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Encyclopedia > Nike, Inc

Nike, Inc. (NYSE: NKE) (Pronounced - 'Nigh-Key') started with sports shoes and now produces equipment for almost every sport, as well as clothing, school supplies, and other products. This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the second largest stock exchange in the world. ... Womens shoes on display in a shop window, July 2005 A shoe is an item of footwear. ...


The company takes its name from the Greek goddess of victory, Nike. The popular logo is a graphic design created by Carolyn Davidson in 1971 for $35. The logo is meaningless, it was created before the name was chosen and, as stated in an interview with Davidson, its sole constraint being that it should be a strong sign on the side of the shoe. In Greek mythology, Nike (Greek Νίκη, pronounced /nike/ Nee-keh, meaning Victory) (Roman equivalent: Victoria), was a goddess who personified triumph and victory. ... Carolyn Davidson created the famous Nike swoosh as a Portland State University graphic design student for $35 in 1971. ...


Nike is headquartered in Beaverton, Oregon. Beaverton is a city located in Washington County, Oregon, seven miles west of Portland in the Tualatin River Valley. ...

Contents


History

  • 1964 Bill Bowerman, a track coach at the University of Oregon, and Phil Knight, an accounting student and middle-distance runner, had the dream of bringing low-priced, high-tech athletic shoes from Japan to the U.S. At the time German shoes dominated the industry. That year, after they entered business together, shoes from Onitsuka Tiger (now ASICS) were sold in the U.S. by Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS).
  • 1965 Jeff Johnson, a former rival on the track of Knight's, joined as the company's first full time salesman. He was busy selling shoes out of the back of his van to High Schoolers at track meets. Then in 1966, at 3107 Pico Blvd., in Santa Monica, California, Johnson opened the company's first retail outlet.

Bowerman's desire to improve on Tiger's designs, and Knight's drive to do more landed them with a new direction. Johnson gave this new company the name Nike and Bowerman gave them new designs. After forty years, Nike is now a leader in the sports and fitness industry. 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... William J. Bowerman (b. ... University of Oregon The University of Oregon (UO) is a Public University located in Eugene. ... Philip Knight (born February 24, 1938) is the founder and former CEO of Nike, Inc. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... ASICS is an athletic shoe company that started in 1949 when Kihachiro Onitsuka began manufacturing basketball shoes at his home in Kobe Japan. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... Santa Monica Pier Santa Monica is a coastal city located in western Los Angeles County, California, USA, by the Pacific Ocean, south of Pacific Palisades and Brentwood, west of Westwood, Los Angeles, and north of Venice. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ...

  • 1971 Nike's Swoosh design logo was created by Portland State University graphic design student Carolyn Davidson when asked by Knight. He needed a logo to put on the side of his company's shoes. At the time she was paid $35 (US), and also worked for Nike for a few years until they needed a full ad agency. Twelve years later, in 1983, Ms. Davidson received a gold Swoosh ring with an embedded diamond at a luncheon honoring her, along with a certificate and an undisclosed amount of Nike stock, in recognition of the Swoosh design logo.
  • 1979 Nike's Air technology is introduced in the Tailwind running shoe. Gas-filled plastic membranes are inserted into the sole of running shoes to provide cushioning.
  • 1980 Nike completes an initial public offering of 2,377,000 shares of Class B common stock on December 2.
  • 1984 Nike signs Michael Jordan to an endorsement contract and releases the first model of his signature shoe, the Air Jordan. Originally, the NBA banned this new shoe, drawing a tremendous amount of publicity. The introduction of the Air Jordan shoe was a key event in Nike's successful development.
  • 1986 Nike revenues surpass $1 billion for the first time.
  • 1987 The Nike Air Max shoe is introduced, which uses a much larger Air cushioning unit, and for the first time is visible at the side of the midsole. This was the first of many generations of Air Max-branded technologies. A television ad featuring the Beatles' song "Revolution" was the first and only time that a song performed by the Beatles was used in a TV ad.
  • 1988 Nike introduces its "Just Do It" slogan.
  • 1989 Nike introduces a new type of footwear designed specifically for cross-training, and features two-sport athlete Bo Jackson in a series of memorable ads called "Bo Knows."
  • 1990 Nike opens the first Niketown store in downtown Portland, Ore., and the store quickly earns numerous retail design and business awards. Over the next 10 years, Nike will open 14 more Niketown stores across the USA and in England and Germany.
  • 1993 Nike introduces an innovative sustainability program, Reuse-A-Shoe, which collects athletic shoes, separates and grinds them up into Nike Grind. which is used in the making of athletic courts, tracks and fields.
  • 1994 Nike signs a long-term partnership with the Brazilian national football (soccer) team, launching a company-wide effort to become the world's leading football brand.
  • 1996 Nike signs Eldrick "Tiger" Woods soon after the young golfing phenom gives up his amateur status. Woods becomes the standard bearer for Nike Golf as that division gains market share.
  • 1996 Nike causes controversy with advertising campaign at the Summer Olympics in Atlanta which features the slogan, "You Don't Win Silver — You Lose Gold." Nike's use of this slogan draws harsh criticism from many sources, including several former Olympic silver and bronze medalists.
  • 1996 Nike opens Niketown New York, its signature 'flagship' store located in midtown Manhattan.
  • 1998 Phil Knight formally commits Nike to strict standards for manufacturing facilities used by Nike, including: minimum age; air quality; mandatory education programs; expansion of microloan program; factory monitoring; and enhanced transparency of Nike's corporate responsibility practices.
  • 1999 Bill Bowerman, co-founder of Nike, dies on Dec. 24 at age 88.
  • 2000 Introduction of the Shox athletic shoe technology.
  • 2002 Rap Star Nelly releases a chart topping song about Air Force Ones.
  • 2003 For the first time in the company's history, international sales exceed USA sales, as Nike continues to develop into a truly global company.
  • 2003 Nike is named "Advertiser of the Year" by the Cannes Advertising Festival, the first company to earn that honor twice (also 1994) in the festival's 50-year history.
  • 2003 High school basketball star LeBron James signs with Nike, while Syracuse University star Carmelo Anthony signs with Jordan Brand. James and Anthony finish 1-2, respectively, in rookie-of-the-year balloting.
  • 2004 Phil Knight steps down as CEO and President of Nike, but continues as chairman. Knight is replaced by William D. Perez as CEO of Nike, effective Dec. 28.
  • 2004 Annual revenues exceed $13 billion.
  • 2004 In June, Chinese animator Zhu Zhiqianq, of Xiao Xiao fame, files a lawsuit against Nike for plagiarizing his cartoon stickmen in their commercials. Nike representatives deny the accusations, claiming that the stickman figure lacks originality, and is public domain. Zhu eventually wins the lawsuit, and Nike is sentenced to pay $36,000 to the cartoonist. [1]
  • 2005 Nike launches the Air Jordan XX, the 20th edition of the iconic Air Jordan basketball shoe series.

1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Portland State University (or PSU) is a university located in downtown Portland, Oregon. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Air Force 1 Shoe is a product of Nike, Inc. ... Basketball is very popular in U.S. colleges. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Jordan Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963, in Brooklyn, New York) is a former National Basketball Association player, and is considered by many the greatest basketball player of all time. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nike Air Max is a shoe by the company Nike that was introduced in 1987 as the first example of Air Max-branded technologies. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... // The Olympic Games, or Olympics, is an international multi-sport event taking place every two years and alternating between Summer and Winter Games. ... Atlanta is the capital and largest city of Georgia, a state of the United States of America. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Shox is an ambitious new technology developed by Nike and now being implemented into several of their flagship running shoes. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chuck Taylor All-Star Converse is an American shoe company that has been selling shoes since the early 20th century. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... LeBron James (born December 30, 1984 in Akron, Ohio) is an NBA basketball player for the Cleveland Cavaliers. ... Carmelo with Coach Jim Boeheim at Syracuse in 2003 Carmelo Anthony (born May 29, 1984 in New York City, New York) currently plays professional basketball as a small forward for the Denver Nuggets of the NBA. Anthonys father is Puerto Rican and his mother African-American. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Xiao Xiao is a series of Internet cartoons by Chinese animator Zhu Zhiqiang, featuring stick-figure men performing choreographed fight scenes. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...

Diversity

The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. Nike received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign in 2002. They have maintained this rating in 2003 and 2004. HRC logo The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Corporate Responsibility

Nike is criticised for using sweatshops in countries like Indonesia and Mexico. The company has been subject to much critical coverage of the often poor working conditions and the exploitativeness of the cheap overseas labor employed in the free trade zones where their goods are typically manufactured. Sources of this criticism include Naomi Klein's book No Logo and Michael Moore's documentaries. Max Barry lampooned the company's reputation amongst critics in his novel Jennifer Government, in which an amoral Nike executive is the story's villain. A sweatshop is a factory, where people work for a very small wage, producing a variety of products such as clothes, toys, shoes, and other consumer goods. ... Free trade zones, also called free trade areas or export processing zones, designate either parts of a country or groups of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quotas and preferences on most goods between them. ... Naomi Klein Naomi Klein (born 1970) is a Canadian journalist, author and activist. ... No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, a controversial book written by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein, first appeared in January 2000. ... Michael Moore with his Oscar award after Bowling for Columbine won the 2003 Academy Award for Documentary Feature. ... Max Barry Max Barry (born March 18, 1973) is the Australian author of Syrup (his pen name for that novel was Maxx Barry for satirical, not pretentious, purposes) and Jennifer Government. ... Jennifer Government (titled Logoland for the German and Italian editions) is a black comedy written by Max Barry. ...


The forced labor camp like conditions in some overseas production plants led to several called-for boycotts (eg.[2]), together with coining the alternative name for the company's swoosh logo, "swooshtika". . A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade with an individual or business who is generally believed by the participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. ... A swoosh is a graphical figure reminiscent of a caligraphical flick of the pen, also described as a crescent swish. Its best know for its use in logos, particulary the Nike logo. ... Swooshtika (a combination of swoosh and swastika) is a derogatory reference to the distinctive logo of the Nike Corporation. ...


Other sources of criticism are hypocritical advertising (ads about empowering women in the U.S. while disempowering women in East Asian factories)[3], and wording of endorsement contracts with some major universities that prohibits criticism of the apparel manufacturer by the university athletes and employees (this clause is also in some Reebok contracts), making publication of critical articles grounds for action. A contract is any legally-enforceable promise or set of promises made by one party to another and, as such, reflects the policies represented by freedom of contract. ... Reebok International Limited (NYSE: RBK) is a Fortune 500 company and producer of athletic footwear, apparel, and accessories. ...


The company also faced criticism when it claimed immunity from a false advertising lawsuit filed by Marc Kasky in California based on the claim that it enjoyed First Amendment rights, as if the corporation were a human being. The dispute proceeded all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court Nike v. Kasky, but was sent back to California courts without a substantive ruling and subsequently was settled out of court. The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


Nike has also been the focus of criticism for using the Beatles song "Revolution" in a commercial against the wishes of Yoko Ono and Paul McCartney (this was after John Lennon's death.) Such use is considered demeaning to the author's intent in writing the song. The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (possibly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). ... The Beatles recorded three songs with Revolution in the title. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Ono on the cover of 1971s Fly Yoko Ono Lennon (born February 18, 1933 in Tokyo, Japan) is a Japanese-born American musician and artist. ... Paul McCartney, as photographed by John Kelley for the 1968 LP The Beatles (aka The White Album). Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is a British singer, musician and songwriter, who first came to prominence as a member of The Beatles. ... John Lennon in the autumn of 1968 John Winston Lennon, later John Ono Lennon, (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), was best known as a singer, songwriter, and guitarist for The Beatles. ...


In late June of 2005, Nike came under fire from independent music fans for their use of a classic, easily identifiable Minor Threat album cover slightly modified into a promotional tool for their line of skateboarding shoes. With Minor Threat being emblematic of underground punk rock culture, and their former frontman Ian MacKaye (of Fugazi and Dischord Records) being an outspoken champion of true independent music and the DIY ethic, Nike's move to use this image struck many as a cynical attempt by a large, money hungry corporation to target an untapped demographic, undermining what Minor Threat stood for, and what Dischord continues to represent. On the 27th of June, Nike skateboarding's website did issue an apology to Dischord, Minor Threat, and anyone else who was offended by their act, and claimed that all uses, digital or otherwise, of the image would be removed. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... In the context of popular music, the term indie (from independent) is often used to refer to a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by (real or perceived) independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach. ... Minor Threat was a short-lived hardcore punk band from Washington DC. They have been hugely influential: Critics have called them and their work iconic, [1] and noted their groundbreaking music has held up better than most of their contemporaries. ... An Inward Heelflip Skateboarding is the act of rolling on or interacting with a skateboard. ... shoe for right foot A shoe is a piece of footwear for humans, less than a boot and more than a slipper. ... Minor Threat was a short-lived hardcore punk band from Washington DC. They have been hugely influential: Critics have called them and their work iconic, [1] and noted their groundbreaking music has held up better than most of their contemporaries. ... Underground as an adjective commonly refers to something that is either below the ground or outside of public consciousness. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Ian Mackaye Ian MacKaye (pronounced Mc-Eye) (b. ... Alternate meanings: Fugazi (disambiguation) Fugazi (left to right): Ian MacKaye, Brendan Canty, Joe Lally, and Guy Picciotto Fugazi is a post-hardcore group from Washington, D.C., formed in 1987. ... Dischord founders Ian Mackaye and Jeff Nelson Dischord Records is a Washington, D.C.-based record label specializing in D.C.-area independent punk, hardcore, and post-hardcore music. ... In the context of popular music, the term indie (from independent) is often used to refer to a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by (real or perceived) independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach. ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ... Minor Threat was a short-lived hardcore punk band from Washington DC. They have been hugely influential: Critics have called them and their work iconic, [1] and noted their groundbreaking music has held up better than most of their contemporaries. ... Dischord founders Ian Mackaye and Jeff Nelson Dischord Records is a Washington, D.C.-based record label specializing in D.C.-area independent punk, hardcore, and post-hardcore music. ...

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