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Encyclopedia > Nikola Tesla
Born Nikola Tesla Никола Тесла I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device.[1] 10 July 1856 Smiljan, Croatia 7 January 1943 (aged 86) New York City, New York, U.S. Austrian Empire (Austria-Hungary) France U.S. Physics, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering Inventions, alternating current, induction motor, rotating magnetic field, and wireless technology Edison Medal (AIEE, 1916), Elliott Cresson Gold Medal (1893), John Scott Medal (1934) Signature

After his demonstration of wireless communication (radio) in 1894 and after being the victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as America's greatest electrical engineer.[5] Much of his early work pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. During this period, in the United States, Tesla's fame rivaled that of any other inventor or scientist in history or popular culture,[6] but due to his eccentric personality and unbelievable and sometimes bizarre claims about possible scientific and technological developments, Tesla was ultimately ostracized and regarded as a "mad scientist".[7][8] Never having put much focus on his finances, Tesla died impoverished at the age of 86. For other uses, see Radio (disambiguation). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ... HIStory â€“ Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing â€” one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ...

The SI unit measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (commonly known as the magnetic field $B,$), the tesla, was named in his honour (at the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, Paris, 1960). Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (B, labeled M here) around the wire. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... SI unit. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

## Early years

Tesla was born to Serbian parents in the village of Smiljan near Gospić, in the Lika region in Krajina, Croatia. According to legend, he was born precisely at midnight during an electrical storm. Smiljan is a village in the mountainous region of Lika, Croatia. ... GospiÄ‡ is a town in the mountainous and sparsely populated region of Lika, Croatia. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... Krajina, meaning border, is a Slavic toponym which might mean: Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosanska Krajina, same, but around Banja Luka and encompassing a larger area Cazinska Krajina, borderland of Bosnia towards Croatia around the city of Cazin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Nikola Tesla's birth house and statue in Smiljan.

Nikola was the fourth of five children, having one older brother (Dane, who was killed in a horse-riding accident when Nikola was five) and three sisters (Milka, Angelina and Marica).[12]:3 His family moved to Gospić in 1862. Tesla went to school in Karlovac. He finished a four year term in the span of three years.[13] For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... GospiÄ‡ is a town in the mountainous and sparsely populated region of Lika, Croatia. ... Karlovac (Croatia) Karlovac municipality within Karlovac county Karlovac Karlovac (German: Karlstadt or Carlstadt, Hungarian: KÃ¡rolyvÃ¡ros and sometimes in Croatian, Marinograd) is a city and municipality in central Croatia. ...

Tesla then studied electrical engineering at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz (1875). While there, he studied the uses of alternating current. Some sources say he received Baccalaureate degrees from the university at Graz.[14][15][16] However, the university says that he did not receive a degree and did not continue beyond the first semester of his third year, during which he stopped attending lectures.[17][18][19][20][21] In December 1878 he left Graz and broke all relations with his family. His friends thought that he had drowned in Mura. He went to Maribor, Slovenia, where he was first employed as an assistant engineer for a year. He suffered a nervous breakdown during this time. Tesla was later persuaded by his father to attend the Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague, which he attended for the summer term of 1880. Here he was influenced by Ernst Mach. However after his father died he left the university, having completed only one term.[22] Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Graz University of Technology is (after Karl-Franzens-University) the second largest university in Styria, Austria. ... The Grazer SchloÃŸberg Clock Tower Graz [graËts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... Mura (German Mur) is a river in Central Europe, a subsidiary of the bigger Drava and subsequently Danube. ... Area: 147. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 â€“ February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ...

Nikola Tesla as a young man

Tesla engaged in reading many works, memorizing complete books, supposedly having a photographic memory.[23] Tesla related in his autobiography that he experienced detailed moments of inspiration. During his early life, Tesla was stricken with illness time and time again. He suffered a peculiar affliction in which blinding flashes of light would appear before his eyes, often accompanied by hallucinations. Much of the time the visions were linked to a word or idea he might have come across; just by hearing the name of an item, he would involuntarily envision it in realistic detail. Modern-day synesthetes report similar symptoms. Tesla would visualise an invention in his brain in precise form before moving to the construction stage; a technique sometimes known as picture thinking. Tesla also often had flashbacks to events that had happened previously in his life; this began to happen during childhood.[23] Photographic memory or eidetic memory is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with great accuracy and in seemingly unlimited volume. ... For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ... Picture Thinking, Visual Thinking or Visual/Spatial Learner is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing, where most people would think with linguistic or verbal processing. ...

### Hungary and France

Soon thereafter, Tesla hastened from Paris to his mother's side as she lay dying, arriving hours before her death in April, 1892.[26] Her last words to him were, "You've arrived, Nidžo, my pride." After her death, Tesla fell ill. He spent two to three weeks recuperating in Gospić and the village of Tomingaj near Gračac, the birthplace of his mother. GraÄac is a small town in the southern part of Lika, Croatia. ...

### United States

On June 6, 1884, Tesla first arrived in the US in New York City.[27] He had little besides a letter of recommendation from Charles Batchelor, his manager in his previous job. In the letter of recommendation to Thomas Edison, Charles Batchelor wrote, "I know two great men and you are one of them; the other is this young man." Edison hired Tesla to work for his company Edison Machine Works. Tesla's work for Edison began with simple electrical engineering and quickly progressed to solving the company's most difficult problems. Tesla was offered the task of a complete redesign of the Edison company's direct current generators.[28] is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Charles W. Batchelor, inventor, associate of Thomas A. Edison, early executive of General Electric Company Charles W. Batchelor (December 25, 1845-January 1, 1910) was an inventor and close associate of American inventor Thomas Alva Edison during much of Edison’s career. ... Edison redirects here. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ...

During his employment, Tesla claims Edison offered him \$50,000 (equivalent to about \$1 million in 2006, adjusted for inflation)[29] if he redesigned Edison's inefficient motor and generators, an improvement in both service and economy.[23]:54-57 Tesla said he worked night and day to redesign them and gave the Edison company several profitable new patents in the process. During the year of 1885, when Tesla inquired about the payment on the work, Edison replied to him, "Tesla, you don't understand our American humor," and reneged on his promise.[30][31] This anecdote is somewhat doubtful, since at Tesla's salary of \$18 per week the bonus would have amounted to over 53 years pay, and the amount was equal to the initial capital of the company.Tesla resigned when he was refused a raise to \$25 per week.[32]

Tesla eventually found himself digging ditches for a short period of time – coincidentally for the Edison company. Edison had also never wanted to hear about Tesla's AC polyphase designs, believing that DC electricity was the future. Tesla focused intently on his AC polyphase system, even while digging ditches.[23]

 Electromechanical devices and principles developed by Nikola Tesla: Various devices that use rotating magnetic fields (1882) The Induction motor, rotary transformers, and "high" frequency alternators The Tesla coil,[33] his magnifying transmitter, and other means for increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations (including condenser discharge transformations and the Tesla oscillators[34][35]) Alternating current long-distance electrical transmission system[36] (1888) and other methods and devices for power transmission Systems for wireless communication (prior art for the invention of radio) and radio frequency oscillators[37] Robotics and the "AND" logic gate[38] Electrotherapy Tesla currents[39][40][41] Wireless transfer of electricity and the Tesla effect[42][43] Tesla impedance phenonomena[44] Tesla electro-static field Tesla principle Bifilar coil Telegeodynamics Tesla insulation Tesla impulses[45] Tesla frequencies[33] Tesla discharge[33] Forms of commutators and methods of regulating third brushes Tesla turbines (eg., bladeless turbines) for water, steam and gas and the Tesla pumps Tesla igniter Tesla compressor X-rays Tubes using the Bremsstrahlung process Devices for ionized gases and "Hot Saint Elmo's Fire".[46] Devices for high field emission Devices for charged particle beams Phantom streaming devices[47] Arc light systems Methods for providing extremely low level of resistance to the passage of electrical current (predecessor to superconductivity) Voltage multiplication circuitry Devices for high voltage discharges Devices for lightning protection VTOL aircraft Dynamic theory of gravity Concepts for electric vehicles Polyphase systems

## Middle years

In 1886, Tesla formed his own company, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. The initial financial investors disagreed with Tesla on his plan for an alternating current motor and eventually relieved him of his duties at the company. Tesla worked in New York as a common laborer from 1886 to 1887 to feed himself and raise capital for his next project. In 1887, he constructed the initial brushless alternating current induction motor, which he demonstrated to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE) in 1888. In the same year, he developed the principles of his Tesla coil and began working with George Westinghouse at Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. Westinghouse listened to his ideas for polyphase systems which would allow transmission of alternating current electricity over large distances. The Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing was a company formed by Nikola Tesla in 1886. ... An investor is any party that makes an investment. ... This article is about the state. ... A pair of carbon brushes In electrical engineering, brushes conduct current between stationary wires and moving parts, most commonly in a rotating shaft. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... Tesla Coil at Questacon, the Australian National Science Centre museum A Tesla coil (also teslacoil) is a type of resonant transformer, named after its inventor, Nikola Tesla. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...

In April of 1887, Tesla began investigating what would later be called X-rays using his own single node vacuum tubes (similar to his patent #514,170 ). This device differed from other early X-ray tubes in that they had no target electrode. The modern term for the phenomenon produced by this device is bremsstrahlung (or braking radiation). We now know that this device operated by emitting electrons from the single electrode through a combination of field emission and thermionic emission. Once liberated, electrons are strongly repelled by the high electric field near the electrode during negative voltage peaks from the oscillating HV output of the Tesla Coil, generating X-rays as they collide with the glass envelope. He also used Geissler tubes. By 1892, Tesla became aware of what Wilhelm Röntgen later identified as effects of X-rays. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... (helpÂ· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Field emission, also known as Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, is a form of quantum tunneling in which electrons pass through a barrier in the presence of a high electric field. ... Closeup of the filament on a low pressure mercury gas discharge lamp showing white thermionic emission mix coating on the central portion of the coil. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... The Geissler tube is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge. ... Wilhelm RÃ¶ntgen Wilhelm Conrad RÃ¶ntgen (March 27, 1845 â€“ February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of WÃ¼rzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that are now known as x-rays or RÃ¶ntgen Rays. ...

In the early research, Tesla devised several experimental setups to produce X-rays. Tesla held that, with his circuits, the "instrument will [... enable one to] generate Roentgen rays of much greater power than obtainable with ordinary apparatus."[48] He also commented on the hazards of working with his circuit and single node X-ray producing devices. Of his many notes in the early investigation of this phenomenon, he attributed the skin damage to various causes. One of the options for the cause, which is not in conformity with conventional x-ray production, was that the ozone generated rather than the radiation was responsible. He early on stated, In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ...

 “ As to the hurtful actions on the skin [...] I note that they have been misinterpreted [...] They are not due to the Roentgen rays, but merely to the ozone generated in contact with the skin. Nitrous acid may also be responsible, but to a small extent. ” —Electrical Review, 30 November 1895 Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Tesla's experiments were confirmed by others.[49] Tesla later stated,

 “ [...] I have not noted injuries which could be traced directly to this cause, though on several occasions burns were produced in all respects similar to those which were later observed and attributed to the Roentgen rays. This view is seemingly being abandoned, having not been substantiated by experimental facts, and so also is the notion that these rays are transverse vibrations.[50] ” —High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes, 1899 [51] A light wave is an example of a transverse wave. ...

Tesla continued research in the field and, later, observed an assistant severely "burnt" by X-rays in his lab. He performed several experiments prior to Roentgen's discovery (including photographing the bones of his hand; later, he sent these images to Roentgen) but didn't make his findings widely known; much of his research was lost in the 5th Avenue lab fire of March 1895. Hand mit Ringen: print of Wilhelm RÃ¶ntgens first medical x-ray, of his wifes hand, taken on 22 December 1895 and presented to Professor Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896[1][2] Wilhelm Conrad RÃ¶ntgen (March 27, 1845 â€“ February... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ...

A "world system" for "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon the electrical conductivity was proposed in which transmission in various natural mediums with current that passes between the two point are used to power devices. In a practical wireless energy transmission system using this principle, a high-power ultraviolet beam might be used to form a vertical ionized channel in the air directly above the transmitter-receiver stations. The same concept is used in virtual lightning rods, the electrolaser electroshock weapon,[52] and has been proposed for disabling vehicles.[53][54] An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ... // An electrolaser is a type of electroshock weapon which is also a directed-energy weapon. ... An electroshock weapon is an incapacitant weapon used for subduing a person by administering electric shock aimed at disrupting superficial muscle functions. ...

Tesla demonstrated "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon electrical conductivity as early as 1891. The Tesla effect (named in honor of Tesla) is the archaic term for an application of this type of electrical conduction (that is, the movement of energy through space and matter; not just the production of voltage across a conductor).[55][23]:174 The Tesla effect (named in honor of Nikola Tesla) is a type of high field gradient between electrode plates for wireless energy transfer via electromagnetic induction. ...

Wireless transmission of power and energy demonstration during his high frequency and potential lecture of 1891.

On July 30, 1891, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States at the age of 35. Tesla established his 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York during this same year. Later, Tesla would establish his Houston Street laboratory in New York at 46 E. Houston Street. There, at one point while conducting mechanical resonance experiments with electro-mechanical oscillators he generated a resonance of several surrounding buildings but, due to the frequencies involved, not his own building, causing complaints to the police. As the speed grew he hit the resonant frequency of his own building and belatedly realizing the danger he was forced to apply a sledge hammer to terminate the experiment, just as the astonished police arrived.[56] He also lit vacuum tubes wirelessly at both of the New York locations, providing evidence for the potential of wireless power transmission.[57] Some of Tesla's closest friends were artists. He befriended Century Magazine editor Robert Underwood Johnson, who adapted several Serbian poems of Jovan Jovanović Zmaj (which Tesla translated). Also during this time, Tesla was influenced by the Vedic philosophy teachings of the Swami Vivekananda.[58] An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... Fifth Avenue redirects here. ... Houston Street is a large thoroughfare running east - west through the downtown area of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, one block south of 1st Street. ... Mechanical Resonance is the debut album by the American rock band Tesla. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... For other uses, see Sledgehammer (disambiguation). ... The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City as a successor to Scribners Monthly Magazine. ... Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 â€“ October 14, 1937) was a U.S. writer and diplomat. ... Jovan Jovanović Zmaj (November 24, 1833 - June 3, 1904) is one of the most well known Serb poets. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , SvÄmi VivekÄnanda) (January 12, 1863 â€“ July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , NÃ´rendrÃ´nath DÃ´t-tÃ´), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ...

 “ Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe. ” —"Experiments With Alternate Currents Of High Potential And High Frequency" (February 1892)

At the 1893 World's Fair, the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, an international exposition was held which for the first time devoted a building to electrical exhibits. It was an historic event as Tesla and George Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power by using it to illuminate the Exposition. On display were Tesla's fluorescent lamps and single node bulbs. An observer noted, Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Usually hidden from the unaided eye, the blinking of (non-incandescent) lighting powered by AC mains is revealed in this motion-blurred long exposure of city lights. ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ...

"Within the room was suspended two hard-rubber plates covered with tin foil. These were about fifteen feet apart, and served as terminals of the wires leading from the transformers. When the current was turned on, the vacuum bulbs or tubes, which had no wires connected to them, but lay on a table between the suspended plates, or which might be held in the hand in almost any part of the room, were made luminous. These were the same experiments and the same apparatus shown by Mr. Tesla in London about two years ago, where they produced so much wonder and astonishment." [59]

Tesla also explained the principles of the rotating magnetic field and induction motor by demonstrating how to make an egg made of copper stand on end in his demonstration of the device he constructed known as the "Egg of Columbus". Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The Egg of Columbus is a story of how to make an egg stand on end. ...

Nikola Tesla's AC dynamo used to generate AC which is used to transport electricity across great distances. It is contained in US .

Publicity picture of a participant sitting in his laboratory in Colorado Springs with his "Magnifying Transmitter" generating millions of volts. The arcs are about 7 meters (23 ft) long. (Tesla's notes identify this as a multiple exposure.)
An experiment in Colorado Springs. This is a bank of lights receiving power from distant transmitter

Tesla researched ways to transmit power and energy wirelessly over long distances (via transverse waves, to a lesser extent, and, more readily, longitudinal waves). He transmitted extremely low frequencies through the ground as well as between the earth's surface and the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. He received patents on wireless transceivers that developed standing waves by this method. In his experiments, he made mathematical calculations and computations based on his experiments and discovered that the resonant frequency of the Earth was approximately 8 Hertz (Hz). In the 1950s, researchers confirmed that the resonant frequency of the Earth's ionospheric cavity was in this range (later named the Schumann resonance). An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... The Kennelly-Heaviside Layer is also known as the E region or just as Heaviside Layer (after Oliver Heaviside). ... The Schumann resonance is a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earths electromagnetic field spectrum. ...

Colorado Springs experiment where grounded tuned coil is in resonance with distant transmitter; Light is glowing near the bottom.

Tesla left Colorado Springs on January 7, 1900. The lab was torn down and its contents sold to pay debts. The Colorado experiments prepared Tesla for his next project, the establishment of a wireless power transmission facility that would be known as Wardenclyffe. Tesla was granted U.S. Patent 685,012  for the means of increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations. The United States Patent Office classification system currently assigns this patent to the primary Class 178/43 ("telegraphy/space induction"), although the other applicable classes include 505/825 ("low temperature superconductivity-related apparatus"). Colorado Springs is a middle-sized city, located just east of the geographic center of the state of Colorado in the United States. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Wireless energy transfer is wireless transfer of electromagnetic energy via electromagnetic induction. ... The United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides patent and trademark protection to inventors and businesses for their inventions and corporate and product identification. ...

## Later years

In 1915, Tesla filed a lawsuit against Marconi attempting, unsuccessfully, to obtain a court injunction against the claims of Marconi. After Wardenclyffe, Tesla built the Telefunken Wireless Station in Sayville, Long Island. Some of what he wanted to achieve at Wardenclyffe was accomplished with the Telefunken Wireless. In 1917, the facility was seized and torn down by the Marines, because it was suspected that it could be used by German spies. Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...

Prior to World War I, Tesla looked overseas for investors to fund his research. When the war started, Tesla lost the funding he was receiving from his European patents. After the war ended, Tesla made predictions regarding the relevant issues of the post-World War I environment, in a printed article (December 20, 1914). Tesla believed that the League of Nations was not a remedy for the times and issues. Tesla started to exhibit pronounced symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the years following. He became obsessed with the number three; he often felt compelled to walk around a block three times before entering a building, demanded a stack of three folded cloth napkins beside his plate at every meal, etc. The nature of OCD was little understood at the time and no treatments were available, so his symptoms were considered by some to be evidence of partial insanity, and this undoubtedly hurt what was left of his reputation. â€œThe Great War â€ redirects here. ... The Convention on the Grant of European Patents of 5 October 1973, commonly known as the European Patent Convention (EPC), is a multilateral treaty instituting the European Patent Organisation and providing an autonomous legal system according to which European patents are granted. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1939â€“1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920â€“1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicableÂ¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920â€“1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933â€“1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940â€“1946 SeÃ¡n Lester Historical... â€¹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...

At this time, he was staying at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, renting in an arrangement for deferred payments. Eventually, the Wardenclyffe deed was turned over to George Boldt, proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria to pay a \$20,000 debt. In 1917, around the time that the Wardenclyffe Tower was demolished by Boldt to make the land a more viable real estate asset, Tesla received AIEE's highest honor, the Edison Medal. The hotels name with a single hyphen is engraved and gilded over the entrance. ... George Charles Boldt (1851-1916), a self-made millionaire, influenced development of the urban hotel as a civic social center and luxurious destination. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ...

On Tesla's seventy-fifth birthday in 1931, Time magazine put him on its cover. The cover caption noted his contribution to electrical power generation. Tesla received his last patent in 1928 for an apparatus for aerial transportation which was the first instance of VTOL aircraft. By the end of 1931, Tesla released "On Future Motive Power" which covered an ocean thermal energy conversion system. In 1934, Tesla wrote to consul Janković of his homeland. The letter contained the message of gratitude to Mihajlo Pupin who initiated a donation scheme by which American companies could support Tesla. Tesla refused the assistance, and chose to live by a modest pension received from Yugoslavia and to continue researching. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) describes airplanes that can lift off vertically. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph. ...

In 1936, Tesla wrote in a telegram to Vladko Maček: "I'm equally proud of my Serbian origin and my Croatian homeland. Long live all Yugoslavs."[73] Vladko MaÄek (June 20, 1879 â€“ May 15, 1964) was a Croatian politician from the first half of the 20th century. ...

### Field theories

When he was eighty-one, Tesla stated he had completed a dynamic theory of gravity. He stated that it was "worked out in all details" and that he hoped to soon give it to the world.[74] The theory was never published. At the time of his announcement, it was considered by the scientific establishment to exceed the bounds of reason. Some believe that Tesla never fully developed the Unified Field Theory. Publishing is the activity of putting information in the public arena. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The bulk of the theory was developed between 1892 and 1894, during the period that he was conducting experiments with high frequency and high potential electromagnetism and patenting devices for their utilization. It was completed, according to Tesla, by the end of the 1930s. Tesla's theory explained gravity using electrodynamics consisting of transverse waves (to a lesser extent) and longitudinal waves (for the majority). Reminiscent of Mach's principle, Tesla stated in 1925 that: High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... In physics, a potential may refer to the scalar potential or to the vector potential. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... A light wave is an example of a transverse wave. ... Longitudinal waves are waves that have vibrations along or parallel to their direction of travel. ... In theoretical physics, particularly in discussions of gravitation theories, Machs principle is the name given by Einstein to a vague hypothesis first supported by the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. ...

Nikola Tesla, with Ruđer Bošković's book Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis, sits in front of the spiral coil of his high-frequency transformer at East Houston Street, New York.
 “ There is no thing endowed with life - from man, who is enslaving the elements, to the nimblest creature - in all this world that does not sway in its turn. Whenever action is born from force, though it be infinitesimal, the cosmic balance is upset and the universal motion results. ”

Tesla was critical of Einstein's relativity work, calling it: Image File history File links TeslaThinker. ... Image File history File links TeslaThinker. ... Rudjer Josip Boscovich Roger Joseph Boscovich (modern Croatian: RuÄ‘er Josip BoÅ¡koviÄ‡; modern Serbian: Ð ÑƒÑ’ÐµÑ€ Ð‘Ð¾ÑˆÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¸Ñ› or RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡koviÄ‡; Italian: Ruggiero Giovanni Boscovich[1]) (May 18, 1711 â€“ February 13, 1787) was a physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, and Jesuit from Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia) who later lived in...

 “ ...[a] magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king..., its exponents are brilliant men but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists...[75] ”

Tesla also argued:

 “ I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.[76] ”

Tesla also believed that much of Albert Einstein's relativity theory had already been proposed by Ruđer Bošković, stating in an unpublished interview: â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ... -1... Rudjer Joseph Boscovich (first name also sometimes spelled Roger in English; Italian Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich; Croatian and Serbian RuÄ‘er Josip BoÅ¡koviÄ‡, Ð ÑƒÑ’ÐµÑ€ ÐˆÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð¿ Ð‘Ð¾ÑˆÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¸Ñ›) (May 18, 1711 â€“ February 13, 1787), was a Jesuit, physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat and poet from Dubrovnik (or Ragusa, the previously frequently referred to Italian version...

 “ ...the relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman Ruđer Bošković, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Bošković dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum...'.[77] ”

### Directed-energy weapon

 “ I have not thought it hazardous to predict, that wars in the future will be waged by electrical means. ” —Nikola Tesla, 1915[12]:127

Later in life, Tesla made some remarkable claims concerning a "teleforce" weapon.[78] The press called it a "peace ray" or death ray.[79][80] In total, the components and methods included:[81][82] Teleforce was Nikola Teslas charged particle beam projector, first mentioned publicly in the New York Sun on July 10, 1934. ... The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Nikola Tesla, Edwin R. Scott, Harry Grindell Matthews, Graichen [1], as well as others. ...

1. An apparatus for producing manifestations of energy in free air instead of in a high vacuum as in the past. This, according to Tesla in 1934, was accomplished.
2. A mechanism for generating tremendous electrical force. This, according to Tesla, was also accomplished.
3. A means of intensifying and amplifying the force developed by the second mechanism.
4. A new method for producing a tremendous electrical repelling force. This would be the projector, or gun, of the invention.

Tesla worked on plans for a directed-energy weapon between the early 1900s till the time of his death. In 1937, Tesla composed a treatise entitled "The Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-dispersive Energy through the Natural Media" concerning charged particle beams.[83] Tesla published the document in an attempt to expound on the technical description of a "superweapon that would put an end to all war". This treatise of the particle beam is currently in the Nikola Tesla Museum archive in Belgrade. It described an open ended vacuum tube with a gas jet seal that allowed particles to exit, a method of charging particles to millions of volts, and a method of creating and directing nondispersive particle streams (through electrostatic repulsion).[84] Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A directed-energy weapon (DEW) is a type of weapon which emits energy in an aimed direction without the means of a projectile. ... A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same velocity (speed and direction). ... A superweapon is an extremely powerful weapon by the standards of its time and its scale. ... A particle beam is an accelerated stream of charged particles or atoms (often moving at very near the speed of light) which may be directed by magnets and focused by electrostatic lenses, although they may also be self-focusing (see Pinch). ... Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Muzej Nikole Tesle , ÐœÑƒÐ·ÐµÑ˜ ÐÐ½ÐºÐ¾Ð»Ðµ Ð¢ÐµÑÐ»Ðµ) is located in the central area of Belgrade and has above 160 000 original documents, above 2000 books and journals, above 1200 historical technical exhibits, above 1500 photographs and photo plates of original, technical objects, instruments and apparatus... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ...

Records of his indicate that it was based on a narrow stream of atomic clusters of liquid mercury or tungsten accelerated via high voltage (by means akin to his magnifying transformer). Tesla gave the following description concerning the particle gun's operation: Superatoms are clusters of atoms which seem to exhibit some of the properties of elemental atoms. ... This article is about the element. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... A publicity photo of Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs experimental station with his Magnifying Transmitter. The arcs are about 22 feet (7 m) long. ... A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same velocity (speed and direction). ...

 “ [The nozzle would] send concentrated beams of particles through the free air, of such tremendous energy that they will bring down a fleet of 10,000 enemy airplanes at a distance of 200 miles from a defending nation's border and will cause armies to drop dead in their tracks.[85] ”

The weapon could be used against ground based infantry or for antiaircraft purposes.[86]

Tesla tried to interest the US War Department in the device.[87] He also offered this invention to European countries.[88] None of the governments purchased a contract to build the device. He was unable to act on his plans.[89] The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...

### Theoretical inventions

Another of Tesla's theorized inventions is commonly referred to as Tesla's Flying Machine, which appears to resemble an ion-propelled aircraft. Tesla claimed that one of his life goals was to create a flying machine that would run without the use of an airplane engine, wings, ailerons, propellers, or an onboard fuel source. Initially, Tesla pondered about the idea of a flying craft that would fly using an electric motor powered by grounded base stations. As time progressed, Tesla suggested that perhaps such an aircraft could be run entirely electro-mechanically. The theorized appearance would typically take the form of a cigar or saucer. The Lifter is an electrokinetic, or electrohydrodynamic device. ... Aileron location on a Piper PA-28. ... A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ...

## Death

Bust of Tesla by Ivan Meštrović, 1952, in Zagreb, Croatia

Tesla died of heart failure alone in Room 3327 of the New Yorker Hotel, some time between the evening of January 5 and the morning of January 8, 1943, at the age of 86.[90] Despite selling his AC electricity patents, Tesla was destitute and died with significant debts. Later that year the US Supreme Court upheld Tesla's patent number U.S. Patent 645,576  in effect recognizing him as the inventor of radio. Ivan MeÅ¡troviÄ‡ (August 15, 1883 â€“ January 16, 1962) was a Croatian sculptor. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan BandiÄ‡ Area [1]  - Total 641. ... The 43-storey New Yorker Hotel was built in 1929 and opened its doors on January 2, 1930. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

Immediately after Tesla's death became known, the Federal Bureau of Investigation instructed the government's Alien Property Custodian office to take possession of his papers and property, despite his US citizenship. His safe at the hotel was also opened. At the time of his death, Tesla had been continuing work on the teleforce weapon, or death ray, that he had unsuccessfully marketed to the US War Department. It appears that his proposed death ray was related to his research into ball lightning and plasma and was imagined as a particle beam weapon. The US government did not find a prototype of the device in the safe. After the FBI was contacted by the War Department, his papers were declared to be top secret. The so-called "peace ray" constitutes a part of some conspiracy theories as a means of destruction. The personal effects were seized on the advice of presidential advisers, and J. Edgar Hoover declared the case "most secret", because of the nature of Tesla's inventions and patents.[91] One document states that "[he] is reported to have some 80 trunks in different places containing transcripts and plans having to do with his experiments [...]". Charlotte Muzar reported that there were several "missing" papers and property. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... An Alien Property Custodian is someone who has been employed to handle an enemy citizens property, which has landed in the United States. ... The United States flag The Seal of the United States Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power (t)o establish a uniform rule of naturalization. ... Teleforce was Nikola Teslas charged particle beam projector, first mentioned publicly in the New York Sun on July 10, 1934. ... For other uses, see Ball lightning (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... A typical classified document. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 â€“ May 2, 1972), known popularly as J. Edgar Hoover, was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ...

Statue of Nikola Tesla in Niagara Falls State Park on Goat Island, New York; There is another statue with Tesla standing in Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls.[92]

## Legacy

Tesla did not like to pose for portraits. He did it only once for princess Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy.[94] His wish was to have a sculpture made by his close friend Ivan Meštrović, who was at that time in United States, but he died before getting a chance to see it. Meštrović made a bronze bust (1952) that is held in the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade and a statue (1955/56) placed at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. This statue was moved to Nikola Tesla Street in Zagreb's city centre on the 150th anniversary of Tesla's birth, with the Ruđer Bošković Institute to receive a duplicate. In 1976, a bronze statue of Tesla was placed at Niagara Falls, New York. A similar statue was also erected in his hometown of Gospić in 1986. Princess Elisabeth Lwoff-Parlaghy, (April 15, 1863 - August 28, 1923), New York City) was a Hungarian born German and Manhattan portrait painter. ... Ivan MeÅ¡troviÄ‡ (August 15, 1883 â€“ January 16, 1962) was a Croatian sculptor. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Rudjer Joseph Boscovich (first name also sometimes spelled Roger in English; Italian Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich; Croatian and Serbian RuÄ‘er Josip BoÅ¡koviÄ‡, Ð ÑƒÑ’ÐµÑ€ ÐˆÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð¿ Ð‘Ð¾ÑˆÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¸Ñ›) (May 18, 1711 â€“ February 13, 1787), was a Jesuit, physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat and poet from Dubrovnik (or Ragusa, the previously frequently referred to Italian version... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan BandiÄ‡ Area [1]  - Total 641. ... The RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡koviÄ‡ Institute (Croatian Institut RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡koviÄ‡, IRB) is a research institute in Zagreb, Croatia, founded in 1950, which studies the sciences. ... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ... Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County, New York, United States. ...

The SI unit tesla (T) for measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (commonly known as the magnetic field $B,$) was named in Tesla’s honour at the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, Paris in 1960. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) of which Tesla had been vice president also created an award in recognition of Tesla. Called the IEEE Nikola Tesla Award, it is given to individuals or a team that has made outstanding contributions to the generation or utilization of electric power, and is considered the most prestigious award in the area of electric power.[95] The Tesla crater on the far side of the Moon and the minor planet 2244 Tesla are also named after him. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SI unit. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (B, labeled M here) around the wire. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Tesla is a lunar crater that is located on the Moons far side, just to the southeast of the larger H. G. Wells crater. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ...

100 Serbian dinar banknote obverse.
Photo courtesy of National Bank of Serbia.[96]
100 Serbian dinars banknote reverse. Note the drawing of the electric motor.

Tesla (company) was a large, state-owned electrotechnical conglomerate in the former Czechoslovakia. It was renamed in Tesla's honour from previous Electra on 7th March 1946. Some of its subsidiaries still trade in Czech Republic. TESLA (from TEchnika SLAboproudÃ¡ (meaning Light-current Technology), no direct relation to the Croatian inventor, Nikola Tesla) was a huge state-owned electrotechnical conglomerate in the former Czechoslovakia. ...

An electric car company, Tesla Motors, named their company in tribute to Nikola Tesla. Their website states: The namesake of our Tesla Roadster is the genius Nikola Tesla [...] We‘re confident that if he were alive today, Nikola Tesla would look over our car and nod his head with both understanding and approval.[97] For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... Tesla Motors, Inc. ... The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car, and is the first car produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ...

The Croatian subsidiary of Ericsson is also named 'Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d'. ('Nikola Tesla' was a phone hardware company in Zagreb before Ericsson bought it in the 1990s) in honour of Nikola Tesla's pioneering work in wireless communication. For other uses, see Ericsson (disambiguation). ... Ericsson Nikola Tesla is the Croatian subsidiary of the Swedish telecommunications equipment manufacturer Ericsson. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan BandiÄ‡ Area [1]  - Total 641. ...

In the years after, many of his innovations, theories and claims have been used, at times unsuitably and with some controversy, to support various fringe theories that are regarded as unscientific. Most of Tesla's own work conformed with the principles and methods accepted by science, but his extravagant personality and sometimes unrealistic claims, combined with his unquestionable genius, have made him a popular figure among fringe theorists and believers in conspiracies about 'hidden knowledge'. Some conspiracy theorists even in his time believed that he was actually an angelic being from Venus sent to Earth to reveal scientific knowledge to humanity.[23] For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...

## Personality

Tesla was fluent in many languages. Along with Serbo-Croatian, he also spoke seven other foreign languages: Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

Tesla may have suffered from obsessive-compulsive disorder,[98] and had many unusual quirks and phobias. He did things in threes, and was adamant about staying in a hotel room with a number divisible by three. Tesla was also noted to be physically revolted by jewelry, notably pearl earrings. He was fastidious about cleanliness and hygiene, and was by all accounts mysophobic. He greatly disliked touching round objects and human hair other than his own. Mysophobia is a term used to describe a pathological fear of contact with dirt, to avoid contamination and germs. ... This article is about the body feature. ...

Tesla was obsessed with pigeons, ordering special seeds for the pigeons he fed in Central Park and even bringing some into his hotel room with him. Tesla was an animal-lover, often reflecting contentedly about a childhood cat, "The Magnificent Macak". Tesla never married. He was celibate and claimed that his chastity was very helpful to his scientific abilities.[23][99] Nonetheless there have been numerous accounts of women vying for Tesla's affection, even some madly in love with him. Tesla, though polite, behaved rather ambivalently to these women in the romantic sense. Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ...

Tesla was prone to alienating himself and was generally soft-spoken. However, when he did engage in a social life, many people spoke very positively and admiringly of him. Robert Underwood Johnson described him as attaining a "distinguished sweetness, sincerity, modesty, refinement, generosity, and force..." His loyal secretary, Dorothy Skerrit, wrote "his genial smile and nobility of bearing always denoted the gentlemanly characteristics that were so ingrained in his soul." Tesla's friend Hawthorne wrote that, "seldom did one meet a scientist or engineer who was also a poet, a philosopher, an appreciator of fine music, a linguist, and a connoisseur of food and drink." A connoisseur (Fr. ... Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by an animal for nutrition and/or pleasure. ...

Nevertheless, Tesla displayed the occasional cruel streak; he openly expressed his disgust for overweight people, once firing a secretary because of her weight.[23]:110 He was quick to criticize others' clothing as well, demanding a subordinate to go home and change her dress on several occasions.[23]

Tesla was widely known for his great showmanship, presenting his innovations and demonstrations to the public as an artform, almost like a magician. This seems to conflict with his observed reclusiveness; Tesla was a complicated figure. He refused to hold conventions without his Tesla coil blasting electricity throughout the room, despite the audience often being terrified, though he assured them everything was perfectly safe. Tesla Coil at Questacon, the Australian National Science Centre museum A Tesla coil (also teslacoil) is a type of resonant transformer, named after its inventor, Nikola Tesla. ...

Mark Twain in Nikola Tesla's lab, spring 1894

In middle age, Nikola Tesla became very close friends with Mark Twain. They spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 â€“ April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 â€“ April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...

Tesla remained bitter in the aftermath of his incident with Edison. The day after Edison died the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla, who was quoted as saying, The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

 “ He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene... His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 per cent of the labor. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense. ”

Shortly before Edison died, he said that his biggest mistake he had made was in trying to develop directed current, rather than the vastly superior alternating current system that Tesla had put within his grasp.[12]:19

Tesla was good friends with Robert Underwood Johnson. He had amicable relations with Francis Marion Crawford, Stanford White, Fritz Lowenstein, George Scherff, and Kenneth Swezey. Tesla made his first million at the age of forty, but gave away nearly all his royalties on future innovations. Tesla was rather financially inept, but he was almost entirely unconcerned with material wealth. He ripped up a Westinghouse contract that would have made him the world's first billionaire, in part because of the implications it would have on his future vision of free power, and in part because it would run Westinghouse out of business, and Tesla had no desire to deal with the creditors. Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 â€“ October 14, 1937) was a U.S. writer and diplomat. ... Francis Crawford Francis Marion Crawford (August 2, 1854 - April 9, 1909) was an American writer noted for his many novels. ... Stanford White (1853-1906) Washington Square Arch New York American on June 25, 1906 Stanford White (November 9, 1853 â€“ June 25, 1906) was an American architect and partner in the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886 as Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. ...

Tesla lived the last ten years of his life in a two-room suite on the 33rd floor of the Hotel New Yorker, room 3327. There, near the end of his life, when Tesla was slipping into what many consider an altered state of mind, he would claim to be visited by a specific white pigeon daily. Several biographers note that Tesla viewed the death of the pigeon as a "final blow" to himself and his work. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ...

Tesla believed that war could not be avoided until the cause for its recurrence was removed, but was opposed to wars in general.[100] He sought to reduce distance, such as in communication for better understanding, transportation, and transmission of energy, as a means to ensure friendly international relations.[101]-1... Foreign affairs redirects here. ...

Like many of his era, Tesla, a life-long bachelor, became a proponent of a self-imposed selective breeding version of eugenics. In a 1937 interview, he stated, Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...

 “ [...] man's new sense of pity began to interfere with the ruthless workings of nature. The only method compatible with our notions of civilization and the race is to prevent the breeding of the unfit by sterilization and the deliberate guidance of the mating instinct [...]. The trend of opinion among eugenists is that we must make marriage more difficult. Certainly no one who is not a desirable parent should be permitted to produce progeny. A century from now it will no more occur to a normal person to mate with a person eugenically unfit than to marry a habitual criminal.[102] ”

In 1926, Tesla commented on the ills of the social subservience of women and the struggle of women toward gender equality, indicated that humanity's future would be run by "Queen Bees". He believed that women would become the dominant sex in the future.[103] Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...

In his later years Tesla became a vegetarian. In an article for Century Illustrated Magazine he wrote: "It is certainly preferable to raise vegetables, and I think, therefore, that vegetarianism is a commendable departure from the established barbarous habit." Tesla argued that it is wrong to eat uneconomic meat when large numbers of people are starving; he also believed that plant food was "superior to it [meat] in regard to both mechanical and mental performance." He also argued that animal slaughter was "wanton and cruel".[104] For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ...

In his final years he suffered from extreme sensitivity to light, sound and other influences.[105]

## Monuments

A monument to Tesla was established at Niagara Falls, New York, USA. The monument was officially unveiled on Sunday, July 9, 2006 on the 150th anniversary of Tesla's birth. The Monument was sponsored by St. George Serbian Church, Niagara Falls, and designed by Les Drysdale of Hamilton, Ontario. Mr. Drysdale's design was the winning design from an international competition. Another monument to Tesla, featuring him standing on a portion of an alternator, was established at Queen Victoria Park in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. Tesla's most famous statue is the one erected on May 23, 1879 at Sycamore Peak showing him and Dr. Brian S. Whitecross. The monument at Niagara Falls is a copy of monument standing in front of the Belgrade University Faculty of the Electrical Engineering. Belgrade International Airport is called "Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport" [106] For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

### Tesla on money

 Electronics Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... Nikola Tesla with his invention, a wireless lightbulb powered by the electric field surrounding it. ... David Bowie as Tesla in the movie The Prestige Nikola Tesla has appeared in popular culture as a character in books, films, comics and video games. ... A Teslascope is a radio transceiver that was alleged to have been invented by Crotian scientist Nikola Tesla for the purpose of communicating with life on other planets. ...

## Notes

1. ^ Nikola Tesla; Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1931
2. ^ http://www.pupman.com/listarchives/2000/October/msg00397.html
3. ^ Title of a biography by Robert Lomas (seen)
4. ^ Seifer, "Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla," book synopsis
5. ^ Serbian Unity Congress | 150 Years of Nikola Tesla
6. ^ Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy by Thomas Valone
7. ^ Childress, David Hatcher, (ed.) "The Tesla Papers: Nikola Tesla on Free Energy & Wireless Transmission of Power". Adventures Unlimited Press, 2000. ISBN
8. ^ Lomas, Robert, "The essay," Spark of genius. Independent Magazine, 21 August 1999.
9. ^ Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out of Time", 1979. ISBN . Front cover flap
10. ^ U.S. Supreme Court, "Marconi Wireless Telegraph co. of America v. United States". 320 U.S. 1. Nos. 369, 373. Argued April 9-12, 1943. Decided June 21, 1943.
11. ^ Seifer, "Wizard" p. 7
12. ^ a b c Margaret Cheney, Robert Uth, and Jim Glenn, "Tesla, Master of Lightning". Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1999. ISBN .
13. ^ Walker, E. H. (1900). Leaders of the 19th century with some noted characters of earlier times, their efforts and achievements in advancing human progress vividly portrayed for the guidance of present and future generations. Chicago: A.B. Kuhlman Co., p, 474.
14. ^ Wysock, W.C.; J.F. Corum, J.M. Hardesty and K.L. Corum (October 22, 2001). "Who Was The Real Dr. Nikola Tesla? (A Look At His Professional Credentials)". Antenna Measurement Techniques Association, posterpape.
15. ^ "The Book of New York: Forty Years' Recollections of the American Metropolis" says he matriculated 4 degrees (physics, mathematics, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering)
16. ^ Harper's Encyclopædia of United States History from 458 A.D. to 1906. Harper & brothers 1905. Page 52.
17. ^ Others have stated that he was discharged without a degree for nonpayment of his tuition for the first semester of his junior year. According to a college roommate, he did not graduate.
18. ^ Nikola Tesla: the European Years, D. Mrkich
19. ^ Wohinz, Josef W. (May 16, 2006). Nikola Tesla und Graz. Technischen Universität Graz.
20. ^ Wohinz, Josef W. (Ed,) (2006). Nikola Tesla und die Technik in Graz. Graz, Austria: Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz, p. 16. ISBN ; ISBN ..
21. ^ Kulishich, Kosta. "Tesla Nearly Missed His Career as Inventor: College Roommate Tells", Newark News, August 27, 1931. . Cited in Seifer, Marc, The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla, 1996
22. ^ Seifer, Marc (1996). Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla; Biography of a Genius. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN.
23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cheney, Margaret [1979] (2001). Tesla: Man Out of Time. Simon and Schuster.
24. ^ James Grant Wilson, John Fiske, Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography. P. 261.
25. ^ "Did Tesla really invent the loudspeaker?". Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, CO.
26. ^ Seifer, "Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla" - page 94
27. ^ "Master of Lightning" by Public Broadcasting Service. Website
28. ^ "Tesla Says Edison was an Empiricist. Electrical Technician Declares Persistent Trials Attested Inventor's Vigor. 'His Method Inefficient' A Little Theory Would Have Saved Him 90% of Labor, Ex-Aide Asserts. Praises His Great Genius.", New York Times, October 19, 1931. "Nikola Tesla, one of the world's outstanding electrical technicians, who came to America in 1884 to work with Thomas A. Edison, specifically in the designing of motors and generators, recounted yesterday some of ..."
29. ^ http://www.westegg.com/inflation/ Adjusting the reported given amount of money for inflation, the \$50,000 in 1885 would equal \$1,082,008.74 in 2006
30. ^ Clifford A. Pickover, Strange Brains and Genius: The Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientists and Madmen. HarperCollins, 1999. 352 pages. P. 14. ISBN
31. ^ "My Inventions" by Nikola Tesla, printed in Electrical Experimenter Feb-June, 1919. Reprinted, edited by Ben Johnson, New York: Barnes & Noble, 1982. ISBN
32. ^ Jonnes,"Empire of light" p. 110
33. ^ a b c Houston, E. J. (1889). A dictionary of electrical words, terms and phrases. New York: W.J. Johnston. Page 956.
34. ^ Routledge, R., & Pepper, J. H. (1876). Discoveries and inventions of the nineteenth century. London: G. Routledge and sons. Page 545.
35. ^ Archie Frederick Collins, Wireless Telegraphy: Its History, Theory and Practice. McGraw publishing company, 1905. Page 131
36. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers". American Institute of Electrical Engineers, May 1888.
37. ^ Robert Routledge, Discoveries and Inventions of the Nineteenth Century. G. Routledge and Sons, 1903. Page 542.
38. ^ "Tesla's invention of the AND logic gate". Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, CO. (ed., this pertains to the U.S. Patent 723,188  and U.S. Patent 725,605 )
39. ^ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "The IEEE standard dictionary of electrical and electronics terms". 6th ed. New York, N.Y., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, c1997. IEEE Std . ISBN [ed. Standards Coordinating Committee 10, Terms and Definitions; Jane Radatz, (chair)]
40. ^ Dugan, William James, "Hand-book of electro-therapeutics". F.A.Davis Company, 1910. Page 123. "[...] speak of "Tesla currents" when we really mean the high frequency currents."
41. ^ Snow, William Benham, "Currents of high potential of high and other frequencies". Scientific authors' publishing Co., 1918. Page 121.
42. ^ Norrie, H. S., "Induction Coils: How to make, use, and repair them".Norman H. Schneider, 1907, New York. 4th edition.
43. ^ Electrical experimenter, January 1919. Page 615
44. ^ The Electrical engineer. (1884). London: Biggs & Co. Page 19
45. ^ Bengt Anders Benson, Perseption apparatus for the Blind, U.S. Patent
46. ^ Houston, E. J. (1889). A dictionary of electrical words, terms and phrases. New York: W.J. Johnston. Page 801.
47. ^ Houston, E. J. (1889). A dictionary of electrical words, terms and phrases. New York: W.J. Johnston. Page 878.
48. ^ N. Tesla, "High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes". Proceedings of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association, American Electro-Therapeutic Association. Page 25.
49. ^ George Frederick Shrady, Thomas Lathrop Stedman, Medical Record, 1897. Page 287.
50. ^ Tesla held that these were in fact longitudinal waves, such as those produced in waves in plasma. In a plasma or a confined space, there can exist waves which are either longitudinal or transverse, or a mixture of both. There are known examples of this and these plasma waves can occur in the situation of force-free magnetic fields. For more information on this phenomenon, see: David J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, ISBN -X and John D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, ISBN -X.
51. ^ N. Tesla, "High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes". Proceedings of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association, American Electro-Therapeutic Association. Page 16.
52. ^ A Survey of Laser Lightning Rod Techniques - Barnes, Arnold A., Jr. ; Berthel, Robert O.
53. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - HSV Technologies
54. ^ Vehicle Disabling Weapon by Peter A. Schlesinger, President, HSV Technologies, Inc. - NDIA Non-Lethal Defense IV 20-22 Mar 2000
55. ^ Norrie, H. S., "Induction Coils: How to make, use, and repair them". Norman H. Schneider, 1907, New York. 4th edition.
56. ^ O'Neill, "Prodigal Genius" pp 162-164
57. ^ Krumme, Katherine, Mark Twain and Nikola Tesla: Thunder and Lightning. December 4, 2000 (PDF)
58. ^ Grotz, Toby, "The Influence of Vedic Philosophy on Nikola Tesla's Understanding of Free Energy".
59. ^ John Patrick Barrett, Electricity at the Columbian Exposition. R.R. Donnelley 1894 (World's Columbian Exposition, 1893, Chicago, Ill.) Page 168-169
60. ^ Waser, André, "Nikola Tesla’s Radiations and the Cosmic Rays".
61. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "My Inventions", Electrical Experimenter magazine, Feb, June, and Oct, 1919. ISBN (teslaplay.comversion; also the version at rastko.org)
62. ^ Jonnes, Jill. Empires of Light ISBN . Page 355, referencing O'Neill, John J., Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla (New York: David McKay, 1944), p. 167.
63. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "The True Wireless". Electrical Experimenter, May 1919. (also at pbs.org)
64. ^ Gillispie, Charles Coulston, "Dictionary of Scientific Biography"; Tesla, Nikola. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. ISBN
65. ^ Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, and A. H. Aidinejad, "Atmospheric Fields, Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors". 1994.
66. ^ Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, "Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations, and Stationary Waves". 1994.
67. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "Talking with Planets". Collier's Weekly, February 19, 1901. (EarlyRadioHistory.us)
68. ^ Spencer, John (1991). The UFO Encyclopedia. New York: Avon Books.
69. ^ Corum, Kenneth L.; James F. Corum (1996). Nikola Tesla and the electrical signals of planetary origin, 14.
70. ^ O'Neill, "Prodigal Genius" pp 228-229
71. ^ Seifer, "Wizard" pp 378-380
72. ^ Page, R.M., "The Early History of RADAR", Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 50, Number 5, May, 1962, (special 50th Anniversary Issue).
73. ^ http://www.teslasociety.com/teslavillage.htm Tesla telegram to Vladko Maček
74. ^ Prepared Statement by Nikola Tesla downloadable from www.tesla.hu
75. ^ New York Times, July 11, 1935, p 23, c.8
76. ^ New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932
77. ^ 1936 unpublished interview, quoted in Anderson, L, ed. Nikola Tesla: Lecture Before the New York Academy of Sciences: The Streams of Lenard and Roentgen and Novel Apparatus for Their Production, April 6, 1897, reconstructed 1994
78. ^ "Tesla's Ray". Time, July 23, 1934.
79. ^ "Tesla, at 78, Bares New 'Death-Beam"', New York Times, July 11, 1934.
80. ^ "Tesla Invents Peace Ray". New York Sun, July 10, 1934.
81. ^ "Death-Ray Machine Described", New York Sun, July 11, 1934.
82. ^ "A Machine to End War". Feb. 1935.
83. ^ Seifer, Marc J., "Wizard, the Life and Times of Nikola Tesla". ISBN (HC) p. 454
84. ^ Seifer, "Wizard" p. 454
85. ^ "Beam to Kill Army at 200 Miles, Tesla's Claim on 78th Birthday". New York Times, July 11, 1934.
86. ^ "'Death Ray' for Planes". New York Times, September 22, 1940.
87. ^ "Aerial Defense 'Death-Beam' Offered to U. S. By Tesla" July 12, 1940
88. ^ O'Neill, John J., "Tesla Tries To Prevent World War II". (unpublished Chapter 34 of Prodigal Genius) (PBS)
89. ^ Velox, Particle beam weapon. everything2.com
90. ^ "Nikola Tesla Dies. Prolific Inventor. Alternating Power Current's Developer Found Dead in Hotel Suite Here. Claimed a 'Death Beam'. He Insisted the Invention Could Annihilate an Army of 1,000,000 at Once.", New York Times, January 8, 1943, Friday.
91. ^ Hoover, John Edgar, et al., FOIA FBI files, 1943.
92. ^ Victoria Park statue and sculptor's comments Tesla Memorial Society
93. ^ Nikola Tesla Museum
94. ^ The portrait survived in the collection of Ludwig Nissen, Brooklyn, see: Klaus Lengsfeld: Sammlung Ludwig Nissen : Husum 1855 - 1924 New York; Dokumentation d. Kunstsammlung Ludwig Nissens anlässl. d. Ausstellung zu seinem 125. Geburtstag im Nissenhaus zu Husum, 1980, 169 Pages. (= Schriften des Nordfriesischen Museums Ludwig-Nissen-Haus, Nr. 16)
95. ^ IEEE, "IEEE Nikola Tesla Award. April 01, 2005.
96. ^ National Bank of Serbia
97. ^ Why the Name "Tesla"?, Tesla Motors, Inc., 2006
98. ^ Kerryr.net
99. ^ Nikola Tesla. NNDB.
100. ^ Secor, H. Winfield, "Tesla's views on Electricity and the War", Electrical Experimenter, Volume 5, Number 4, August, 1917.
101. ^ "Giant Eye to See Round the World" Albany Telegram, February 25, 1923 (doc).
102. ^ Viereck, George Sylvester, and Nikola Tesla, "A Machine to End War - A Famous Inventor, Picturing Life 100 Years from Now, Reveals an Astounding Scientific Venture Which He Believes Will Change the Course of History". Liberty, February 1937.
103. ^ Kennedy, John B., "When woman is boss, An interview with Nikola Tesla". Colliers, January 30, 1926.
104. ^ Nikola Tesla, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy". Century Illustrated Magazine, June 1900.
105. ^ O'Neill, "Prodigal Genius" (extract at Electrosensitivity.org - Q&A)

## References

• Margaret Cheney, Robert Uth, and Jim Glenn, "Tesla, Master of Lightning", published by Barnes & Noble, 1999. ISBN .
• Germano, Frank, "Dr. Nikola Tesla". Frank. Germano.com.
• Lomas, Robert, "The Man who Invented the Twentieth Century". Lecture to South Western Branch of Instititute of Physics.
• Martin, Thomas Commerford, "The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla", New York: The Electrical Engineer, 1894 (3rd Ed.); reprinted by Barnes & Noble, 1995 ISBN-X
• O'Neill, John J., "Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola", 1944. ISBN (Tesla reportedly said of this biographer "You understand me better than any man alive"; also the version at uncletaz.com with other items at uncletaz's site)
• Penner, John R.H. The Strange Life of Nikola Tesla, corrupted version of My Inventions.
• Pratt, H., "Nikola Tesla 1856–1943", Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 44, September, 1956.
• "Nikola Tesla". IEEE History Center, 2005.
• Seifer, Marc J. "Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla; Biography of a Genius", Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN
• Weisstein, Eric W., "Tesla, Nikola (1856–1943)". Eric Weisstein's World of Science.
• "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature", Moon Nomenclature: Crater. USGS, Astrogeology Research Program.
• Dimitrijevic, Milan S., "Belgrade Astronomical Observatory Historical Review". Publ. Astron. Obs. Belgrade,), 162–170. Also, "Srpski asteroidi, Tesla". Astronomski magazine.
• Hoover, John Edgar, et al., FOIA FBI files, 1943.
• Pratt, H., "Nikola Tesla 1856–1943", Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 44, September, 1956.
• W.C. Wysock, J.F. Corum, J.M. Hardesty and K.L. Corum, "Who Was The Real Dr. Nikola Tesla? (A Look At His Professional Credentials)". Antenna Measurement Techniques Association, posterpaper, October 22–25, 2001 (PDF)
• Roguin, Ariel, "Historical Note: Nikola Tesla: The man behind the magnetic field unit". J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004;19:369–374. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
• Sellon, J. L., "The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry". Behrent Eng. Co., Wheat Ridge, CO. Cement Industry Technical Conference. 1997. XXXIX Conference Record., 1997 IEEE/PC. Page(s) 125–133. ISBN
• Valentinuzzi, M.E., "Nikola Tesla: why was he so much resisted and forgotten?" Inst. de Bioingenieria, Univ. Nacional de Tucuman; Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE. July/August 1998, 17:4, pp. 74–75. ISSN
• Waser, André, "Nikola Tesla’s Radiations and the Cosmic Rays". (PDF)
• Secor, H. Winfield, "Tesla's views on Electricity and the War", Electrical Experimenter, Volume 5, Number 4, August, 1917.
• Florey, Glen, "Tesla and the Military". Engineering 24, December 5, 2000.
• Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, "Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations, and Stationary Waves". 1994.
• Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, and A. H. Aidinejad, "Atmospheric Fields, Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors". 1994.
• Meyl, Konstantin, H. Weidner, E. Zentgraf, T. Senkel, T. Junker, and P. Winkels, "Experiments to proof the evidence of scalar waves Tests with a Tesla reproduction". Institut für Gravitationsforschung (IGF), Am Heerbach 5, D-63857 Waldaschaff.
• Anderson, L. I., "John Stone Stone on Nikola Tesla’s Priority in Radio and Continuous Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus". The Antique Wireless Association Review, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 18–41.
• Anderson, L. I., "Priority in Invention of Radio, Tesla v. Marconi". Antique Wireless Association monograph, March 1980.
• Marincic, A., and D. Budimir, "Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation". Dept. of Electron. Eng., Belgrade Univ. (5th International Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite, Cable and Broadcasting Service, 2001. TELSIKS 2001. pp. 327–331 vol.1) ISBN-X
• Page, R.M., "The Early History of Radar", Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 50, Number 5, May, 1962, (special 50th Anniversary Issue).
• C Mackechnie Jarvis "Nikola Tesla and the induction motor". 1970 Phys. Educ. 5 280–287.
• "Giant Eye to See Round the World" (DOC)
• Nichelson, Oliver, "Nikola Tesla's Latter Energy Generation Designs", A description of Tesla's energy generator that "would not consume fuel." 26th IECEC Proceedings, 1991, Boston, MA (American Nuclear Society) Vol. 4, pp. 433-438.
• Nichelson, Oliver, "The Thermodynamics of Tesla's Fuelless Electrical generator". A theory of the physics of Tesla's new energy generator. (American Chemical Society, 1993. 2722-5/93/)
• Toby Grotz, "The Influence of Vedic Philosophy on Nikola Tesla's Understanding of Free Energy".

is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

### Articles (pre-1900)

• A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, May 1888.
• Selected Tesla Writings, Written by Tesla and others,.
• Light Without Heat, The Manufacturer and Builder, January 1892, Vol. 24
• Biography - Nikola Tesla, The Century Magazine, November 1893, Vol. 47
• Tesla's Oscillator and Other Inventions, The Century Magazine, November 1894, Vol. 49
• The New Telegraphy. Recent Experiments in Telegraphy wih Sparks, The Century Magazine, November 1897, Vol. 55

### Books

• Anderson, Leland I., "Dr. Nikola Tesla (1856–1943)", 2d enl. ed., Minneapolis, Tesla Society. 1956. LCCN /L
• Auster, Paul, "Moon Palace", 1989. Tells Tesla's story - among other's - within the history of the United States.
• Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out of Time", 1981. ISBN .
• Childress, David H., "The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla," 1993. ISBN
• Glenn, Jim, "The Complete Patents of Nikola Tesla," 1994. ISBN
• Jonnes, Jill "Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World". New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN
• Martin, Thomas C., "The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla," 1894 . ISBN-X
• O'Neill, John Jacob,"Prodigal Genius," 1944. Paperback reprint 1994, ISBN . (ed. Prodigal Genius is available online)
• Lomas, Robert,"The man who invented the twentieth century : Nikola Tesla, forgotten genius of electricity," 1999. ISBN
• Ratzlaff, John and Lee Anderson, "Dr. Nikola Tesla Bibliography", Ragusan Press, Palo Alto, California, 1979, 237 pages. Extensive listing of articles about and by Nikola Tesla.
• Seifer, Marc J., "Wizard, the Life and Times of Nikola Tesla," 1998. ISBN (HC), ISBN (SC)
• Tesla, Nikola, "Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900", ISBN-X
• Tesla, Nikola, "My Inventions" Parts I through V published in the Electrical Experimenter monthly magazine from February through June, 1919. Part VI published October, 1919. Reprint edition with introductory notes by Ben Johnson, New York: Barnes and Noble,1982, ISBN; also online at "My Inventions", 1919. ISBN
• Valone, Thomas, "Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy," 2002. ISBN
• Caparica, A.J., "The Adventurers" features Nikola Tesla as a main protagonist. 2007. ISBN

Paul Auster Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947, Newark, New Jersey) is a Brooklyn-based author. ... Moon Palace is a novel written by Paul Auster that was first published in 1989. ... Robert Lomas is a British writer and business studies academic. ...

### Magazines

• Carlson, W. Bernard, "Inventor of dreams". Scientific American, March 2005 Vol. 292 Issue 3 p. 78(7).
• Jatras, Stella L., "The genius of Nikola Tesla". The New American, July 28, 2003 Vol. 19 Issue 15 p. 9(1)
• Rybak, James P., "Nikola Tesla: Scientific Savant". Popular Electronics, 1042170X, November 1999, Vol. 16, Issue 11.
• Lawren, B., "Rediscovering Tesla". Omni, March 1988, Vol. 10 Issue 6.

Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... The John Birch Society (JBS) is an ultraconservative organization that was founded in 1958 to fight the threat of Communism in the United States as well as restoring the constitutional principles the United States was founded on in its original American government. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Altair 8800 computer kit (January 1975) Popular Electronics was a magazine started by Ziff-Davis Publishing in October 1954 for hobbyist and experimenters in electronics. ... The cover of the January 1991 issue of Omni. ...

### Documentary and biographical films

See also: Nikola Tesla in popular culture
• There are at least two films describing Tesla's life. In the first, filmed in 1977, arranged for TV, Tesla was portrayed by Rade Šerbedžija. In 1980, Orson Welles produced a Yugoslav film named Tajna Nikole Tesle (The Secret of Nikola Tesla), in which Welles himself played the part of Tesla's patron, J.P. Morgan. Film was directed by Krsto Papić, and Nikola Tesla was portrayed by Petar Božović.
• "Tesla: Master of Lightning". 1999. ISBN (Book) ISBN (PBS Video)
• Lost Lightning: The Missing Secrets of Nikola Tesla (at Google Video) - Phenomenon: the Lost Archives documentary about Tesla's designs for free energy and defensive weapons systems.
• David Bowie portrayed Tesla in the 2006 film "The Prestige". Tesla's time in Colorado Springs was the focus of several scenes in the film.

David Bowie as Tesla in the movie The Prestige Nikola Tesla has appeared in popular culture as a character in books, films, comics and video games. ... Rade Šerbedžija (born 27 July 1946), is a Croatian-born actor and director of ethnic Serbian descent. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 â€“ October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... Petar BoÅ¾oviÄ‡ (born May 22, 1946 in Zemun,Serbia) is a popular actor from Serbia. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... The Prestige is a 2006 period film directed by Christopher Nolan, with a screenplay adapted from the 1995 World Fantasy Award-winning novel of the same name by Christopher Priest. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Nikola Tesla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7796 words) Tesla known for his contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century. Tesla received his last patent in 1928 for an apparatus for aerial transportation which was the first instance of VTOL aircraft. Tesla claimed that one of his life goals was to create a flying machine that would run without the use of an airplane engine, wings, ailerons, propellers, or an onboard fuel source.
More results at FactBites »

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