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Encyclopedia > Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla
Никола Тесла

I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device.[1]
Born 10 July 1856(1856-07-10)
Smiljan, Croatia
Died 7 January 1943 (aged 86)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Residence Austrian Empire (Austria-Hungary)
France
U.S.
Fields Physics, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering
Known for Inventions, alternating current, induction motor, rotating magnetic field, and wireless technology
Notable awards Edison Medal (AIEE, 1916), Elliott Cresson Gold Medal (1893), John Scott Medal (1934)
Signature
Nikola TeslaНикола Тесла's signature

Nikola Tesla (Nih koh la TESS lah) [2](Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Тесла) (10 July 18567 January 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. Born in Smiljan, Lika, a part of Croatia under the Austrian Empire, he was an ethnic Serb, but never lived in Serbia, visiting there only once in his entire life. He was a patriotic and proud American citizen living in New York City for his entire adult life. Tesla is best known for many revolutionary contributions in the field of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century. Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the polyphase power distribution systems and the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. Contemporary biographers of Tesla have deemed him The Father of Physics and the man who invented the twentieth century[3] and "the patron saint of modern electricity".[4] Download high resolution version (390x640, 35 KB)An engraving of Nikola Tesla, from http://www. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Smiljan is a village in the mountainous region of Lika, Croatia. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... It has been suggested that Magnetic field density be merged into this article or section. ... The term wireless technology is generally used for mobile IT equipment. ... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Mechanical engineering is the application of physical principles to the creation of useful devices, objects and machines. ... An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ... Smiljan is a village in the mountainous region of Lika, Croatia. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Population of the United States, 1790 to 2000 The demographics of the United States depict a largely urban nation, with 57 percent of its population living in places more than 100 miles away from the ocean (2003). ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Nikola Tesla with his invention, a wireless lightbulb powered by the electric field surrounding it. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating current electrical power. ... Electricity distribution is the penultimate process in the delivery of electric power, the part between transmission and user purchase from an electricity retailer. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Bessemer converter The Second Industrial Revolution (1870–1914) is a phrase used by some historians to describe an assumed second phase of the Industrial Revolution. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ...


After his demonstration of wireless communication (radio) in 1894 and after being the victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as America's greatest electrical engineer.[5] Much of his early work pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. During this period, in the United States, Tesla's fame rivaled that of any other inventor or scientist in history or popular culture,[6] but due to his eccentric personality and unbelievable and sometimes bizarre claims about possible scientific and technological developments, Tesla was ultimately ostracized and regarded as a "mad scientist".[7][8] Never having put much focus on his finances, Tesla died impoverished at the age of 86. For other uses, see Radio (disambiguation). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ...


The SI unit measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (commonly known as the magnetic field B,), the tesla, was named in his honour (at the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, Paris, 1960). Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (B, labeled M here) around the wire. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... SI unit. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Aside from his work on electromagnetism and engineering, Tesla is said to have contributed in varying degrees to the establishment of robotics, remote control, radar and computer science, and to the expansion of ballistics, nuclear physics[9], and theoretical physics. In 1943, the Supreme Court of the United States credited him as being the inventor of the radio.[10] Many of his achievements have been used, with some controversy, to support various pseudosciences, UFO theories, and early new age occultism. Tesla is honoured in Serbia and Croatia, as well as in Czech Republic (he was awarded the highest order of the White Lion by Czechoslovakia) and in unofficial ways in his adopted home, the United States. This box:      Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... For other uses, see Remote control (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... For other uses, see Ballistics (disambiguation). ... This box:      Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... // Within the timeline of radio, many people were involved in the invention of radio transmission of information as we know it today. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... UFO redirects here. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... 4th Class Medal of the Order of the White Lion, Military Division The Order of the White Lion is the highest order of the Czech Republic, which continues a Czechoslovak order of the same name created in 1922 as an award for foreigners ( Czechoslovakia had no decoration for its citizens...

Contents

Early years

Tesla was born to Serbian parents in the village of Smiljan near Gospić, in the Lika region in Krajina, Croatia. According to legend, he was born precisely at midnight during an electrical storm. Smiljan is a village in the mountainous region of Lika, Croatia. ... Gospić is a town in the mountainous and sparsely populated region of Lika, Croatia. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... Krajina, meaning border, is a Slavic toponym which might mean: Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosanska Krajina, same, but around Banja Luka and encompassing a larger area Cazinska Krajina, borderland of Bosnia towards Croatia around the city of Cazin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Nikola Tesla's birth house and statue in Smiljan.
Nikola Tesla's birth house and statue in Smiljan.

His baptism certificate reports that he was born on June 28 (N.S. July 10), 1856, and christened by the Serbian Orthodox priest Toma Oklobdžija. His father was Rev. Milutin Tesla, a priest in the Serbian Orthodox Church Metropolitanate of Sremski Karlovci. Milutin was born on 19 February 1819 in the village of Meduc, county Medak in Lika, Austrian Empire, as son of Nikola Tesla (b. 1789 in the military frontier, settled after his service in the Napoleonic Wars in Gospic in 1815) and Ana Kalinić, from the famous frontier Kalinic family. Tesla's family asserted its last name as such in Lika. His paternal origin is thought to be of the Draganić family from the Tara valley area below the geographical entity known as Old Vlach, from one of the local Serb clans; however genealogical research shows that Nikola is from the Herzegovinian noble Komnenović (modern-day Old Herzegovina in Montenegro), from its Orlović subgroup that traces its origin from the semi-mythic Pavle Orlovic that bore Prince Lazar's banner at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. His mother was Đuka Mandić, herself a daughter of a Serbian Orthodox Church priest. She came from a family domiciled in Lika and Banija, but with deeper origins to Kosovo. She was talented in making home craft tools. She memorized many Serbian epic poems, but never learned to read.[11] His godfather, Jovan Drenovac, was a captain in the army protecting the Military Frontier. Smiljan is a village in the mountainous region of Lika, Croatia. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... Sremski Karlovci (Serbian: Sremski Karlovci or Сремски Карловци, German: Karlowitz or Carlowitz, Croatian: Srijemski Karlovci, Hungarian: Karlóca, Turkish: Karlofça) is a town and municipality in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro, situated on the bank of the river Danube, between Belgrade and Novi Sad. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Tara is a river in Montenegro. ... Map of the Serb clans (In Serbian Cyrillic). ... Old Herzegovina Old Herzegovina (or East Herzegovina) is a historical region in Montenegro. ... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... Banovina can refer to: a region in central Croatia: Banovina (region) an internal division of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1929-1941 any territory ruled by a ban (also, Banate or Banat) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Songs of Serbian epic poetry rarely, if ever, rhyme, but they are easy to remember as each line has exactly ten syllables and caesura after fourth syllable. ... Frontiersman from PomoriÅ¡je, first half of the 18th century. ...


Nikola was the fourth of five children, having one older brother (Dane, who was killed in a horse-riding accident when Nikola was five) and three sisters (Milka, Angelina and Marica).[12]:3 His family moved to Gospić in 1862. Tesla went to school in Karlovac. He finished a four year term in the span of three years.[13] For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Gospić is a town in the mountainous and sparsely populated region of Lika, Croatia. ... Karlovac (Croatia) Karlovac municipality within Karlovac county Karlovac Karlovac (German: Karlstadt or Carlstadt, Hungarian: Károlyváros and sometimes in Croatian, Marinograd) is a city and municipality in central Croatia. ...


Tesla then studied electrical engineering at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz (1875). While there, he studied the uses of alternating current. Some sources say he received Baccalaureate degrees from the university at Graz.[14][15][16] However, the university says that he did not receive a degree and did not continue beyond the first semester of his third year, during which he stopped attending lectures.[17][18][19][20][21] In December 1878 he left Graz and broke all relations with his family. His friends thought that he had drowned in Mura. He went to Maribor, Slovenia, where he was first employed as an assistant engineer for a year. He suffered a nervous breakdown during this time. Tesla was later persuaded by his father to attend the Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague, which he attended for the summer term of 1880. Here he was influenced by Ernst Mach. However after his father died he left the university, having completed only one term.[22] Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Graz University of Technology is (after Karl-Franzens-University) the second largest university in Styria, Austria. ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... Mura (German Mur) is a river in Central Europe, a subsidiary of the bigger Drava and subsequently Danube. ... Area: 147. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ...

Nikola Tesla as a young man
Nikola Tesla as a young man

Tesla engaged in reading many works, memorizing complete books, supposedly having a photographic memory.[23] Tesla related in his autobiography that he experienced detailed moments of inspiration. During his early life, Tesla was stricken with illness time and time again. He suffered a peculiar affliction in which blinding flashes of light would appear before his eyes, often accompanied by hallucinations. Much of the time the visions were linked to a word or idea he might have come across; just by hearing the name of an item, he would involuntarily envision it in realistic detail. Modern-day synesthetes report similar symptoms. Tesla would visualise an invention in his brain in precise form before moving to the construction stage; a technique sometimes known as picture thinking. Tesla also often had flashbacks to events that had happened previously in his life; this began to happen during childhood.[23] Photographic memory or eidetic memory is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with great accuracy and in seemingly unlimited volume. ... For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ... Picture Thinking, Visual Thinking or Visual/Spatial Learner is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing, where most people would think with linguistic or verbal processing. ...


Hungary and France

In 1881, he moved to Budapest, Hungary, to work under Tivadar Puskás in a telegraph company,[24] the National Telephone Company. There, he met Nebojša Petrović, a young inventor from Austria. Although their encounter was brief, they did work on a project together using twin turbines to create continual power. On the opening of the telephone exchange in Budapest, 1881, Tesla became the chief electrician to the company, and was later engineer for the country's first telephone system. He also developed a device that, according to some, was a telephone repeater or amplifier, but according to others could have been the first loudspeaker.[25] In 1882 he moved to Paris, France, to work as an engineer for the Continental Edison Company, designing improvements to electric equipment. In the same year, Tesla conceived the induction motor and began developing various devices that use rotating magnetic fields (for which he received patents in 1888). For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Tivadar Puskás (17 September 1844 - 16 March 1893) was a Hungarian inventor, telephone pioneer, inventor of the telephone exchange. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... A telephone company (or telco) provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Repeater (disambiguation). ... For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ... An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... It has been suggested that Magnetic field density be merged into this article or section. ...


Soon thereafter, Tesla hastened from Paris to his mother's side as she lay dying, arriving hours before her death in April, 1892.[26] Her last words to him were, "You've arrived, Nidžo, my pride." After her death, Tesla fell ill. He spent two to three weeks recuperating in Gospić and the village of Tomingaj near Gračac, the birthplace of his mother. Gračac is a small town in the southern part of Lika, Croatia. ...


United States

On June 6, 1884, Tesla first arrived in the US in New York City.[27] He had little besides a letter of recommendation from Charles Batchelor, his manager in his previous job. In the letter of recommendation to Thomas Edison, Charles Batchelor wrote, "I know two great men and you are one of them; the other is this young man." Edison hired Tesla to work for his company Edison Machine Works. Tesla's work for Edison began with simple electrical engineering and quickly progressed to solving the company's most difficult problems. Tesla was offered the task of a complete redesign of the Edison company's direct current generators.[28] is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Charles W. Batchelor, inventor, associate of Thomas A. Edison, early executive of General Electric Company Charles W. Batchelor (December 25, 1845-January 1, 1910) was an inventor and close associate of American inventor Thomas Alva Edison during much of Edison’s career. ... Edison redirects here. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ...


During his employment, Tesla claims Edison offered him $50,000 (equivalent to about $1 million in 2006, adjusted for inflation)[29] if he redesigned Edison's inefficient motor and generators, an improvement in both service and economy.[23]:54-57 Tesla said he worked night and day to redesign them and gave the Edison company several profitable new patents in the process. During the year of 1885, when Tesla inquired about the payment on the work, Edison replied to him, "Tesla, you don't understand our American humor," and reneged on his promise.[30][31] This anecdote is somewhat doubtful, since at Tesla's salary of $18 per week the bonus would have amounted to over 53 years pay, and the amount was equal to the initial capital of the company.Tesla resigned when he was refused a raise to $25 per week.[32]


Tesla eventually found himself digging ditches for a short period of time – coincidentally for the Edison company. Edison had also never wanted to hear about Tesla's AC polyphase designs, believing that DC electricity was the future. Tesla focused intently on his AC polyphase system, even while digging ditches.[23]

Electromechanical devices and principles developed by Nikola Tesla:

It has been suggested that Magnetic field density be merged into this article or section. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... Early 20th century Alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station. ... Tesla Coil at Questacon, the Australian National Science Centre museum A Tesla coil (also teslacoil) is a type of resonant transformer, named after its inventor, Nikola Tesla. ... A publicity photo of Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs experimental station with his Magnifying Transmitter. The arcs are about 22 feet (7 m) long. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Power line redirects here. ... Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to performing useful work. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wireless (disambiguation). ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... // Within the timeline of radio, many people were involved in the invention of radio transmission of information as we know it today. ... Cross coupled LC oscillator with output on top An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a repetitive electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. ... Electrotherapy is the use of electrical energy in the treatment of impairments of health and a conditions of abnormal functioning. ... An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ... In thermodynamics, a reversible process (or reversible cycle if the process is cyclic) is a process that can be reversed by means of infinitesimal changes in some property of the system (Sears and Salinger, 1986). ... A bifilar coil is an electromagnetic coil that contains two closely spaced, parallel windings. ... Telegeodynamics is an electromechanical earth-resonance concept for underground seismic exploration proposed by Nikola Tesla. ... Conventional continuous current flows from the battery. ... The Tesla turbine is a bladeless turbine design patented by Nikola Tesla in 1913. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... (help· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Mathematically, the electric field gradient (EFG) is the hessian matrix (the matrix of the second derivatives) of the electrical potential V: It is an important structural property of a crystalline solid, where it is defined at the location of a nucleus. ... A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same velocity (speed and direction). ... A Techno-Thriller, Arc Light is set towards the end of the 1990s and depicts a warp between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating current electrical power. ...

Middle years

In 1886, Tesla formed his own company, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. The initial financial investors disagreed with Tesla on his plan for an alternating current motor and eventually relieved him of his duties at the company. Tesla worked in New York as a common laborer from 1886 to 1887 to feed himself and raise capital for his next project. In 1887, he constructed the initial brushless alternating current induction motor, which he demonstrated to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE) in 1888. In the same year, he developed the principles of his Tesla coil and began working with George Westinghouse at Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. Westinghouse listened to his ideas for polyphase systems which would allow transmission of alternating current electricity over large distances. The Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing was a company formed by Nikola Tesla in 1886. ... An investor is any party that makes an investment. ... This article is about the state. ... A pair of carbon brushes In electrical engineering, brushes conduct current between stationary wires and moving parts, most commonly in a rotating shaft. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... Tesla Coil at Questacon, the Australian National Science Centre museum A Tesla coil (also teslacoil) is a type of resonant transformer, named after its inventor, Nikola Tesla. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...


In April of 1887, Tesla began investigating what would later be called X-rays using his own single node vacuum tubes (similar to his patent #514,170 ). This device differed from other early X-ray tubes in that they had no target electrode. The modern term for the phenomenon produced by this device is bremsstrahlung (or braking radiation). We now know that this device operated by emitting electrons from the single electrode through a combination of field emission and thermionic emission. Once liberated, electrons are strongly repelled by the high electric field near the electrode during negative voltage peaks from the oscillating HV output of the Tesla Coil, generating X-rays as they collide with the glass envelope. He also used Geissler tubes. By 1892, Tesla became aware of what Wilhelm Röntgen later identified as effects of X-rays. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... (help· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Field emission, also known as Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, is a form of quantum tunneling in which electrons pass through a barrier in the presence of a high electric field. ... Closeup of the filament on a low pressure mercury gas discharge lamp showing white thermionic emission mix coating on the central portion of the coil. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... The Geissler tube is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge. ... Wilhelm Röntgen Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that are now known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays. ...


In the early research, Tesla devised several experimental setups to produce X-rays. Tesla held that, with his circuits, the "instrument will [... enable one to] generate Roentgen rays of much greater power than obtainable with ordinary apparatus."[48] He also commented on the hazards of working with his circuit and single node X-ray producing devices. Of his many notes in the early investigation of this phenomenon, he attributed the skin damage to various causes. One of the options for the cause, which is not in conformity with conventional x-ray production, was that the ozone generated rather than the radiation was responsible. He early on stated, In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ...

As to the hurtful actions on the skin [...] I note that they have been misinterpreted [...] They are not due to the Roentgen rays, but merely to the ozone generated in contact with the skin. Nitrous acid may also be responsible, but to a small extent.

—Electrical Review, 30 November 1895 Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Tesla's experiments were confirmed by others.[49] Tesla later stated,

[...] I have not noted injuries which could be traced directly to this cause, though on several occasions burns were produced in all respects similar to those which were later observed and attributed to the Roentgen rays. This view is seemingly being abandoned, having not been substantiated by experimental facts, and so also is the notion that these rays are transverse vibrations.[50]

—High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes, 1899 [51] A light wave is an example of a transverse wave. ...

Tesla continued research in the field and, later, observed an assistant severely "burnt" by X-rays in his lab. He performed several experiments prior to Roentgen's discovery (including photographing the bones of his hand; later, he sent these images to Roentgen) but didn't make his findings widely known; much of his research was lost in the 5th Avenue lab fire of March 1895. Hand mit Ringen: print of Wilhelm Röntgens first medical x-ray, of his wifes hand, taken on 22 December 1895 and presented to Professor Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896[1][2] Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (March 27, 1845 – February... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ...


A "world system" for "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon the electrical conductivity was proposed in which transmission in various natural mediums with current that passes between the two point are used to power devices. In a practical wireless energy transmission system using this principle, a high-power ultraviolet beam might be used to form a vertical ionized channel in the air directly above the transmitter-receiver stations. The same concept is used in virtual lightning rods, the electrolaser electroshock weapon,[52] and has been proposed for disabling vehicles.[53][54] An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ... // An electrolaser is a type of electroshock weapon which is also a directed-energy weapon. ... An electroshock weapon is an incapacitant weapon used for subduing a person by administering electric shock aimed at disrupting superficial muscle functions. ...


Tesla demonstrated "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon electrical conductivity as early as 1891. The Tesla effect (named in honor of Tesla) is the archaic term for an application of this type of electrical conduction (that is, the movement of energy through space and matter; not just the production of voltage across a conductor).[55][23]:174 The Tesla effect (named in honor of Nikola Tesla) is a type of high field gradient between electrode plates for wireless energy transfer via electromagnetic induction. ...

Wireless transmission of power and energy demonstration during his high frequency and potential lecture of 1891.
Wireless transmission of power and energy demonstration during his high frequency and potential lecture of 1891.

On July 30, 1891, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States at the age of 35. Tesla established his 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York during this same year. Later, Tesla would establish his Houston Street laboratory in New York at 46 E. Houston Street. There, at one point while conducting mechanical resonance experiments with electro-mechanical oscillators he generated a resonance of several surrounding buildings but, due to the frequencies involved, not his own building, causing complaints to the police. As the speed grew he hit the resonant frequency of his own building and belatedly realizing the danger he was forced to apply a sledge hammer to terminate the experiment, just as the astonished police arrived.[56] He also lit vacuum tubes wirelessly at both of the New York locations, providing evidence for the potential of wireless power transmission.[57] Some of Tesla's closest friends were artists. He befriended Century Magazine editor Robert Underwood Johnson, who adapted several Serbian poems of Jovan Jovanović Zmaj (which Tesla translated). Also during this time, Tesla was influenced by the Vedic philosophy teachings of the Swami Vivekananda.[58] An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... Fifth Avenue redirects here. ... Houston Street is a large thoroughfare running east - west through the downtown area of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, one block south of 1st Street. ... Mechanical Resonance is the debut album by the American rock band Tesla. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... For other uses, see Sledgehammer (disambiguation). ... The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City as a successor to Scribners Monthly Magazine. ... Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 – October 14, 1937) was a U.S. writer and diplomat. ... Jovan Jovanović Zmaj (November 24, 1833 - June 3, 1904) is one of the most well known Serb poets. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ...


When Tesla was 36 years old, the first patents concerning the polyphase power system were granted. He continued research of the system and rotating magnetic field principles. Tesla served, from 1892 to 1894, as the vice president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the forerunner (along with the Institute of Radio Engineers) of the modern-day IEEE. From 1893 to 1895, he investigated high frequency alternating currents. He generated AC of one million volts using a conical Tesla coil and investigated the skin effect in conductors, designed tuned circuits, invented a machine for inducing sleep, cordless gas discharge lamps, and transmitted electromagnetic energy without wires, building the first radio transmitter. In St. Louis, Missouri, Tesla made a demonstration related to radio communication in 1893. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated in detail its principles. Tesla's demonstrations were written about widely through various media outlets. Tesla also investigated harvesting energy that is present throughout space. He believed that it was just merely a question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature, stating: The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and... Following several attempts to form a technical organization of wireless practitioners in 1908-1912, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was finally established in 1912 in New York. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... The skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than that at its core. ... In science and engineering, conductors, such as copper or aluminum, are materials with atoms having loosely held valence electrons. ... -1... Electrical energy can refer to several closely related things. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Franklin Institute Front steps as seen from the adjacent Moore College This article is about the science museum in Philadelphia. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The National Electric Light Association (NELA) was a national trade association including the operators of central power generation stations and interested individuals. ... When any patch of the sky is observed where no individual sources can be discerned, and the effects of interplanetary dust, and interstellar matter are taken into account, there is still radiation. ...

Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe.

—"Experiments With Alternate Currents Of High Potential And High Frequency" (February 1892)

At the 1893 World's Fair, the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, an international exposition was held which for the first time devoted a building to electrical exhibits. It was an historic event as Tesla and George Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power by using it to illuminate the Exposition. On display were Tesla's fluorescent lamps and single node bulbs. An observer noted, Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Usually hidden from the unaided eye, the blinking of (non-incandescent) lighting powered by AC mains is revealed in this motion-blurred long exposure of city lights. ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ...

"Within the room was suspended two hard-rubber plates covered with tin foil. These were about fifteen feet apart, and served as terminals of the wires leading from the transformers. When the current was turned on, the vacuum bulbs or tubes, which had no wires connected to them, but lay on a table between the suspended plates, or which might be held in the hand in almost any part of the room, were made luminous. These were the same experiments and the same apparatus shown by Mr. Tesla in London about two years ago, where they produced so much wonder and astonishment." [59]

Tesla also explained the principles of the rotating magnetic field and induction motor by demonstrating how to make an egg made of copper stand on end in his demonstration of the device he constructed known as the "Egg of Columbus". Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The Egg of Columbus is a story of how to make an egg stand on end. ...

Nikola Tesla's AC dynamo used to generate AC which is used to transport electricity across great distances. It is contained in US .
Nikola Tesla's AC dynamo used to generate AC which is used to transport electricity across great distances. It is contained in US .

Also in the late 1880s, Tesla and Edison became adversaries in part due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the more efficient alternating current advocated by Tesla and Westinghouse. Until Tesla invented the induction motor, AC's advantages for long distance high voltage transmission were counterbalanced by the inability to operate motors on AC. As a result of the "War of Currents," Edison and Westinghouse went nearly bankrupt, so in 1897, Tesla released Westinghouse from contract, providing Westinghouse a break from Tesla's patent royalties. Also in 1897, Tesla researched radiation which led to setting up the basic formulation of cosmic rays.[60] Download high resolution version (516x806, 50 KB)Electric system US390721 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (516x806, 50 KB)Electric system US390721 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Dynamo, or Dinamo, may refer to: Dynamo, an electrical generator Dynamo (sports society) of the Soviet Union Operation Dynamo, the 1940 mass evacuation at Dunkirk Dynamo, the rock band based in Belfast Dynamo theory, a theory relating to magnetic fields of celestial bodies Dynamo Open Air, annual heavy metal music... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ...


When Tesla was forty-one years old, he filed the first basic radio patent (U.S. Patent 645,576 ). A year later, he demonstrated a radio controlled boat to the US military, believing that the military would want things such as radio controlled torpedoes. Tesla had developed the "Art of Telautomatics", a form of robotics, as well as the technology of remote control.[61] In 1898, a radio-controlled boat was demonstrated to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden. These devices had an innovative coherer and a series of logic gates. Tesla called his boat a "teleautomaton" and said of it, "You see there the first of a race of robots, mechanical men which will do the laborious work of the human race."[62] Radio remote control remained a novelty until the 1960s. In the same year, Tesla devised an "electric igniter" or spark plug for Internal combustion gasoline engines. He gained U.S. Patent 609,250 , "Electrical Igniter for Gas Engines", on this mechanical ignition system. Tesla lived in the former Gerlach Hotel, renamed The Radio Wave building, at 49 W 27th St. (between Broadway and Sixth Avenue), Lower Manhattan, before the end of the century where he conducted the radio wave experiments. A commemorative plaque was placed on the building in 1977 to honor his work. This radio control airplane is carrying a scale model of X-33 and is taking part in NASA research. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... A radio-controlled boat is a boat controlled remotely with radio control equipment. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City. ... The coherer was the first device used to detect radio signals in wireless telegraphy. ... A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Petrol redirects here. ... The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, is a plate of metal attached to a wall or other vertical surface and bearing text in memory of an important figure or event. ...


Colorado Springs

Publicity picture of a participant sitting in his laboratory in Colorado Springs with his "Magnifying Transmitter" generating millions of volts. The arcs are about 7 meters (23 ft) long. (Tesla's notes identify this as a multiple exposure.)
Publicity picture of a participant sitting in his laboratory in Colorado Springs with his "Magnifying Transmitter" generating millions of volts. The arcs are about 7 meters (23 ft) long. (Tesla's notes identify this as a multiple exposure.)
An experiment in Colorado Springs. This is a bank of lights receiving power from distant transmitter

In 1899, Tesla decided to move and began research in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where he would have room for his high-voltage, high-frequency experiments. Upon his arrival he told reporters that he was conducting wireless telegraphy experiments transmitting signals from Pikes Peak to Paris. Tesla's diary contains explanations of his experiments concerning the ionosphere and the ground's telluric currents via transverse waves and longitudinal waves.[63] At his lab, Tesla proved that the earth was a conductor, and he produced artificial lightning (with discharges consisting of millions of volts, and up to 135 feet long).[64] Tesla also investigated atmospheric electricity, observing lightning signals via his receivers. Reproductions of Tesla's receivers and coherer circuits show an unpredicted level of complexity (e.g., distributed high-Q helical resonators, radio frequency feedback, crude heterodyne effects, and regeneration techniques).[65] Tesla stated that he observed stationary waves during this time.[66] A publicity photo of Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs experimental station with his Magnifying Transmitter. The arcs are about 22 feet (7 m) long. ... A publicity photo of Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs experimental station with his Magnifying Transmitter. The arcs are about 22 feet (7 m) long. ... A four hour long exposure on a Nikon D2h camera is made possible using multiple shorter exposures (using the C.E.M.E.N.T. algorithm). ... Colorado Springs is most populous Home Rule Municipality in the State of Colorado. ... Wireless telegraphy is the practice of remote writing (see telegraphy) without the wires normally involved in an electrical telegraph. ... This article is about the mountain in Colorado. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... A telluric current is an electric current in the Earth (both land and sea). ... A light wave is an example of a transverse wave. ... Longitudinal waves are waves that have vibrations along or parallel to their direction of travel. ... In science and engineering, conductors, such as copper or aluminum, are materials with atoms having loosely held valence electrons. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Cloud to ground Lightning in the global atmospheric electrical circuit. ... The distributed element model or transmission line model of electronic circuits assumes that each circuit element is finite, as opposed to infinitesimal, and that the wires connecting elements are not perfect conductors -- that is, they have impedance. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... In telecommunications, to heterodyne is to generate new frequencies by mixing two or more signals in a nonlinear device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode mixer. ... The regenerative circuit (or self-regenerative circuit) allows a signal to be amplified many times by the same vacuum tube or other active component such as a field effect transistor. ... A standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave that remains in a constant position. ...


Tesla researched ways to transmit power and energy wirelessly over long distances (via transverse waves, to a lesser extent, and, more readily, longitudinal waves). He transmitted extremely low frequencies through the ground as well as between the earth's surface and the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. He received patents on wireless transceivers that developed standing waves by this method. In his experiments, he made mathematical calculations and computations based on his experiments and discovered that the resonant frequency of the Earth was approximately 8 Hertz (Hz). In the 1950s, researchers confirmed that the resonant frequency of the Earth's ionospheric cavity was in this range (later named the Schumann resonance). An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... The Kennelly-Heaviside Layer is also known as the E region or just as Heaviside Layer (after Oliver Heaviside). ... The Schumann resonance is a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earths electromagnetic field spectrum. ...

Colorado Springs experiment where grounded tuned coil is in resonance with distant transmitter; Light is glowing near the bottom.

In the Colorado Springs lab, Tesla observed unusual signals that he later thought may have been evidence of extraterrestrial radio communications coming from Venus or Mars.[67] He noticed repetitive signals from his receiver which were substantially different from the signals he had noted from storms and earth noise. Specifically, he later recalled that the signals appeared in groups of one, two, three, and four clicks together. Tesla had mentioned before this event and many times after that he thought his inventions could be used to talk with other planets. There have even been claims that he invented a "Teslascope" for just such a purpose. It is debatable what type of signals Tesla received or whether he picked up anything at all. Research has suggested that Tesla may have had a misunderstanding of the new technology he was working with,[68] or that the signals Tesla observed may have simply been an observation of a non-terrestrial natural radio source such as the Jovian plasma torus signals.[69] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Green people redirects here. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... A Teslascope is a radio transceiver that was alleged to have been invented by Crotian scientist Nikola Tesla for the purpose of communicating with life on other planets. ... A Teslascope is a radio transceiver that was alleged to have been invented by Crotian scientist Nikola Tesla for the purpose of communicating with life on other planets. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Jupiter has a very large and powerful magnetosphere. ...


Tesla left Colorado Springs on January 7, 1900. The lab was torn down and its contents sold to pay debts. The Colorado experiments prepared Tesla for his next project, the establishment of a wireless power transmission facility that would be known as Wardenclyffe. Tesla was granted U.S. Patent 685,012  for the means of increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations. The United States Patent Office classification system currently assigns this patent to the primary Class 178/43 ("telegraphy/space induction"), although the other applicable classes include 505/825 ("low temperature superconductivity-related apparatus"). Colorado Springs is a middle-sized city, located just east of the geographic center of the state of Colorado in the United States. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Wireless energy transfer is wireless transfer of electromagnetic energy via electromagnetic induction. ... The United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides patent and trademark protection to inventors and businesses for their inventions and corporate and product identification. ...


Later years

In 1900, with $150,000 (51 % from J. Pierpont Morgan), Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility. In June 1902, Tesla's lab operations were moved to Wardenclyffe from Houston Street. The tower was finally dismantled for scrap during World War I. Newspapers of the time labeled Wardenclyffe "Tesla's million-dollar folly." In 1904, the US Patent Office reversed its decision and awarded Guglielmo Marconi the patent for radio, and Tesla began his fight to re-acquire the radio patent. On his 50th birthday in 1906, Tesla demonstrated his 200 hp (150 kW) 16,000 rpm bladeless turbine. During 1910–1911 at the Waterside Power Station in New York, several of his bladeless turbine engines were tested at 100–5000 hp. John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... Wardenclyffe Tower located in Shoreham], Long Island, New York. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A patent office is a governmental or intergovernmental organisation which controls the issue of patents. ... For the inventor of radio, see the competing claims in history of radio and the invention of radio. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... The Tesla turbine is a bladeless turbine design patented by Nikola Tesla in 1913. ...


Since the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Marconi for radio in 1909, Thomas Edison and Tesla were mentioned as potential laureates to share the Nobel Prize of 1915 in a press dispatch, leading to one of several Nobel Prize controversies. Some sources have claimed that due to their animosity toward each other neither was given the award, despite their enormous scientific contributions, and that each sought to minimize the other one's achievements and right to win the award, that both refused to ever accept the award if the other received it first, and that both rejected any possibility of sharing it.[70] In the following events after the rumors, neither Tesla nor Edison won the prize (although Edison did receive one of 38 possible bids in 1915, and Tesla did receive one bid out of 38 in 1937).[71] Earlier, Tesla alone was rumored to have been nominated for the Nobel Prize of 1912. The rumored nomination was primarily for his experiments with tuned circuits using high-voltage high-frequency resonant transformers. Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... For the inventor of radio, see the competing claims in history of radio and the invention of radio. ... Edison redirects here. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... The Nobel Prize controversies are contentious disputes regarding the Nobel Prize. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


In 1915, Tesla filed a lawsuit against Marconi attempting, unsuccessfully, to obtain a court injunction against the claims of Marconi. After Wardenclyffe, Tesla built the Telefunken Wireless Station in Sayville, Long Island. Some of what he wanted to achieve at Wardenclyffe was accomplished with the Telefunken Wireless. In 1917, the facility was seized and torn down by the Marines, because it was suspected that it could be used by German spies. Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Prior to World War I, Tesla looked overseas for investors to fund his research. When the war started, Tesla lost the funding he was receiving from his European patents. After the war ended, Tesla made predictions regarding the relevant issues of the post-World War I environment, in a printed article (December 20, 1914). Tesla believed that the League of Nations was not a remedy for the times and issues. Tesla started to exhibit pronounced symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the years following. He became obsessed with the number three; he often felt compelled to walk around a block three times before entering a building, demanded a stack of three folded cloth napkins beside his plate at every meal, etc. The nature of OCD was little understood at the time and no treatments were available, so his symptoms were considered by some to be evidence of partial insanity, and this undoubtedly hurt what was left of his reputation. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Convention on the Grant of European Patents of 5 October 1973, commonly known as the European Patent Convention (EPC), is a multilateral treaty instituting the European Patent Organisation and providing an autonomous legal system according to which European patents are granted. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


At this time, he was staying at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, renting in an arrangement for deferred payments. Eventually, the Wardenclyffe deed was turned over to George Boldt, proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria to pay a $20,000 debt. In 1917, around the time that the Wardenclyffe Tower was demolished by Boldt to make the land a more viable real estate asset, Tesla received AIEE's highest honor, the Edison Medal. The hotels name with a single hyphen is engraved and gilded over the entrance. ... George Charles Boldt (1851-1916), a self-made millionaire, influenced development of the urban hotel as a civic social center and luxurious destination. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ...


Tesla, in August 1917, first established principles regarding frequency and power level for the first primitive RADAR units.[72] In 1934, Émile Girardeau, working with the first French RADAR systems, stated he was building RADAR systems "conceived according to the principles stated by Tesla". By the twenties, Tesla was reportedly negotiating with the United Kingdom government about a ray system. Tesla had also stated that efforts had been made to steal the so called "death ray". It is suggested that the removal of the Chamberlain government ended negotiations. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ...


On Tesla's seventy-fifth birthday in 1931, Time magazine put him on its cover. The cover caption noted his contribution to electrical power generation. Tesla received his last patent in 1928 for an apparatus for aerial transportation which was the first instance of VTOL aircraft. By the end of 1931, Tesla released "On Future Motive Power" which covered an ocean thermal energy conversion system. In 1934, Tesla wrote to consul Janković of his homeland. The letter contained the message of gratitude to Mihajlo Pupin who initiated a donation scheme by which American companies could support Tesla. Tesla refused the assistance, and chose to live by a modest pension received from Yugoslavia and to continue researching. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) describes airplanes that can lift off vertically. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph. ...


In 1936, Tesla wrote in a telegram to Vladko Maček: "I'm equally proud of my Serbian origin and my Croatian homeland. Long live all Yugoslavs."[73] Vladko Maček (June 20, 1879 – May 15, 1964) was a Croatian politician from the first half of the 20th century. ...


Field theories

When he was eighty-one, Tesla stated he had completed a dynamic theory of gravity. He stated that it was "worked out in all details" and that he hoped to soon give it to the world.[74] The theory was never published. At the time of his announcement, it was considered by the scientific establishment to exceed the bounds of reason. Some believe that Tesla never fully developed the Unified Field Theory. Publishing is the activity of putting information in the public arena. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The bulk of the theory was developed between 1892 and 1894, during the period that he was conducting experiments with high frequency and high potential electromagnetism and patenting devices for their utilization. It was completed, according to Tesla, by the end of the 1930s. Tesla's theory explained gravity using electrodynamics consisting of transverse waves (to a lesser extent) and longitudinal waves (for the majority). Reminiscent of Mach's principle, Tesla stated in 1925 that: High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... In physics, a potential may refer to the scalar potential or to the vector potential. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... A light wave is an example of a transverse wave. ... Longitudinal waves are waves that have vibrations along or parallel to their direction of travel. ... In theoretical physics, particularly in discussions of gravitation theories, Machs principle is the name given by Einstein to a vague hypothesis first supported by the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. ...

Nikola Tesla, with Ruđer Bošković's book Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis, sits in front of the spiral coil of his high-frequency transformer at East Houston Street, New York.
There is no thing endowed with life - from man, who is enslaving the elements, to the nimblest creature - in all this world that does not sway in its turn. Whenever action is born from force, though it be infinitesimal, the cosmic balance is upset and the universal motion results.

Tesla was critical of Einstein's relativity work, calling it: Image File history File links TeslaThinker. ... Image File history File links TeslaThinker. ... Rudjer Josip Boscovich Roger Joseph Boscovich (modern Croatian: Ruđer Josip Bošković; modern Serbian: Руђер Бошковић or Ruđer Bošković; Italian: Ruggiero Giovanni Boscovich[1]) (May 18, 1711 – February 13, 1787) was a physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, and Jesuit from Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia) who later lived in...

...[a] magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king..., its exponents are brilliant men but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists...[75]

Tesla also argued:

I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.[76]

Tesla also believed that much of Albert Einstein's relativity theory had already been proposed by Ruđer Bošković, stating in an unpublished interview: “Einstein” redirects here. ... -1... Rudjer Joseph Boscovich (first name also sometimes spelled Roger in English; Italian Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich; Croatian and Serbian RuÄ‘er Josip BoÅ¡ković, Руђер Јосип Бошковић) (May 18, 1711 – February 13, 1787), was a Jesuit, physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat and poet from Dubrovnik (or Ragusa, the previously frequently referred to Italian version...

...the relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman Ruđer Bošković, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Bošković dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum...'.[77]

Directed-energy weapon

I have not thought it hazardous to predict, that wars in the future will be waged by electrical means.

—Nikola Tesla, 1915[12]:127

Later in life, Tesla made some remarkable claims concerning a "teleforce" weapon.[78] The press called it a "peace ray" or death ray.[79][80] In total, the components and methods included:[81][82] Teleforce was Nikola Teslas charged particle beam projector, first mentioned publicly in the New York Sun on July 10, 1934. ... The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Nikola Tesla, Edwin R. Scott, Harry Grindell Matthews, Graichen [1], as well as others. ...

  1. An apparatus for producing manifestations of energy in free air instead of in a high vacuum as in the past. This, according to Tesla in 1934, was accomplished.
  2. A mechanism for generating tremendous electrical force. This, according to Tesla, was also accomplished.
  3. A means of intensifying and amplifying the force developed by the second mechanism.
  4. A new method for producing a tremendous electrical repelling force. This would be the projector, or gun, of the invention.

Tesla worked on plans for a directed-energy weapon between the early 1900s till the time of his death. In 1937, Tesla composed a treatise entitled "The Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-dispersive Energy through the Natural Media" concerning charged particle beams.[83] Tesla published the document in an attempt to expound on the technical description of a "superweapon that would put an end to all war". This treatise of the particle beam is currently in the Nikola Tesla Museum archive in Belgrade. It described an open ended vacuum tube with a gas jet seal that allowed particles to exit, a method of charging particles to millions of volts, and a method of creating and directing nondispersive particle streams (through electrostatic repulsion).[84] Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A directed-energy weapon (DEW) is a type of weapon which emits energy in an aimed direction without the means of a projectile. ... A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same velocity (speed and direction). ... A superweapon is an extremely powerful weapon by the standards of its time and its scale. ... A particle beam is an accelerated stream of charged particles or atoms (often moving at very near the speed of light) which may be directed by magnets and focused by electrostatic lenses, although they may also be self-focusing (see Pinch). ... Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Muzej Nikole Tesle , Музеј Ннколе Тесле) is located in the central area of Belgrade and has above 160 000 original documents, above 2000 books and journals, above 1200 historical technical exhibits, above 1500 photographs and photo plates of original, technical objects, instruments and apparatus... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ...


Records of his indicate that it was based on a narrow stream of atomic clusters of liquid mercury or tungsten accelerated via high voltage (by means akin to his magnifying transformer). Tesla gave the following description concerning the particle gun's operation: Superatoms are clusters of atoms which seem to exhibit some of the properties of elemental atoms. ... This article is about the element. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... A publicity photo of Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs experimental station with his Magnifying Transmitter. The arcs are about 22 feet (7 m) long. ... A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same velocity (speed and direction). ...

[The nozzle would] send concentrated beams of particles through the free air, of such tremendous energy that they will bring down a fleet of 10,000 enemy airplanes at a distance of 200 miles from a defending nation's border and will cause armies to drop dead in their tracks.[85]

The weapon could be used against ground based infantry or for antiaircraft purposes.[86]


Tesla tried to interest the US War Department in the device.[87] He also offered this invention to European countries.[88] None of the governments purchased a contract to build the device. He was unable to act on his plans.[89] The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...


Theoretical inventions

Tesla began to theorize about electricity and magnetism's power to warp, or rather change, space and time and the procedure by which man could forcibly control this power. Near the end of his life, Tesla was fascinated with the idea of light as both a particle and a wave, a fundamental proposition already incorporated into quantum physics. This field of inquiry led to the idea of creating a "wall of light" by manipulating electromagnetic waves in a certain pattern. This mysterious wall of light would enable time, space, gravity and matter to be altered at will, and engendered an array of Tesla proposals that seem to leap straight out of science fiction, including anti-gravity airships, teleportation, and time travel. The single strangest invention Tesla ever proposed was probably the "thought photography" machine. He reasoned that a thought formed in the mind created a corresponding image in the retina, and the electrical data of this neural transmission could be read and recorded in a machine. The stored information could then be processed through an artificial optic nerve and played back as visual patterns on a viewscreen. This article is about the idea of space. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... Fig. ... This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Anti-gravity is the hypothetical idea, often considered pseudoscientific, of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. ... Teleport redirects here. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ...


Another of Tesla's theorized inventions is commonly referred to as Tesla's Flying Machine, which appears to resemble an ion-propelled aircraft. Tesla claimed that one of his life goals was to create a flying machine that would run without the use of an airplane engine, wings, ailerons, propellers, or an onboard fuel source. Initially, Tesla pondered about the idea of a flying craft that would fly using an electric motor powered by grounded base stations. As time progressed, Tesla suggested that perhaps such an aircraft could be run entirely electro-mechanically. The theorized appearance would typically take the form of a cigar or saucer. The Lifter is an electrokinetic, or electrohydrodynamic device. ... Aileron location on a Piper PA-28. ... A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ...


Death

Bust of Tesla by Ivan Meštrović, 1952, in Zagreb, Croatia
Bust of Tesla by Ivan Meštrović, 1952, in Zagreb, Croatia

Tesla died of heart failure alone in Room 3327 of the New Yorker Hotel, some time between the evening of January 5 and the morning of January 8, 1943, at the age of 86.[90] Despite selling his AC electricity patents, Tesla was destitute and died with significant debts. Later that year the US Supreme Court upheld Tesla's patent number U.S. Patent 645,576  in effect recognizing him as the inventor of radio. Ivan MeÅ¡trović (August 15, 1883 – January 16, 1962) was a Croatian sculptor. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... The 43-storey New Yorker Hotel was built in 1929 and opened its doors on January 2, 1930. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


Immediately after Tesla's death became known, the Federal Bureau of Investigation instructed the government's Alien Property Custodian office to take possession of his papers and property, despite his US citizenship. His safe at the hotel was also opened. At the time of his death, Tesla had been continuing work on the teleforce weapon, or death ray, that he had unsuccessfully marketed to the US War Department. It appears that his proposed death ray was related to his research into ball lightning and plasma and was imagined as a particle beam weapon. The US government did not find a prototype of the device in the safe. After the FBI was contacted by the War Department, his papers were declared to be top secret. The so-called "peace ray" constitutes a part of some conspiracy theories as a means of destruction. The personal effects were seized on the advice of presidential advisers, and J. Edgar Hoover declared the case "most secret", because of the nature of Tesla's inventions and patents.[91] One document states that "[he] is reported to have some 80 trunks in different places containing transcripts and plans having to do with his experiments [...]". Charlotte Muzar reported that there were several "missing" papers and property. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... An Alien Property Custodian is someone who has been employed to handle an enemy citizens property, which has landed in the United States. ... The United States flag The Seal of the United States Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power (t)o establish a uniform rule of naturalization. ... Teleforce was Nikola Teslas charged particle beam projector, first mentioned publicly in the New York Sun on July 10, 1934. ... For other uses, see Ball lightning (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... A typical classified document. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972), known popularly as J. Edgar Hoover, was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ...

Statue of Nikola Tesla in Niagara Falls State Park on Goat Island, New York; There is another statue with Tesla standing in Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls.
Statue of Nikola Tesla in Niagara Falls State Park on Goat Island, New York; There is another statue with Tesla standing in Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls.[92]

Tesla's family and the Yugoslav embassy struggled with the American authorities to gain these items after his death due to the potential significance of some of his research. Eventually, his nephew, Sava Kosanoviċ, got possession of some of his personal effects which are now housed in the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, Serbia.[93] Tesla's funeral took place on January 12, 1943, at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in Manhattan, New York City. After the funeral, his body was cremated. His ashes were taken to Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1957. The urn was placed in the Nikola Tesla Museum, where it resides to this day. American Falls is located in the park. ... , American Falls and Goat Island in winter from Skylon Tower View from Goat Island towards American Falls Goat Island is a small uninhabited island in the Niagara River, located in the middle of Niagara Falls between the Bridal Veil Falls and Horseshoe Falls. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Muzej Nikole Tesle , Музеј Ннколе Тесле) is located in the central area of Belgrade and has above 160 000 original documents, above 2000 books and journals, above 1200 historical technical exhibits, above 1500 photographs and photo plates of original, technical objects, instruments and apparatus... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cathedral of St. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...


Legacy

Tesla did not like to pose for portraits. He did it only once for princess Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy.[94] His wish was to have a sculpture made by his close friend Ivan Meštrović, who was at that time in United States, but he died before getting a chance to see it. Meštrović made a bronze bust (1952) that is held in the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade and a statue (1955/56) placed at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. This statue was moved to Nikola Tesla Street in Zagreb's city centre on the 150th anniversary of Tesla's birth, with the Ruđer Bošković Institute to receive a duplicate. In 1976, a bronze statue of Tesla was placed at Niagara Falls, New York. A similar statue was also erected in his hometown of Gospić in 1986. Princess Elisabeth Lwoff-Parlaghy, (April 15, 1863 - August 28, 1923), New York City) was a Hungarian born German and Manhattan portrait painter. ... Ivan MeÅ¡trović (August 15, 1883 – January 16, 1962) was a Croatian sculptor. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Rudjer Joseph Boscovich (first name also sometimes spelled Roger in English; Italian Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich; Croatian and Serbian RuÄ‘er Josip BoÅ¡ković, Руђер Јосип Бошковић) (May 18, 1711 – February 13, 1787), was a Jesuit, physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat and poet from Dubrovnik (or Ragusa, the previously frequently referred to Italian version... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... The RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡ković Institute (Croatian Institut RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡ković, IRB) is a research institute in Zagreb, Croatia, founded in 1950, which studies the sciences. ... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ... Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County, New York, United States. ...


The SI unit tesla (T) for measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (commonly known as the magnetic field B,) was named in Tesla’s honour at the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, Paris in 1960. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) of which Tesla had been vice president also created an award in recognition of Tesla. Called the IEEE Nikola Tesla Award, it is given to individuals or a team that has made outstanding contributions to the generation or utilization of electric power, and is considered the most prestigious award in the area of electric power.[95] The Tesla crater on the far side of the Moon and the minor planet 2244 Tesla are also named after him. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SI unit. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (B, labeled M here) around the wire. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Tesla is a lunar crater that is located on the Moons far side, just to the southeast of the larger H. G. Wells crater. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ...

100 Serbian dinar banknote obverse.Photo courtesy of National Bank of Serbia.
100 Serbian dinar banknote obverse.
Photo courtesy of National Bank of Serbia.[96]
100 Serbian dinars banknote reverse. Note the drawing of the electric motor.
100 Serbian dinars banknote reverse. Note the drawing of the electric motor.

Tesla has received many recognitions within Serbia. He is featured on the current 100 Serbian dinar note (see left). The largest power plant complex in Serbia, the TPP Nikola Tesla is named in his honour. On July 10, 2006 the biggest airport in Serbia (Belgrade) was renamed Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport in honor of Tesla’s 150th birthday. Image File history File linksMetadata 100RSD_front. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 100RSD_front. ... National bank of Serbia (NBS) was founded in 1884. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... ISO 4217 Code RSD User(s) Serbia (including parts of Kosovo) Inflation 6. ... For other uses, see Power station (disambiguation). ... TPP Nikola Tesla is a power plant complex located on the right bank of the river Sava, approximately 40 km upstream from Belgrade, near the town of Obrenovac. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport (Serbian: Аеродром Београд - Никола Тесла or Aerodrom Beograd - Nikola Tesla) (IATA: BEG, ICAO: LYBE) is Serbias busiest airport, also known as Surčin (Сурчин), after a nearby Belgrade suburb. ...


Tesla (company) was a large, state-owned electrotechnical conglomerate in the former Czechoslovakia. It was renamed in Tesla's honour from previous Electra on 7th March 1946. Some of its subsidiaries still trade in Czech Republic. TESLA (from TEchnika SLAboproudá (meaning Light-current Technology), no direct relation to the Croatian inventor, Nikola Tesla) was a huge state-owned electrotechnical conglomerate in the former Czechoslovakia. ...


An electric car company, Tesla Motors, named their company in tribute to Nikola Tesla. Their website states: The namesake of our Tesla Roadster is the genius Nikola Tesla [...] We‘re confident that if he were alive today, Nikola Tesla would look over our car and nod his head with both understanding and approval.[97] For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... Tesla Motors, Inc. ... The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car, and is the first car produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ...


The Croatian subsidiary of Ericsson is also named 'Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d'. ('Nikola Tesla' was a phone hardware company in Zagreb before Ericsson bought it in the 1990s) in honour of Nikola Tesla's pioneering work in wireless communication. For other uses, see Ericsson (disambiguation). ... Ericsson Nikola Tesla is the Croatian subsidiary of the Swedish telecommunications equipment manufacturer Ericsson. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ...


The year 2006 was celebrated by UNESCO as the 150th anniversary of the birth of Nikola Tesla, scientist ), as well as being proclaimed by the governments of Croatia and Serbia to be the Year of Tesla. On this anniversary, July 10, 2006, the renovated village of Smiljan (which had been demolished during the wars of the 1990s) was opened to the public along with Tesla's house (as a memorial museum) and a new multimedia center dedicated to the life and work of Nikola Tesla. The parochial church of St. Peter and Paul, where Tesla's father had held services, was renovated as well. The museum and multimedia center are filled with replicas of Tesla's work. The museum has collected almost all of the papers ever published by, and about, Nikola Tesla; most of these provided by Ljubo Vujovic from the Tesla Memorial Society. in New York. Alongside Tesla's house, a monument created by sculptor Mile Blazevic has been erected. In the nearby city of Gospić, on the same date as the reopening of the renovated village and museums, a higher education school named Nikola Tesla was opened, and a replica of the statue of Tesla made by Frano Krsinic (the original is in Belgrade) was presented. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A parish church is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...


In the years after, many of his innovations, theories and claims have been used, at times unsuitably and with some controversy, to support various fringe theories that are regarded as unscientific. Most of Tesla's own work conformed with the principles and methods accepted by science, but his extravagant personality and sometimes unrealistic claims, combined with his unquestionable genius, have made him a popular figure among fringe theorists and believers in conspiracies about 'hidden knowledge'. Some conspiracy theorists even in his time believed that he was actually an angelic being from Venus sent to Earth to reveal scientific knowledge to humanity.[23] For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Personality

Tesla was fluent in many languages. Along with Serbo-Croatian, he also spoke seven other foreign languages: Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Tesla may have suffered from obsessive-compulsive disorder,[98] and had many unusual quirks and phobias. He did things in threes, and was adamant about staying in a hotel room with a number divisible by three. Tesla was also noted to be physically revolted by jewelry, notably pearl earrings. He was fastidious about cleanliness and hygiene, and was by all accounts mysophobic. He greatly disliked touching round objects and human hair other than his own. Mysophobia is a term used to describe a pathological fear of contact with dirt, to avoid contamination and germs. ... This article is about the body feature. ...


Tesla was obsessed with pigeons, ordering special seeds for the pigeons he fed in Central Park and even bringing some into his hotel room with him. Tesla was an animal-lover, often reflecting contentedly about a childhood cat, "The Magnificent Macak". Tesla never married. He was celibate and claimed that his chastity was very helpful to his scientific abilities.[23][99] Nonetheless there have been numerous accounts of women vying for Tesla's affection, even some madly in love with him. Tesla, though polite, behaved rather ambivalently to these women in the romantic sense. Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ...


Tesla was prone to alienating himself and was generally soft-spoken. However, when he did engage in a social life, many people spoke very positively and admiringly of him. Robert Underwood Johnson described him as attaining a "distinguished sweetness, sincerity, modesty, refinement, generosity, and force..." His loyal secretary, Dorothy Skerrit, wrote "his genial smile and nobility of bearing always denoted the gentlemanly characteristics that were so ingrained in his soul." Tesla's friend Hawthorne wrote that, "seldom did one meet a scientist or engineer who was also a poet, a philosopher, an appreciator of fine music, a linguist, and a connoisseur of food and drink." A connoisseur (Fr. ... Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by an animal for nutrition and/or pleasure. ...


Nevertheless, Tesla displayed the occasional cruel streak; he openly expressed his disgust for overweight people, once firing a secretary because of her weight.[23]:110 He was quick to criticize others' clothing as well, demanding a subordinate to go home and change her dress on several occasions.[23]


Tesla was widely known for his great showmanship, presenting his innovations and demonstrations to the public as an artform, almost like a magician. This seems to conflict with his observed reclusiveness; Tesla was a complicated figure. He refused to hold conventions without his Tesla coil blasting electricity throughout the room, despite the audience often being terrified, though he assured them everything was perfectly safe. Tesla Coil at Questacon, the Australian National Science Centre museum A Tesla coil (also teslacoil) is a type of resonant transformer, named after its inventor, Nikola Tesla. ...

Mark Twain in Nikola Tesla's lab, spring 1894

In middle age, Nikola Tesla became very close friends with Mark Twain. They spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...


Tesla remained bitter in the aftermath of his incident with Edison. The day after Edison died the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla, who was quoted as saying, The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene... His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 per cent of the labor. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense.

Shortly before Edison died, he said that his biggest mistake he had made was in trying to develop directed current, rather than the vastly superior alternating current system that Tesla had put within his grasp.[12]:19


Tesla was good friends with Robert Underwood Johnson. He had amicable relations with Francis Marion Crawford, Stanford White, Fritz Lowenstein, George Scherff, and Kenneth Swezey. Tesla made his first million at the age of forty, but gave away nearly all his royalties on future innovations. Tesla was rather financially inept, but he was almost entirely unconcerned with material wealth. He ripped up a Westinghouse contract that would have made him the world's first billionaire, in part because of the implications it would have on his future vision of free power, and in part because it would run Westinghouse out of business, and Tesla had no desire to deal with the creditors. Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 – October 14, 1937) was a U.S. writer and diplomat. ... Francis Crawford Francis Marion Crawford (August 2, 1854 - April 9, 1909) was an American writer noted for his many novels. ... Stanford White (1853-1906) Washington Square Arch New York American on June 25, 1906 Stanford White (November 9, 1853 – June 25, 1906) was an American architect and partner in the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886 as Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. ...


Tesla lived the last ten years of his life in a two-room suite on the 33rd floor of the Hotel New Yorker, room 3327. There, near the end of his life, when Tesla was slipping into what many consider an altered state of mind, he would claim to be visited by a specific white pigeon daily. Several biographers note that Tesla viewed the death of the pigeon as a "final blow" to himself and his work. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ...


Tesla believed that war could not be avoided until the cause for its recurrence was removed, but was opposed to wars in general.[100] He sought to reduce distance, such as in communication for better understanding, transportation, and transmission of energy, as a means to ensure friendly international relations.[101]-1... Foreign affairs redirects here. ...


Like many of his era, Tesla, a life-long bachelor, became a proponent of a self-imposed selective breeding version of eugenics. In a 1937 interview, he stated, Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...

[...] man's new sense of pity began to interfere with the ruthless workings of nature. The only method compatible with our notions of civilization and the race is to prevent the breeding of the unfit by sterilization and the deliberate guidance of the mating instinct [...]. The trend of opinion among eugenists is that we must make marriage more difficult. Certainly no one who is not a desirable parent should be permitted to produce progeny. A century from now it will no more occur to a normal person to mate with a person eugenically unfit than to marry a habitual criminal.[102]

In 1926, Tesla commented on the ills of the social subservience of women and the struggle of women toward gender equality, indicated that humanity's future would be run by "Queen Bees". He believed that women would become the dominant sex in the future.[103] Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


In his later years Tesla became a vegetarian. In an article for Century Illustrated Magazine he wrote: "It is certainly preferable to raise vegetables, and I think, therefore, that vegetarianism is a commendable departure from the established barbarous habit." Tesla argued that it is wrong to eat uneconomic meat when large numbers of people are starving; he also believed that plant food was "superior to it [meat] in regard to both mechanical and mental performance." He also argued that animal slaughter was "wanton and cruel".[104] For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ...


In his final years he suffered from extreme sensitivity to light, sound and other influences.[105]


Monuments

A monument to Tesla was established at Niagara Falls, New York, USA. The monument was officially unveiled on Sunday, July 9, 2006 on the 150th anniversary of Tesla's birth. The Monument was sponsored by St. George Serbian Church, Niagara Falls, and designed by Les Drysdale of Hamilton, Ontario. Mr. Drysdale's design was the winning design from an international competition. Another monument to Tesla, featuring him standing on a portion of an alternator, was established at Queen Victoria Park in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. Tesla's most famous statue is the one erected on May 23, 1879 at Sycamore Peak showing him and Dr. Brian S. Whitecross. The monument at Niagara Falls is a copy of monument standing in front of the Belgrade University Faculty of the Electrical Engineering. Belgrade International Airport is called "Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport" [106] For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Tesla on money



See also

Electronics Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... Nikola Tesla with his invention, a wireless lightbulb powered by the electric field surrounding it. ... David Bowie as Tesla in the movie The Prestige Nikola Tesla has appeared in popular culture as a character in books, films, comics and video games. ... A Teslascope is a radio transceiver that was alleged to have been invented by Crotian scientist Nikola Tesla for the purpose of communicating with life on other planets. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Nikola Tesla; Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1931
  2. ^ http://www.pupman.com/listarchives/2000/October/msg00397.html
  3. ^ Title of a biography by Robert Lomas (seen)
  4. ^ Seifer, "Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla," book synopsis
  5. ^ Serbian Unity Congress | 150 Years of Nikola Tesla
  6. ^ Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy by Thomas Valone
  7. ^ Childress, David Hatcher, (ed.) "The Tesla Papers: Nikola Tesla on Free Energy & Wireless Transmission of Power". Adventures Unlimited Press, 2000. ISBN
  8. ^ Lomas, Robert, "The essay," Spark of genius. Independent Magazine, 21 August 1999.
  9. ^ Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out of Time", 1979. ISBN . Front cover flap
  10. ^ U.S. Supreme Court, "Marconi Wireless Telegraph co. of America v. United States". 320 U.S. 1. Nos. 369, 373. Argued April 9-12, 1943. Decided June 21, 1943.
  11. ^ Seifer, "Wizard" p. 7
  12. ^ a b c Margaret Cheney, Robert Uth, and Jim Glenn, "Tesla, Master of Lightning". Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1999. ISBN .
  13. ^ Walker, E. H. (1900). Leaders of the 19th century with some noted characters of earlier times, their efforts and achievements in advancing human progress vividly portrayed for the guidance of present and future generations. Chicago: A.B. Kuhlman Co., p, 474.
  14. ^ Wysock, W.C.; J.F. Corum, J.M. Hardesty and K.L. Corum (October 22, 2001). "Who Was The Real Dr. Nikola Tesla? (A Look At His Professional Credentials)". Antenna Measurement Techniques Association, posterpape. 
  15. ^ "The Book of New York: Forty Years' Recollections of the American Metropolis" says he matriculated 4 degrees (physics, mathematics, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering)
  16. ^ Harper's Encyclopædia of United States History from 458 A.D. to 1906. Harper & brothers 1905. Page 52.
  17. ^ Others have stated that he was discharged without a degree for nonpayment of his tuition for the first semester of his junior year. According to a college roommate, he did not graduate.
  18. ^ Nikola Tesla: the European Years, D. Mrkich
  19. ^ Wohinz, Josef W. (May 16, 2006). Nikola Tesla und Graz. Technischen Universität Graz.
  20. ^ Wohinz, Josef W. (Ed,) (2006). Nikola Tesla und die Technik in Graz. Graz, Austria: Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz, p. 16. ISBN ; ISBN .. 
  21. ^ Kulishich, Kosta. "Tesla Nearly Missed His Career as Inventor: College Roommate Tells", Newark News, August 27, 1931. . Cited in Seifer, Marc, The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla, 1996
  22. ^ Seifer, Marc (1996). Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla; Biography of a Genius. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cheney, Margaret [1979] (2001). Tesla: Man Out of Time. Simon and Schuster. 
  24. ^ James Grant Wilson, John Fiske, Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography. P. 261.
  25. ^ "Did Tesla really invent the loudspeaker?". Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, CO.
  26. ^ Seifer, "Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla" - page 94
  27. ^ "Master of Lightning" by Public Broadcasting Service. Website
  28. ^ "Tesla Says Edison was an Empiricist. Electrical Technician Declares Persistent Trials Attested Inventor's Vigor. 'His Method Inefficient' A Little Theory Would Have Saved Him 90% of Labor, Ex-Aide Asserts. Praises His Great Genius.", New York Times, October 19, 1931. "Nikola Tesla, one of the world's outstanding electrical technicians, who came to America in 1884 to work with Thomas A. Edison, specifically in the designing of motors and generators, recounted yesterday some of ..." 
  29. ^ http://www.westegg.com/inflation/ Adjusting the reported given amount of money for inflation, the $50,000 in 1885 would equal $1,082,008.74 in 2006
  30. ^ Clifford A. Pickover, Strange Brains and Genius: The Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientists and Madmen. HarperCollins, 1999. 352 pages. P. 14. ISBN
  31. ^ "My Inventions" by Nikola Tesla, printed in Electrical Experimenter Feb-June, 1919. Reprinted, edited by Ben Johnson, New York: Barnes & Noble, 1982. ISBN
  32. ^ Jonnes,"Empire of light" p. 110
  33. ^ a b c Houston, E. J. (1889). A dictionary of electrical words, terms and phrases. New York: W.J. Johnston. Page 956.
  34. ^ Routledge, R., & Pepper, J. H. (1876). Discoveries and inventions of the nineteenth century. London: G. Routledge and sons. Page 545.
  35. ^ Archie Frederick Collins, Wireless Telegraphy: Its History, Theory and Practice. McGraw publishing company, 1905. Page 131
  36. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers". American Institute of Electrical Engineers, May 1888.
  37. ^ Robert Routledge, Discoveries and Inventions of the Nineteenth Century. G. Routledge and Sons, 1903. Page 542.
  38. ^ "Tesla's invention of the AND logic gate". Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, CO. (ed., this pertains to the U.S. Patent 723,188  and U.S. Patent 725,605 )
  39. ^ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "The IEEE standard dictionary of electrical and electronics terms". 6th ed. New York, N.Y., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, c1997. IEEE Std . ISBN [ed. Standards Coordinating Committee 10, Terms and Definitions; Jane Radatz, (chair)]
  40. ^ Dugan, William James, "Hand-book of electro-therapeutics". F.A.Davis Company, 1910. Page 123. "[...] speak of "Tesla currents" when we really mean the high frequency currents."
  41. ^ Snow, William Benham, "Currents of high potential of high and other frequencies". Scientific authors' publishing Co., 1918. Page 121.
  42. ^ Norrie, H. S., "Induction Coils: How to make, use, and repair them".Norman H. Schneider, 1907, New York. 4th edition.
  43. ^ Electrical experimenter, January 1919. Page 615
  44. ^ The Electrical engineer. (1884). London: Biggs & Co. Page 19
  45. ^ Bengt Anders Benson, Perseption apparatus for the Blind, U.S. Patent  
  46. ^ Houston, E. J. (1889). A dictionary of electrical words, terms and phrases. New York: W.J. Johnston. Page 801.
  47. ^ Houston, E. J. (1889). A dictionary of electrical words, terms and phrases. New York: W.J. Johnston. Page 878.
  48. ^ N. Tesla, "High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes". Proceedings of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association, American Electro-Therapeutic Association. Page 25.
  49. ^ George Frederick Shrady, Thomas Lathrop Stedman, Medical Record, 1897. Page 287.
  50. ^ Tesla held that these were in fact longitudinal waves, such as those produced in waves in plasma. In a plasma or a confined space, there can exist waves which are either longitudinal or transverse, or a mixture of both. There are known examples of this and these plasma waves can occur in the situation of force-free magnetic fields. For more information on this phenomenon, see: David J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, ISBN -X and John D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, ISBN -X.
  51. ^ N. Tesla, "High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes". Proceedings of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association, American Electro-Therapeutic Association. Page 16.
  52. ^ A Survey of Laser Lightning Rod Techniques - Barnes, Arnold A., Jr. ; Berthel, Robert O.
  53. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - HSV Technologies
  54. ^ Vehicle Disabling Weapon by Peter A. Schlesinger, President, HSV Technologies, Inc. - NDIA Non-Lethal Defense IV 20-22 Mar 2000
  55. ^ Norrie, H. S., "Induction Coils: How to make, use, and repair them". Norman H. Schneider, 1907, New York. 4th edition.
  56. ^ O'Neill, "Prodigal Genius" pp 162-164
  57. ^ Krumme, Katherine, Mark Twain and Nikola Tesla: Thunder and Lightning. December 4, 2000 (PDF)
  58. ^ Grotz, Toby, "The Influence of Vedic Philosophy on Nikola Tesla's Understanding of Free Energy".
  59. ^ John Patrick Barrett, Electricity at the Columbian Exposition. R.R. Donnelley 1894 (World's Columbian Exposition, 1893, Chicago, Ill.) Page 168-169
  60. ^ Waser, André, "Nikola Tesla’s Radiations and the Cosmic Rays".
  61. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "My Inventions", Electrical Experimenter magazine, Feb, June, and Oct, 1919. ISBN (teslaplay.comversion; also the version at rastko.org)
  62. ^ Jonnes, Jill. Empires of Light ISBN . Page 355, referencing O'Neill, John J., Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla (New York: David McKay, 1944), p. 167.
  63. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "The True Wireless". Electrical Experimenter, May 1919. (also at pbs.org)
  64. ^ Gillispie, Charles Coulston, "Dictionary of Scientific Biography"; Tesla, Nikola. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. ISBN
  65. ^ Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, and A. H. Aidinejad, "Atmospheric Fields, Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors". 1994.
  66. ^ Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, "Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations, and Stationary Waves". 1994.
  67. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "Talking with Planets". Collier's Weekly, February 19, 1901. (EarlyRadioHistory.us)
  68. ^ Spencer, John (1991). The UFO Encyclopedia. New York: Avon Books. 
  69. ^ Corum, Kenneth L.; James F. Corum (1996). Nikola Tesla and the electrical signals of planetary origin, 14. 
  70. ^ O'Neill, "Prodigal Genius" pp 228-229
  71. ^ Seifer, "Wizard" pp 378-380
  72. ^ Page, R.M., "The Early History of RADAR", Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 50, Number 5, May, 1962, (special 50th Anniversary Issue).
  73. ^ http://www.teslasociety.com/teslavillage.htm Tesla telegram to Vladko Maček
  74. ^ Prepared Statement by Nikola Tesla downloadable from www.tesla.hu
  75. ^ New York Times, July 11, 1935, p 23, c.8
  76. ^ New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932
  77. ^ 1936 unpublished interview, quoted in Anderson, L, ed. Nikola Tesla: Lecture Before the New York Academy of Sciences: The Streams of Lenard and Roentgen and Novel Apparatus for Their Production, April 6, 1897, reconstructed 1994
  78. ^ "Tesla's Ray". Time, July 23, 1934.
  79. ^ "Tesla, at 78, Bares New 'Death-Beam"', New York Times, July 11, 1934.
  80. ^ "Tesla Invents Peace Ray". New York Sun, July 10, 1934.
  81. ^ "Death-Ray Machine Described", New York Sun, July 11, 1934.
  82. ^ "A Machine to End War". Feb. 1935.
  83. ^ Seifer, Marc J., "Wizard, the Life and Times of Nikola Tesla". ISBN (HC) p. 454
  84. ^ Seifer, "Wizard" p. 454
  85. ^ "Beam to Kill Army at 200 Miles, Tesla's Claim on 78th Birthday". New York Times, July 11, 1934.
  86. ^ "'Death Ray' for Planes". New York Times, September 22, 1940.
  87. ^ "Aerial Defense 'Death-Beam' Offered to U. S. By Tesla" July 12, 1940
  88. ^ O'Neill, John J., "Tesla Tries To Prevent World War II". (unpublished Chapter 34 of Prodigal Genius) (PBS)
  89. ^ Velox, Particle beam weapon. everything2.com
  90. ^ "Nikola Tesla Dies. Prolific Inventor. Alternating Power Current's Developer Found Dead in Hotel Suite Here. Claimed a 'Death Beam'. He Insisted the Invention Could Annihilate an Army of 1,000,000 at Once.", New York Times, January 8, 1943, Friday. 
  91. ^ Hoover, John Edgar, et al., FOIA FBI files, 1943.
  92. ^ Victoria Park statue and sculptor's comments Tesla Memorial Society
  93. ^ Nikola Tesla Museum
  94. ^ The portrait survived in the collection of Ludwig Nissen, Brooklyn, see: Klaus Lengsfeld: Sammlung Ludwig Nissen : Husum 1855 - 1924 New York; Dokumentation d. Kunstsammlung Ludwig Nissens anlässl. d. Ausstellung zu seinem 125. Geburtstag im Nissenhaus zu Husum, 1980, 169 Pages. (= Schriften des Nordfriesischen Museums Ludwig-Nissen-Haus, Nr. 16)
  95. ^ IEEE, "IEEE Nikola Tesla Award. April 01, 2005.
  96. ^ National Bank of Serbia
  97. ^ Why the Name "Tesla"?, Tesla Motors, Inc., 2006
  98. ^ Kerryr.net
  99. ^ Nikola Tesla. NNDB.
  100. ^ Secor, H. Winfield, "Tesla's views on Electricity and the War", Electrical Experimenter, Volume 5, Number 4, August, 1917.
  101. ^ "Giant Eye to See Round the World" Albany Telegram, February 25, 1923 (doc).
  102. ^ Viereck, George Sylvester, and Nikola Tesla, "A Machine to End War - A Famous Inventor, Picturing Life 100 Years from Now, Reveals an Astounding Scientific Venture Which He Believes Will Change the Course of History". Liberty, February 1937.
  103. ^ Kennedy, John B., "When woman is boss, An interview with Nikola Tesla". Colliers, January 30, 1926.
  104. ^ Nikola Tesla, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy". Century Illustrated Magazine, June 1900.
  105. ^ O'Neill, "Prodigal Genius" (extract at Electrosensitivity.org - Q&A)
  106. ^ link

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References

  • Margaret Cheney, Robert Uth, and Jim Glenn, "Tesla, Master of Lightning", published by Barnes & Noble, 1999. ISBN .
  • Germano, Frank, "Dr. Nikola Tesla". Frank. Germano.com.
  • Lomas, Robert, "The Man who Invented the Twentieth Century". Lecture to South Western Branch of Instititute of Physics.
  • Martin, Thomas Commerford, "The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla", New York: The Electrical Engineer, 1894 (3rd Ed.); reprinted by Barnes & Noble, 1995 ISBN-X
  • O'Neill, John J., "Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola", 1944. ISBN (Tesla reportedly said of this biographer "You understand me better than any man alive"; also the version at uncletaz.com with other items at uncletaz's site)
  • Penner, John R.H. The Strange Life of Nikola Tesla, corrupted version of My Inventions.
  • Pratt, H., "Nikola Tesla 1856–1943", Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 44, September, 1956.
  • "Nikola Tesla". IEEE History Center, 2005.
  • Seifer, Marc J. "Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla; Biography of a Genius", Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN
  • Weisstein, Eric W., "Tesla, Nikola (1856–1943)". Eric Weisstein's World of Science.
  • "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature", Moon Nomenclature: Crater. USGS, Astrogeology Research Program.
  • Dimitrijevic, Milan S., "Belgrade Astronomical Observatory Historical Review". Publ. Astron. Obs. Belgrade,), 162–170. Also, "Srpski asteroidi, Tesla". Astronomski magazine.
  • Hoover, John Edgar, et al., FOIA FBI files, 1943.
  • Pratt, H., "Nikola Tesla 1856–1943", Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 44, September, 1956.
  • W.C. Wysock, J.F. Corum, J.M. Hardesty and K.L. Corum, "Who Was The Real Dr. Nikola Tesla? (A Look At His Professional Credentials)". Antenna Measurement Techniques Association, posterpaper, October 22–25, 2001 (PDF)
  • Roguin, Ariel, "Historical Note: Nikola Tesla: The man behind the magnetic field unit". J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004;19:369–374. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Sellon, J. L., "The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry". Behrent Eng. Co., Wheat Ridge, CO. Cement Industry Technical Conference. 1997. XXXIX Conference Record., 1997 IEEE/PC. Page(s) 125–133. ISBN
  • Valentinuzzi, M.E., "Nikola Tesla: why was he so much resisted and forgotten?" Inst. de Bioingenieria, Univ. Nacional de Tucuman; Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE. July/August 1998, 17:4, pp. 74–75. ISSN
  • Waser, André, "Nikola Tesla’s Radiations and the Cosmic Rays". (PDF)
  • Secor, H. Winfield, "Tesla's views on Electricity and the War", Electrical Experimenter, Volume 5, Number 4, August, 1917.
  • Florey, Glen, "Tesla and the Military". Engineering 24, December 5, 2000.
  • Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, "Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations, and Stationary Waves". 1994.
  • Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, and A. H. Aidinejad, "Atmospheric Fields, Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors". 1994.
  • Meyl, Konstantin, H. Weidner, E. Zentgraf, T. Senkel, T. Junker, and P. Winkels, "Experiments to proof the evidence of scalar waves Tests with a Tesla reproduction". Institut für Gravitationsforschung (IGF), Am Heerbach 5, D-63857 Waldaschaff.
  • Anderson, L. I., "John Stone Stone on Nikola Tesla’s Priority in Radio and Continuous Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus". The Antique Wireless Association Review, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 18–41.
  • Anderson, L. I., "Priority in Invention of Radio, Tesla v. Marconi". Antique Wireless Association monograph, March 1980.
  • Marincic, A., and D. Budimir, "Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation". Dept. of Electron. Eng., Belgrade Univ. (5th International Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite, Cable and Broadcasting Service, 2001. TELSIKS 2001. pp. 327–331 vol.1) ISBN-X
  • Page, R.M., "The Early History of Radar", Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 50, Number 5, May, 1962, (special 50th Anniversary Issue).
  • C Mackechnie Jarvis "Nikola Tesla and the induction motor". 1970 Phys. Educ. 5 280–287.
  • "Giant Eye to See Round the World" (DOC)
  • Nichelson, Oliver, "Nikola Tesla's Latter Energy Generation Designs", A description of Tesla's energy generator that "would not consume fuel." 26th IECEC Proceedings, 1991, Boston, MA (American Nuclear Society) Vol. 4, pp. 433-438.
  • Nichelson, Oliver, "The Thermodynamics of Tesla's Fuelless Electrical generator". A theory of the physics of Tesla's new energy generator. (American Chemical Society, 1993. 2722-5/93/)
  • Toby Grotz, "The Influence of Vedic Philosophy on Nikola Tesla's Understanding of Free Energy".

is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Further reading

Articles (pre-1900)

  • A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, May 1888.
  • Selected Tesla Writings, Written by Tesla and others,.
  • Light Without Heat, The Manufacturer and Builder, January 1892, Vol. 24
  • Biography - Nikola Tesla, The Century Magazine, November 1893, Vol. 47
  • Tesla's Oscillator and Other Inventions, The Century Magazine, November 1894, Vol. 49
  • The New Telegraphy. Recent Experiments in Telegraphy wih Sparks, The Century Magazine, November 1897, Vol. 55

Books

  • Anderson, Leland I., "Dr. Nikola Tesla (1856–1943)", 2d enl. ed., Minneapolis, Tesla Society. 1956. LCCN /L
  • Auster, Paul, "Moon Palace", 1989. Tells Tesla's story - among other's - within the history of the United States.
  • Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out of Time", 1981. ISBN .
  • Childress, David H., "The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla," 1993. ISBN
  • Glenn, Jim, "The Complete Patents of Nikola Tesla," 1994. ISBN
  • Jonnes, Jill "Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World". New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN
  • Martin, Thomas C., "The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla," 1894 . ISBN-X
  • O'Neill, John Jacob,"Prodigal Genius," 1944. Paperback reprint 1994, ISBN . (ed. Prodigal Genius is available online)
  • Lomas, Robert,"The man who invented the twentieth century : Nikola Tesla, forgotten genius of electricity," 1999. ISBN
  • Ratzlaff, John and Lee Anderson, "Dr. Nikola Tesla Bibliography", Ragusan Press, Palo Alto, California, 1979, 237 pages. Extensive listing of articles about and by Nikola Tesla.
  • Seifer, Marc J., "Wizard, the Life and Times of Nikola Tesla," 1998. ISBN (HC), ISBN (SC)
  • Tesla, Nikola, "Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900", ISBN-X
  • Tesla, Nikola, "My Inventions" Parts I through V published in the Electrical Experimenter monthly magazine from February through June, 1919. Part VI published October, 1919. Reprint edition with introductory notes by Ben Johnson, New York: Barnes and Noble,1982, ISBN; also online at "My Inventions", 1919. ISBN
  • Valone, Thomas, "Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy," 2002. ISBN
  • Caparica, A.J., "The Adventurers" features Nikola Tesla as a main protagonist. 2007. ISBN

Paul Auster Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947, Newark, New Jersey) is a Brooklyn-based author. ... Moon Palace is a novel written by Paul Auster that was first published in 1989. ... Robert Lomas is a British writer and business studies academic. ...

Magazines

  • Carlson, W. Bernard, "Inventor of dreams". Scientific American, March 2005 Vol. 292 Issue 3 p. 78(7).
  • Jatras, Stella L., "The genius of Nikola Tesla". The New American, July 28, 2003 Vol. 19 Issue 15 p. 9(1)
  • Rybak, James P., "Nikola Tesla: Scientific Savant". Popular Electronics, 1042170X, November 1999, Vol. 16, Issue 11.
  • Lawren, B., "Rediscovering Tesla". Omni, March 1988, Vol. 10 Issue 6.

Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... The John Birch Society (JBS) is an ultraconservative organization that was founded in 1958 to fight the threat of Communism in the United States as well as restoring the constitutional principles the United States was founded on in its original American government. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Altair 8800 computer kit (January 1975) Popular Electronics was a magazine started by Ziff-Davis Publishing in October 1954 for hobbyist and experimenters in electronics. ... The cover of the January 1991 issue of Omni. ...

Documentary and biographical films

See also: Nikola Tesla in popular culture
  • There are at least two films describing Tesla's life. In the first, filmed in 1977, arranged for TV, Tesla was portrayed by Rade Šerbedžija. In 1980, Orson Welles produced a Yugoslav film named Tajna Nikole Tesle (The Secret of Nikola Tesla), in which Welles himself played the part of Tesla's patron, J.P. Morgan. Film was directed by Krsto Papić, and Nikola Tesla was portrayed by Petar Božović.
  • "Tesla: Master of Lightning". 1999. ISBN (Book) ISBN (PBS Video)
  • Lost Lightning: The Missing Secrets of Nikola Tesla (at Google Video) - Phenomenon: the Lost Archives documentary about Tesla's designs for free energy and defensive weapons systems.
  • David Bowie portrayed Tesla in the 2006 film "The Prestige". Tesla's time in Colorado Springs was the focus of several scenes in the film.

David Bowie as Tesla in the movie The Prestige Nikola Tesla has appeared in popular culture as a character in books, films, comics and video games. ... Rade Šerbedžija (born 27 July 1946), is a Croatian-born actor and director of ethnic Serbian descent. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... Petar Božović (born May 22, 1946 in Zemun,Serbia) is a popular actor from Serbia. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... The Prestige is a 2006 period film directed by Christopher Nolan, with a screenplay adapted from the 1995 World Fantasy Award-winning novel of the same name by Christopher Priest. ...

External links

Find more about Nikola Tesla on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Nikola Tesla Biography
  • Frank Germano's great site on Dr. Tesla
  • Tesla Resource Surrounding the PBS "Master of Lightning" documentary
  • The Nikola Tesla museum
  • Nikola Tesla 150
  • Tesla Forum of Western Australia Inc.
  • World of Scientific Biography: Nikola Tesla, by Wolfsram Research
  • Nikola Tesla Page
  • Tesla's grand-nephew William H. Terbo's site
  • Nikola Tesla, Forgotten American Scientist
  • The Tesla Wardenclyffe Project. Shoreham, New York. Aims to reuse Wardenclyffe Tower
  • Nikola Tesla's Father - Milutin Tesla
  • Tesla - The European Years
  • Tesla's Case File at The Franklin Institute containing information about his 1894 Franklin Award for research in high-frequency phenomena
  • Dr. James Corum's Tesla Engineering Papers, from Arcs 'N Sparks.
  • Fred Walters' hand-scanned Tesla patents (PDFs)
  • Jim Bieberich's The Complete Nikola Tesla U.S. Patent Collection
  • Online archive of many of Tesla's writings, articles and published papers
  • Seifer, Marc J., and Michael Behar, Electric Mind, Wired Magazine, October 1998.
  • Works by Nikola Tesla at Project Gutenberg
  • Nikola Tesla on various Yugoslavian and Serbian banknotes.
  • Nikola Tesla's FBI file in pdf
  • Nikola Tesla Complete Patents in pdf
  • Kenneth M. Swezey Papers, 1891–1982, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, archival resources.
Persondata
NAME Tesla, Nikola
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Serbian-American inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer
DATE OF BIRTH 10 July 1856
PLACE OF BIRTH Smiljan, Austrian Empire
DATE OF DEATH 7 January 1943
PLACE OF DEATH New York City


Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Mechanical engineering is the application of physical principles to the creation of useful devices, objects and machines. ... An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Smiljan is a village in the mountainous region of Lika, Croatia. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nikola Tesla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7796 words)
Tesla known for his contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Tesla received his last patent in 1928 for an apparatus for aerial transportation which was the first instance of VTOL aircraft.
Tesla claimed that one of his life goals was to create a flying machine that would run without the use of an airplane engine, wings, ailerons, propellers, or an onboard fuel source.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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