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Encyclopedia > Nikolai Chernyshevsky
Nikolay Chernyshevsky
Born July 12, 1828(1828-07-12)
Saratov, Russia
Died October 17, 1889 (aged 61)
Russia

Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (Russian: Никола́й Гаври́лович Черныше́вский) (July 12, 1828 - October 17, 1889) was a Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic, and socialist (seen by some as a utopian socialist). He was the leader of the revolutionary democratic movement of the 1860s, and was an influence on Vladimir Lenin and Emma Goldman. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in Russia. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Utopian Socialism is the term for the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) aka Red Emma, was a Lithuanian-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. ...


The son of a priest, Chernyshevsky was born in Saratov in 1828, and stayed there till 1846. After graduating from Saint Petersburg University in 1850, he taught literature at a gymnasium in Saratov. From 1853 to 1862, he lived in Saint Petersburg, and became the chief editor of Sovremennik ("Contemporary"), in which he published his main literary reviews and his essays on philosophy. Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in Russia. ... Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


In 1862, he was arrested and confined in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul, where he wrote his famous novel What Is to Be Done? The novel was an inspiration to many later Russian revolutionaries, who sought to emulate the novel's hero, who was wholly dedicated to the revolution, ascetic in his habits and ruthlessly disciplined, to the point of sleeping on a bed of nails and eating only meat in order to build strength for the Revolution. Among those who took inspiration from the character was Lenin, who named a work of political theory of the same name, and who was ascetic in his personal life (lifting weights, having little time for love, and so on). In 1862, Chernyshevsky was sentenced to civil execution (mock execution), followed by penal servitude (1864-72), and by exile to Vilyuisk, Siberia (1872-83). He died at the age of 61. This article is about 1862 . ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... What is to be Done? (orig. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... What Is to Be Done? (Russian: ) was a political pamphlet, written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Chernyshevsky was a founder of Narodism, Russian populism, and agitated for the revolutionary overthrow of the autocracy and the creation of a socialist society. He thought of creating socialism based on the old peasant commune. This article or section should be merged with Narodnik Narodism known as a set of revolutionary tactics once used by the Russian Narodniks, and shortly later the Peoples Will party, which fought for the class position of Russias peasantry. ...


Chernyshevsky's ideas were heavily influenced by Alexander Herzen, Vissarion Belinsky, and Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach. He saw class struggle as the means of society's forward movement and advocated for the interests of the working people. In his view, the masses were the chief maker of history. He is reputed to have used the phrase 'the worse the better', to indicate that the worse the social conditions became for the poor, the more inclined they would be to launch a revolution. Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 in Moscow - January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870 in Paris) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the father of Russian socialism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation... Vissarion Grigorievich Belinskii (Виссарио́н Григо́рьевич Бели́нский) (1811 - 1848) was Russian writer, literary critic, philosopher and revolutionary activist (a Westernizer). ... This article refers to the philosopher. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ...


According to Professor Emeritus of Slavic and Comparative Literature at Stanford, Joseph Frank, 'Chernyshevsky's novel What Is to Be Done?, far more than Marx's Capital, supplied the emotional dynamic that eventually went to make the Russian Revolution.' [1] What is to be Done? (orig. ...


Works

  • Aesthetic Relations of Art to Reality
  • Essays on the Gogol Period in Russian Literature
  • Critique of Philosophical Prejudices Against Communal Ownership
  • The Anthropological Principle in Philosophy
  • What Is to Be Done? (1863)
  • Prologue
  • The Nature of Human Knowledge

What is to be Done? (orig. ...

References

  1. ^ Amis, Martin (2002). Koba the Dread. Miramax, 27. ISBN 0786868767. 
Photo of Martin Amis by Robert Birnbaum Martin Amis (born August 25, 1949) is an English novelist. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nikolai Chernyshevsky (315 words)
Chernyshevsky, like Alexander Herzen, argued that the peasants should organize themselves into communes and rebel against the power of the large landowners.
Karl Marx described Chernyshevsky as "the great Russian scholar and critic who has in a masterly way exposed the bankruptcy of bourgeois economics".
Chernyshevsky was hopeful that Alexander II would reform Russian society but by 1861 was thoroughly disillusioned and wrote to Alexander Herzen that "liberal landowners, liberal writers, liberal professors lull you with hopes in the progressive aims of our government".
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Nikolai Chernyshevsky (433 words)
Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (Russian: Николай Гаврилович Чернышевский) (July 12, 1828 - October 17, 1889) was a Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic, and socialist (seen by some as a utopian socialist).
The son of a priest, Chernyshevsky was born in Saratov in 1828, and stayed there till 1846.
Chernyshevsky was a founder of Narodism, Russian populism, and agitated for the revolutionary overthrow of the autocracy and the creation of a socialist society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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