bodiansky. More importantly, he intensified his relationship with a church elder, Matvey Konstantinovsky, whom he had known for several years. Konstantinovsky seems to have strengthened in Gogol the fear of perdition by insisting on the sinfulness of all his imaginative work. His health was undermined by exaggerated ascetic practices and he fell into a state of black melancholy. On the night of February 24, 1852, he burnt some of his manuscripts, which contained most of the second part of Dead Souls. He explained this as a mistake — a practical joke played on him by the Devil. Soon thereafter he took to bed, refused all food, and died in great pain nine days later. Image File history File links Gogol_karandash. ... Image File history File links Gogol_karandash. ... Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin (Russian: , 1800-1875) was a Russian historian and journalist who dominated the national historiography between the death of Nikolay Karamzin in 1826 and the rise of Sergey Solovyov in the 1850s. ... Sergei Aksakov was a nineteenth century Russian writer. ... St Sergii Radonezhsky was one of the most famous of startsy. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

A church on New Arbat in Moscow, in which the great writer was mourned before his burial.
A church on New Arbat in Moscow, in which the great writer was mourned before his burial.

Gogol was buried at the Danilov Monastery, close to his fellow Slavophile Aleksey Khomyakov. In 1931, when Moscow authorities decided to demolish the monastery, his remains were transferred to the Novodevichy Cemetery. Image File history File linksMetadata Gogol_church. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gogol_church. ... The mixing architecture of New Arbat Street. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov (Алексей Степанович Хомяков) (May 1, 1804 - September 23/25, 1860) was a Russian religious poet who helped found the Slavophile movement and became its most distinguished theoretician. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Grave of Anton Chekhov Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow, Russia, situated next to the World Heritage Site, the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the citys third most popular tourist site. ...

 Gogol's grave at the Novodevichy Convent
Gogol's grave at the Novodevichy Convent

His body was discovered lying face down, which gave rise to the story that Gogol had been buried alive. A Soviet critic even cut a part of his jacket to use as a binding for his copy of Dead Souls. A piece of rock which used to stand on his grave at the Danilov was reused for the tomb of Gogol's admirer Mikhail Bulgakov. Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov (Russian: Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков; May 15 [O.S. May 3] 1891, Kiev – March 10, 1940, Moscow) was a Russian novelist and playwright of the first half of the 20th century. ...


The first Gogol monument in Moscow was a striking Symbolist statue on Arbat Square, which represented the sculptor Nikolai Andreyev's idea of Gogol, rather than the real man (picture). Unveiled in 1909, the statue was praised by Ilya Repin and Leo Tolstoy as an outstanding projection of Gogol's tortured personality. Stalin did not like it, however; and the statue was replaced by a more orthodox Socialist Realism monument in 1952. It took enormous efforts to save Andreyev's original work from destruction; it now stands in front of the house where Gogol died.[9] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Melnikov House (1929), just a few steps away from the Arbat. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Style

Among the illustrators of Dead Souls were Pyotr Sokolov and Marc Chagall.
Among the illustrators of Dead Souls were Pyotr Sokolov and Marc Chagall.

D.S. Mirsky characterized Gogol's universe as "one of the most marvellous, unexpected — in the strictest sense, original[10] — worlds ever created by an artist of words"[11]. The enormous potency of his imagination stands at a strange contrast (or complement) to his physical sterility. He seems to have never had a sexual contact with a woman (or a man).[12] Woman was to him a terrible, fascinating, but unapproachable obsession, and he is known never to have loved. This makes the women of his imagination either strange, inhuman visions of form and color that are redeemed from melodramatic banality only by the force of the rhetoric they are enshrined in, or entirely unsexed, even dehumanized, caricatures. Image File history File linksMetadata Korobochka. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Korobochka. ... Marc Chagall as photographed in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ...


The main and most persistent characteristic of Gogol's style is its verbal expressiveness. He wrote with a view not so much to the acoustic effect on the ears of the listener as to the sensuous effect on the vocal apparatus of the reciter. This makes his prose ornate and agitated. It is all alive with the vibration of actual speech. This makes it hopelessly untranslatable — more untranslatable than any other Russian prose of the 19th century.


The other main characteristic of Gogol's genius is the extraordinary intensity and vividness of impressionist vision, sometimes skirting expressionism. He saw the outer world romantically metamorphosed, a singular gift particularly evident from the fantastic spatial transformations in his Gothic stories, A Terrible Vengeance and A Bewitched Place. His pictures of nature are strange mounds of detail heaped on detail, resulting in an unconnected chaos of things. His people are caricatures, drawn with the method of the caricaturist — which is to exaggerate salient features and to reduce them to geometrical pattern. But these cartoons have a convincingness, a truthfulness, and inevitability — attained as a rule by slight but definitive strokes of unexpected reality — that seems to beggar the visible world itself. The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... A Terrible Vengeance (1832) is part of the Dikanka series by Nikolai Gogol. ... A Bewitched Place (1832) is part of the short story series collection Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka by Nikolai Gogol. ...


The aspect under which the mature Gogol sees reality is expressed by the untranslatable Russian word poshlost', which is perhaps best rendered as "self-satisfied inferiority", moral and spiritual. Like Sterne before him, Gogol was a great destroyer of prohibitions and romantic illusions. It was he who undermined Russian Romanticism by making vulgarity reign where only the sublime and the beautiful had reigned.[13] "Characteristic of Gogol is a sense of boundless superfluity that is soon revealed as utter emptiness and a rich comedy that suddenly turns into metaphysical horror".[14] His stories often interweave pathos and mockery, while the most comic of them all begins as a merry farce and ends with the famous dictum: It is dull in this world, gentlemen! Poshlost is a Russian word (пошлость) defined by the critic Vladimir Alexandrov as a kind of petty evil or self-satisfied vulgarity. The first examinations of poshlost in literature are in the work of Nikolai Gogol. Gogol wrote, referring to Pushkin, He used to say of me that no other writer... The Tale of How Ivan Ivanovich Quarreled with Ivan Nikiforovich (1835) is the final tale in the Mirgorod collection by Nikolai Gogol. ...


Influence and interpretations

Statue of Gogol at the Villa Borghese, Rome
Statue of Gogol at the Villa Borghese, Rome

Even before the publication of Dead Souls, Belinsky recognized Gogol as the first realist writer in the language and the head of the Natural School, to which he also assigned such younger or lesser authors as Goncharov, Turgenev, Dmitry Grigorovich, Vladimir Dahl, and Vladimir Sollogub. Gogol himself seemed to be skeptical about the existence of such a literary movement. Although he recognized "several young writers" who "have shown a particular desire to observe real life", he upbraided the deficient composition and style of their works.[15] Nevertheless, subsequent generations of radical critics celebrated Gogol (the author in whose world a nose roams the streets of the Russian capital) as a great realist, a reputation decried by the Encyclopaedia Britannica as "the triumph of Gogolesque irony".[16] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 827 KB) Nikolay Gogol Monumento di Nikolay Gogol a Villa Borghese, Roma, Italia Fotografia di Emilia Orlandi. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 827 KB) Nikolay Gogol Monumento di Nikolay Gogol a Villa Borghese, Roma, Italia Fotografia di Emilia Orlandi. ... Villa Borghese: the 19th century Temple of Aesculapius built purely as a landscape feature, influenced by the lake at Stourhead, Wiltshire Villa Borghese is a large landscape garden in the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums and attractions. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (June 18, 1812 – September 27, 1891; June 6, 1812 – September 15, 1891, O.S.) was a Russian novelist best known as the author of Oblomov (1859). ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... Dmitry Vasilyevich Grigorovich (Russian: ) (March 19 (N.S. March 31), 1822, Simbirsk - December 22, 1899 (N.S. January 3, 1900), Petersburg) was a Russian writer. ... Dahls portrait by Perov Vladimir Ivanovich Dal (also: Dahl, Владимир Иванович Даль) (November 10, 1801 – September 22, 1872) was the greatest Russian lexicographer. ... ...


The period of modernism saw a revival of interest in and a change of attitude towards Gogol's work. One of the pioneering works of Russian formalism was Eichenbaum's reappraisal of The Overcoat. In the 1920s, a group of Russian short story writers, known as the Serapion Brothers, placed Gogol among their precursors and consciously sought to imitate his techniques. The leading novelists of the period — notably Yevgeny Zamyatin and Mikhail Bulgakov — also admired Gogol and followed in his footsteps. In 1926, Vsevolod Meyerhold staged The Government Inspector as a "comedy of the absurd situation", revealing to his fascinated spectators a corrupt world of endless self-deception. In 1934, Andrei Bely published the most meticulous study of Gogol's literary techniques up to that date, in which he analyzed the colours prevalent in Gogol's work depending on the period, his impressionistic use of verbs, expressive discontinuity of his syntax, complicated rhythmical patterns of his sentences, and many other secrets of his craft. Based on this work, Vladimir Nabokov published a summary account of Gogol's masterpieces in 1944. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... // Introduction The distinctive feature of Russian Formalism is the emphasis on the functional role of literary devices and the original conception of the evolution of literary history. ... Boris Michailovich Eichenbaum, or Boris Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum, Russian: Boris Michajlovič Ä–jchenbaum (October 4. ... Serapion Brothers is a Russian literary group, founded in 1922. ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave... Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov (Russian: Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков; May 15 [O.S. May 3] 1891, Kiev – March 10, 1940, Moscow) was a Russian novelist and playwright of the first half of the 20th century. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold (born Karl Kazimir Theodor Meyerhold) (1874 - 1940) was a Russian theatrical director, actor and theorist. ... Cover of the first edition The Government Inspector, also known as The Inspector General (Russian: or Revizor), is a satirical play by the Russian playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol, published in 1836 and revised for the 1842 edition. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leon Bakst Portrait of Andrei Bely Andrei Bely (Андрей Белый) was the pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (October 14, 1880 (Old Style)- January 8, 1934), a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic. ... This page is about the novelist. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gogol had a huge and enduring impact on Russian literature, but his works were appreciated differently depending on the background of the reader. Belinsky, for instance, berated his horror stories as "moribund, monstrous works", while Andrei Bely counted them among his most stylistically daring creations. Nabokov singled out Dead Souls, The Government Inspector, and The Overcoat as the works of genius and dismissed the remainder as puerile essays. The latter story has been traditionally interpreted as a masterpiece of "humanitarian realism", but Nabokov and some other attentive readers argued that "holes in the language" make the story susceptible to another interpretation, as a supernatural tale about a ghostly double of a "small man".[17] Of all Gogol's stories, The Nose has stubbornly defied all abstruse interpretations: D.S. Mirsky declared it "a piece of sheer play, almost sheer nonsense". Vissarion Grigorievich Belinskii (Виссарио́н Григо́рьевич Бели́нский) (1811 - 1848) was Russian writer, literary critic, philosopher and revolutionary activist (a Westernizer). ... Leon Bakst Portrait of Andrei Bely Andrei Bely (Андрей Белый) was the pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (October 14, 1880 (Old Style)- January 8, 1934), a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic. ... The Nose is a satirical short story by Nikolai Gogol, subsequently made into an opera by Dmitri Shostakovich. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ...


Gogol's oeuvre has also had a large impact on Russia's non-literary culture, and his stories have been adapted numerous times into opera and film. Russian Composer Alfred Schnittke wrote the eight part Gogol Suite as incidental music to the The Government Inspector performed as a play, and composer Dmitri Shostakovich set The Nose as his first opera in 1930, despite the peculiar choice of subject for what was meant to initiate the great tradition of Soviet opera. [18] A lithograph portrait of Nikolai Gogol published by Vezenberg & Co. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program or some other form not primarily musical. ... Cover of the first edition The Government Inspector, also known as The Inspector General (Russian: or Revizor), is a satirical play by the Russian playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol, published in 1836 and revised for the 1842 edition. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: ) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... The Nose is a satirical short story by Nikolai Gogol, subsequently made into an opera by Dmitri Shostakovich. ...


In Marathi, P. L. Deshpande adapted his play "The Government Inspector" as "Ammaldar" (literally 'the Government Inspector') in late 1950s, skillfully cladding it with all indigenous politico-cultural robe of Maharashtra, while maintaining the comic satire of the original. Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Purushottam Laxman Deshpande (Marathi: पुरुषोत्तम लक्ष्मण देशपांडे) (November 8, 1919 - June 12, 2000) was a noted Marathi writer from India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


Gogol in popular culture

  • Gypsy punk band Gogol Bordello is named after Gogol. Lead singer Eugene Hütz is Ukrainian; he sees himself as another Ukrainian infiltrating western artistic culture.
  • In the book The Namesake (also adapted into a 2007 film of the same name), the protagonist's name is Gogol. Gogol's 'namesake' is explained in the book.
  • In the episode "Charlie" from the 1st series of the comedy series The Mighty Boosh, Howard Moon uses Gogol's Dead Souls to spy on his fellow zoo-keeper, Mrs Gideon, through eye-holes inside the two 'O's in the author's name, on the book's front cover.
  • His satirical short story "The Nose" inspired the song "Detachable Penis" by King Missile.[citation needed]
  • In the anime movie Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, Batou quotes Gogol early on saying "It is no use to blame the looking glass if your face is awry." (Note: this epigraph to Gogol's The Government Inspector (Revizor) is actually a Russian folk saying.)
  • Seattle based indie-noise rock band Ivan the Wheel derived their name from a character in Dead Souls.
  • His novel Dead Souls gave its name to the Joy Division song.

Gogol Bordello is a multi-ethnic Gypsy punk band from the Lower East Side of New York City that formed in 1999 and is known for its theatrical stage shows. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... For the film of the same name, see The Namesake (film) The Namesake (2003) is the second book by author Jhumpa Lahiri. ... The Namesake is a 2007 film which received a limited release in the United States on March 9, 2007. ... The Mighty Boosh, colloquially referred to as The Boosh,[1] is the collective name for the creators of the British television situation comedy. ... For other uses, see Dead Souls (disambiguation). ... The Nose is a satirical short story by Nikolai Gogol, subsequently made into an opera by Dmitri Shostakovich. ... Detachable Penis is the best-known song by the band King Missile. ... King Missile III (current line-up) King Missile is an avant-garde band that has been led in various incarnations by poet/singer John S. Hall since 1986. ... Batou, the protagonist. ... Cover of the first edition The Government Inspector, also known as The Inspector General (Russian: or Revizor), is a satirical play by the Russian playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol, published in 1836 and revised for the 1842 edition. ... Cover of the first edition The Inspector General or The Government Inspector (Russian: ) is a satirical play by the Russian playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol, published in 1836 and revised for the 1842 edition. ... For other uses, see Dead Souls (disambiguation). ... This article is about the band. ...

See also

A lithograph portrait of Nikolai Gogol published by Vezenberg & Co. ... For the film of the same name, see The Namesake (film) The Namesake (2003) is the second book by author Jhumpa Lahiri. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Nikolay Gogol. Encyclopædia Brittanica. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  2. ^ Oleh Ilnytzkyj: "The Nationalism of Nikolai Gogol': Betwixt and Between?" in Canadian Slavonic Papers Sep-Dec 2007.Retrieved 2008-06-15.
  3. ^ Paul A. Karpuk. Gogol's Research on Ukrainian Customs for the Dikan'ka Tales. Russian Review, Vol. 56, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), pp. 209-232
  4. ^ http://student.britannica.com/comptons/article-9274587/Nikolai-Gogol
  5. ^ Luckyj, G. (1998). The Anguish of Mykola Hohol, a.k.a. Nikolai Gogol. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 67. 
  6. ^ http://www.wumag.kiev.ua/index2.php?param=pgs20033/52
  7. ^ Lindstrom, T. (1966). A Concise History of Russian Literature Volume I from the Beginnings to Checkhov. New York: New York University Press, 131. 
  8. ^ Gogol declared that "the subject of Dead Souls has nothing to do with the description of Russian provincial life or of a few revolting landowners. It is for the time being a secret which must suddenly and to the amazement of everyone (for as yet none of my readers has guessed it) be revealed in the following volumes..."
  9. ^ For a full story and illustrations, see artclassics.edu.ru and www.m-mos.ru.
  10. ^ Gogol's originality does not mean that numerous influences cannot be discerned in his work. The principle of these are: the tradition of the Ukrainian folk and puppet theatre, with which the plays of Gogol's father were closely linked; the heroic poetry of the Cossack ballads (dumy), the Iliad in the Russian version by Gnedich; the numerous and mixed traditions of comic writing from Molière to the vaudevillians of the 1820s; the picaresque novel from Lesage to Narezhny; Sterne, chiefly through the medium of German romanticism; the German romanticists themselves (especially Tieck and E.T.A. Hoffmann); the French tradition of Gothic romance — a long and yet incomplete list.
  11. ^ D.S. Mirsky. A History of Russian Literature. Northwestern University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8101-1679-0. Page 155.
  12. ^ Gogol's much-publicized obsession with all images and items even tenuously related to tobacco and noses, although prone to Freudian interpretations, may be attributed to the abnormal size of his own nose.
  13. ^ According to some critics, Gogol's grotesque is a "means of estranging, a comic hyperbole that unmasks the banality and inhumanity of ambient reality". See: Fusso, Susanne. Essays on Gogol: Logos and the Russian Word. Northwestern University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8101-1191-8. Page 55.
  14. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2005. Article "Russian literature".
  15. ^ "The structure of the stories themselves seemed especially unskilful and clumsy to me; in one story I noted excess and verbosity, and an absence of simplicity in the style". Quoted by Vasily Gippius in his monograph Gogol (Duke University Press, 1989, page 166).
  16. ^ The latest edition of the Britannica labels Gogol "one of the finest comic authors of world literature and perhaps its most accomplished nonsense writer". See under "Russian literature".
  17. ^ At least this reading of the story seems to have been on Dostoevsky's mind when he wrote The Double. The quote, often apocryphally attributed to him, that "we all [future generations of Russian novelists] emerged from Gogol's Overcoat", actually refers to those few who read The Overcoat as a double-bottom ghost story (as did Aleksey Remizov, judging by his story The Sacrifice).
  18. ^ "Gogol Suite". CDUniverse.com.

This article incorporates text from D.S. Mirsky's "A History of Russian Literature" (1926-27), a publication now in the public domain. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia, and is still... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Stephen Nestor Luckyj (1919 - November 21, 2001) was a scholar of Ukrainian literature, who greatly contributed to the awareness of Ukrainian literature in the English-speaking world and to the continuation of legitimate scholarship on the subject during the post-war period. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Nikolay Ivanovich Gnedich (Russian: ) (February 2(13), 1784, Poltava - February 3(15), 1833, Petersburg) was a Russian poet and translator best known for his idyll The Fishers (1822). ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... Lesage: Jean Lesage Alain-René Lesage Québec/Jean Lesage International Airport See also: Le Sage Category: ... Vasily Trofimovich Narezhny (Russian: Василий Трофимович Нарежный) (1780 — July 3 (O.S. June 21), 1825) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer renowned for his satiricial depiction of provincial mores in the vein of the 18th-century picaresque novel. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... Ludwig Tieck Johann Ludwig Tieck (May 31, 1773 – April 28, 1853) was a German poet, translator, editor, novelist, and critic, who was part of the Romantic movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... The gothic novel is an English literary genre, which can be said to have been born with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... ... For other uses, see Nonsense (disambiguation). ... Aleksey M. Remizov was known for his unorthodox appearance. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Nikolai Gogol
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Persondata
NAME Gogol, Nikolai
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hohol, Mykola
SHORT DESCRIPTION Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin
DATE OF BIRTH April 1, 1809
PLACE OF BIRTH Sorochyntsi, Ukraine
DATE OF DEATH March 4, 1852
PLACE OF DEATH Moscow, Russia
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... (Redirected from 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Velyki Sorochyntsi (Ukrainian: , Russian: , tranlit. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gogol, Nikolai (2075 words)
Gogol himself did not use the second part of his name, considering it an "artificial Polish addition." Gogol's father died when he was 15 years old.
Gogol's social commentary is all the more effective due to his comic genius and verbal artistry, which is the real hero of all of Gogol's great works.
Gogol began work on a second part of the novel Dead Souls, in which Chichikov was to undergo a moral and spiritual regeneration, however, in a state of nervous collapse toward the end of June 1845, he burnt all he had written of the second volume of Dead Souls.
Nikolai Gogol - MSN Encarta (504 words)
Nikolay Vasilyevich Gogol was born March 20, 1809, in Sorochintsy, Mirgorod, Poltava Province, of Cossack parents.
From 1826 to 1848 Gogol lived mostly in Rome, where he worked on a novel that is considered his greatest creative effort and one of the finest novels in world literature, Dead Souls (1842).
Gogol is ranked with such literary giants as the novelists Leo Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenev, and Fyodor Dostoyevsky and the poet Aleksandr Pushkin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m