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Encyclopedia > Night on Bald Mountain
Modest Mussorgsky
Modest Mussorgsky

A Night on Bald Mountain usually refers to one of two compositions – either a seldom performed early (1867) 'musical picture' by Modest Mussorgsky, St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (Russian: Иванова ночь на лысой горе, Ivanova noch' na lïsoy gore), or a later (1886) and very popular 'fantasy for orchestra' by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, A Night on the Bare Mountain (Russian: Ночь на лысой горе, Noch' na lïsoy gore), based almost entirely on Mussorgsky's themes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The fantasia (also English fantasy, German fantasie, French fantaisie) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. ... Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: Никола́й Андре́евич Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков), also Nikolai, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 18, 1844 &#8211...

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov

Inspired by Russian literary works and legend, Mussorgsky made a witches' sabbath the theme of the original tone poem, completed on June 23rd, 1867 (St. John's Eve). St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain and Rimsky-Korsakov's 'musical picture' Sadko (also composed in 1867) share the distinction of being the first tone poems by Russian composers. Image File history File links NARK.jpg‎ This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links NARK.jpg‎ This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... Francisco Goyas Los Caprichos: Linda maestra! (Nice mistress!) - witches heading to a Sabbath In Christian folklore, the Sabbath (also known as Witchs Sabbath) was a gathering supposed to have been celebrated by Satanists, witches and warlocks to honor the Devil, offend God, Jesus, the sacraments, the cross, and... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The evening of June 23, St. ...


As with so much of Mussorgsky's music, the work had a tortuous compositional history and was arranged after his death in 1881 by his friend and fellow member of the Mighty Handful Rimsky-Korsakov. It was never performed in any form during Mussorgsky's lifetime. The Rimsky-Korsakov edition premiered in 1886, and has become a concert favorite. Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under...


Note on the title: The Russian word «лысая» (lïsaya) literally means "bald", but is used in this case figuratively for a mountain supposedly barren of trees. Therefore, most experts officially title the piece A Night on the Bare Mountain, even if they commonly refer to it as Night on Bald Mountain.

Contents

Composition History

"No work of Mussorgsky's has had a more confused history and none is less known."

The following list traces the evolution of the Night on Bald Mountain music:


Opera Project: St. John's Eve (1858)


Mussorgsky's first ideas for a work set on St. John's Eve go back to 1858, when he discussed with Balakirev and others plans to write a three-act opera based on Gogol's short story St. John's Eve (Russian: Вечер накануне Ивана Купала, Vecher nakanune Ivana Kupala, St. John's Eve). Gogol's bloody tale contains the elements of devilry and witchcraft common to other stories in the Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka collection, but does not, as is often claimed, feature a witches' sabbath. Although Mussorgsky may have composed thematic sketches for this project, his plans were not mentioned again. Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Russian Милий Алексеевич Бала́кирев) (January 2, 1837 – May 29, 1910) was a Russian composer. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka is a collection of short stories by Nikolai Gogol, written from 1831-1832. ...


Opera Project: The Witch (1860)


The theme of a witches' sabbath, the central theme in all subsequent Night on Bald Mountain projects, appears to have been derived from the nonextant play The Witch (Russian: Ведьма, Ved'ma, Witch) by Baron Georgy Mengden, a military friend of the composer. In 1860 Mussorgsky informed Balakirev that he had been commissioned to write one act of an opera on this subject. However, as with the previous project, it is unknown whether any materials were composed, and if so, whether they were transferred to subsequent projects. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... Francisco Goyas Los Caprichos: Linda maestra! (Nice mistress!) - witches heading to a Sabbath In Christian folklore, the Sabbath (also known as Witchs Sabbath) was a gathering supposed to have been celebrated by Satanists, witches and warlocks to honor the Devil, offend God, Jesus, the sacraments, the cross, and...


Work for piano and orchestra (Early 1860's)


Rimsky-Korsakov declares in his memoirs (Chronicle of My Musical Life) that in the early 1860's Mussorgsky had written a version of the Night on Bald Mountain music for piano and orchestra, under the influence of Liszt's Totentanz. However, it is believed that Mussorgsky did not hear Liszt's work until 1866, by which time he was planning the orchestral tone poem St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (see below). No trace of a work for piano and orchestra has survived outside Rimsky-Korsakov's recollections, so it is assumed that the score was lost, or, more likely, that it had never existed. Portrait by Henri Lehmann, 1839 Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc; pronounced , in English: list) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian [1] virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period. ... Totentanz is the name of a symphonic piece for solo piano and orchestra by Franz Liszt (1849), which famously quotes from the Gregorian chant melody for the Dies Irae. ...


Tone Poem: St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (1867)


In 1866 Mussorgsky wrote to Balakirev twice expressing a desire to discuss his plans for The Witches, his informal name for his Night on Bald Mountain music. In early June of 1867, he began composing the orchestral version of the piece, and finished the score on June 23 (St. John's Eve). He described the event in a letter to Vladimir Nikolsky: Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"My St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (a far better title than The Witches) is, in form and character, Russian and original; and I want to feel sure that it is thoroughly in keeping with historic truth and Russian folk tradition– othewise it would not be good enough. I wrote it quickly, straight away in full score without preliminary rough drafts, in twelve days. It seethed within me, and I worked day and night, hardly knowing what was happening within me. And now I see in my wicked prank an independent Russian product, free from German profundity and routine, and, like my Savishna, grown on our country's soil and nurtured on Russian bread."

He also stated — wrongly, as it turned out — that he would never re-model it: "with whatever shortcomings, it is born; and with them it must live if it is to live at all." Having finally completed the work, Mussorgsky was crushed when his mentor Mily Balakirev was savagely critical of it. The score of this 'first version' was put aside, and did not appear in print until 1968. Portrait of Balakirev Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Russian: , Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) (January 2, 1837 – May 29, 1910) was a Russian composer. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ...


Unfinished Opera: Mlada (1872) Mlada was a projected 4-act opera-ballet which was planned in 1872 as a collaborative effort between four nineteenth-century Russian composers: Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky and Borodin were each supposed to compose an act. ...


The first re-modelling of the work took place in 1872, when Mussorgsky revised and recast it for chorus and orchestra as part of Act III that he was assigned to contribute to the collaborative opera-ballet Mlada. In this new version the music was to form the basis of the Night on Mt. Triglav (Russian: Ночь на горе Триглав, Noch' na gore Triglav) scene. Mlada was a project doomed to failure, however, and this 'second version' languished along with the first. Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Opera Ballet (ballets de cour) is the name given to ballets performed in the 17th century that occurred within an Opera. ... Mlada was a projected 4-act opera-ballet which was planned in 1872 as a collaborative effort between four nineteenth-century Russian composers: Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky and Borodin were each supposed to compose an act. ...


Unfinished Opera: Sorochintsï Fair (1880) Mussorgsky in 1876 The Fair at Sorochintsï (Russian: , Sorochinskaya yarmarka, Sorochintsï Fair) is a comic opera in three acts by Modest Mussorgsky, composed between 1874 and 1880 in St. ...


The work's 'third version', the Dream Vision of the Peasant Lad (Russian: Сонное видение паробка, Sonnoye videniye parobka), came into existence eight years later when the composer revived and revised the second version (see Night on Mount Triglav above) to function as a 'dream intermezzo' in his opera Sorochintsï Fair (18741880), a work which was still incomplete at the time of his death in 1881. Mussorgsky originally chose the end of Act I of the opera as the location for his choral intermezzo. It is now generally performed in the Shebalin version (1930) of the opera, where it is more logically relocated to Act III, just after the peasant lad's dumka. The theme of the dumka also serves as one of the main themes of the new quiet ending in this version (which also finds its way into the Rimsky-Korsakov edition), thus forming a musical frame to the intermezzo. Mussorgsky in 1876 The Fair at Sorochintsï (Russian: , Sorochinskaya yarmarka, Sorochintsï Fair) is a comic opera in three acts by Modest Mussorgsky, composed between 1874 and 1880 in St. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Publication history

Version Composer Orchestrator Publisher Year
Original tone poem, 1867 Mussorgsky Mussorgsky 1968
Dream Vision of the Peasant Lad, 1880 Mussorgsky Shebalin Muzgiz 1934
Rimsky-Korsakov edition, 1886 Rimsky-Korsakov Rimsky-Korsakov V. Bessel and Co. 1886

Vissarion Shebalin (June 11, 1902, Omsk–May 29, 1963) was a Russian composer. ... V. Bessel and Co. ...

Early performance history

Version City Venue Orchestra Conductor Date
Original tone poem, 1867 Moscow 1968
Dream Vision of the Peasant Lad, 1880 Leningrad Maly Theater Samuil Samosud 1931
Rimsky-Korsakov edition, 1886 St. Petersburg Kononov Hall Russian Symphony Concert Orchestra Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov 15 Oct 1886

Samuil Samosud (born Tblisi, Georgia, 18 May, 1884, died Moscow, 6 November, 1964) was a Russian conductor. ...

Instrumentation

Original Tone Poem (1867)

  • Strings: Violins, Violas, Cellos, Double Basses
  • Woodwinds: 1 Piccolo, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons
  • Brass: 4 Horns, 2 Cornets, 2 Trumpets, 3 Trombones, 1 Tuba
  • Percussion: Timpani, Bass Drum, Snare Drum, Triangle, Tambourine, Cymbals, Tam-tam

Rimsky Korsakov Edition (1886)

  • Strings: Violins, Violas, Cellos, Double Basses
  • Woodwinds: 1 Piccolo, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons
  • Brass: 4 Horns, 2 Trumpets, 3 Trombones, 1 Tuba
  • Percussion: Timpani, Bass Drum, Cymbals, Tam-tam, Bell
  • Other: Harp

Program

Original Tone Poem (1867)


Setting:


Russian legend tells of a witches' sabbath taking place on St. John's Night (June 23-24) on the Lysa Hora (Bald Mountain), near Kiev. For other uses, see Legendary (disambiguation). ... Ivan Kupala Day (Івана Купала, Ivana Kupala) is the day of summer solstice celebrated in Russia and Ukraine on 7 July OS and 23 June NS. This is a pagan fertility rite, which has been accepted into the Orthodox Christian calendar, and has also been associated with St. ... Lysa Hora (Ukrainian: Лиса Гора; Russian: Лысая гора (Lysaya Gora); literally Bald Mountain) is a large woody hill in the Ukrainian capital Kiev, near the confluence of the Dnieper and Lybid rivers. ...


Program:


The following program is taken from the score:

  1. Сбор ведьм, их толки и сплетни (Assembly of the witches, their chatter and gossip)
  2. Поезд Сатаны (Cortège of Satan)
  3. Чёрная служба, Messe noire (Black service, Black mass)
  4. Шабаш (Sabbath)

More details and a variation to this program may be found in a letter written by the composer to Vladimir Nikolsky:

"So far as my memory doesn't deceive me, the witches used to gather on this mountain, gossip, play tricks and await their chief– Satan. On his arrival they, i.e. the witches, formed a circle round the throne on which he sat, in the form of a kid, and sang his praise. When Satan was worked up into a sufficient passion by the witches' praises, he gave the command for the sabbath, in which he chose for himself the witches who caught his fancy. –So this is what I've done. At the head of my score I've put its content: 1. Assembly of the witches, their talk and gossip; 2. Satan's journey; 3. Obscene praises of Satan; and 4. Sabbath... The form and character of the composition are both Russian and original"

Night on Mt. Triglav from Mlada (1872)


Mussorgsky's score for the Night on Mt. Triglav portion of Mlada has not survived. The following scenario is taken from Rimsky-Korsakov's later (1890) 'magic opera-ballet' based on the same libretto.


Setting:


Mlada is set in the 9th or 10th century city of Retra, in the (formerly) Slavic lands between the Baltic Sea coast and the Elbe River. This would be the land of the pre-Christian Polabian Slavs, in the region corresponding to the modern German areas of Vorpommern, Mecklenburg, or Holstein. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... Polabian Slavs is a collective term applied to a number of Slavic tribes living along the Elbe, between the Baltic Sea to the north, Solau to the west and Sudetes to the south. ... Vorpommern (Polish: Pomorze Przednie) - in English sometimes also called West, Upper, or Hither Pomerania - is a region of Pomerania west of the River Oder in north-eastern Germany, including the island of Rügen but excluding the city of Szczecin (former Stettin). ... The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ...


The Mlada scenario is the only Night on Bald Mountain setting that mentions a 'Mt. Triglav', where the supernatural events of Act III take place. It is reasonable to assume that this Mt. Triglav is not the famous peak in Slovenia, some 750 kilometers distant. It is certainly not the Lysa Hora near Kiev, as is often mentioned in program and liner notes. However, the description of it in the libretto, as possessing a snow-covered peak, gorges, and glaciers, makes it difficult to place it among the low mountains and hills of northeast Germany. Incidentally, the name Triglav ['tri'(three) + 'glav'(heads)] happens to be the name of an ancient three-headed slavic deity or a trinity of deities. For other uses, see Triglav (disambiguation). ... Triglav (three headed) is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology, similar in nature to the Trinity in Christianity or Trimurti in Hinduism. ...


Plot:


Voyslava and her father Mstivoy, the Prince of Retra, have poisoned Mlada, the betrothed of Yaromir, Prince of Arkona. Voyslava sells her soul to Morena, an evil goddess, to obtain her aid in making Yaromir forget Mlada so she may have him to herself. In Act III, the shade (ghost) of Mlada leads Yaromir up the slopes of Mt. Triglav to a pine wood in a gorge on top of the mountain. Mlada's shade joins a gathering of the spirits of the dead. She expresses in mime to Yaromir the wish to be reunited with him in the kingdom of dead souls. He is eager to join her. However, there is a rumbling sound announcing the appearance, apparently from underground, of the following fantastic characters: View on Cape Arkona Cape Arkona is a cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... A Shade in the mythological or supernatural sense can be one of many things. ... An artists interpretation of a ghostly woman on a flight of stairs, based on common descriptions A ghost is usually defined as the apparition of a deceased person, frequently similar in appearance to that person, and encountered in places he or she frequented, or in association with the person... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ...

Russian Transcription Description
Злые духи Zlïye dukhi Evil spirits
Ведьмы Ved'mï Witches
Кикиморы Kikimorï Female hobgoblins
Чернобог Chernobog 'Cherno'(black) + 'bog'(god), an infernal Slavic deity, in the form of a goat
Морена Morena An infernal Slavic deity
Кащей Kashchey An ogre familiar from Russian folktales; plays a gusli
Червь Cherv Worm, god of famine
Чума Chuma Plague, god of pestilence
Топелец Topelets 'Drowner', god of floods

The evil spirits sing in a strange demon language. Morena calls on Chernobog to help make Yaromir forsake Mlada. Kashchey determines that Morena and Chernobog will be successful if Yaromir is seduced by another. Chernobog commands Yaromir's soul to separate from his body, and for Queen Cleopatra to appear. Instantly the scene changes to a hall in Egypt, where the shade of Cleopatra attempts to entice Yaromir's soul to her side with a seductive dance. She almost succeeds in doing so when a cock crow announcing the break of day causes the entire infernal host to vanish. Yaromir awakens and ponders the mysterious events he has witnessed. For other uses, see Witchcraft (disambiguation). ... 1934 Illustration by Ivan Bilibin Kikimora is a female house spirit in Slavic mythology, sometimes said to be married to the Domovoi. ... Hobgoblin is a term typically applied in folktales to a friendly or amusing goblin. ... Chernobog (also spelled Crnobog, Czernobog, ÄŒernobog or Zernebog, each name meaning Black God) is a mysterious Slavic deity of whom much has been speculated but little can be said. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In Russian mythology, especially in the Caucasus region, Koschei (Коще́й) is an evil spirit with a terrible appearance, menacing principally young women. ... Hop o My Thumb, illustrated by Gustave Doré An ogre (feminine: ogress) is a large and hideous humanoid monster. ... The Gusli (гусли) is an ancient Russian musical instrument, a kind of a harp, not to be confused with Balkan Gusle. ...


Dream Vision of the Peasant Lad from Sorochintsï Fair (1880)


Setting:


Sorochintsï Fair is set in and around the Ukrainian village of Velyki Sorochyntsi, some 500 kilometers east of Kiev and the famous 'Bald Mountain' (Lysa Hora), in the year 1800. Velyki Sorochyntsi (Ukrainian: , Russian: , tranlit. ...


Plot:


The peasant Solopy Cherevik, his domineering wife Khivrya, and pretty daughter Parasya are visiting the Sorochintsi Fair. Parasya is wooed by Gritsko Golopupenko, the "peasant lad" of the title. Gritsko desires Cherevik's consent to marry his daughter. Although Cherevik is not against the match, his wife objects because Gritsko had thrown mud in her face on the way to the fair. Gritsko strikes a bargain with a gypsy to assist him in winning Parasya. They make use of the superstitious fears of the fairgoers, who believe that the location of the fair this year is ill-chosen, it being the haunt of a devil who was thrown out of hell, took to drinking, went broke, pawned his jacket, and has returned to claim it. After various pranks and comic circumstances, Gritsko achieves his goal and all ends happily.


At the end of Act 1, Gritsko falls asleep some distance from the fair, and, because there has been talk of devilry, has a dream of a witches' sabbath. The following remarks are taken from the score, which is dated 10 May 1880: is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Act I, Scene II – Dream Vision of the Peasant Lad

  • A hilly desolate area. An approaching subterranean choir of infernal forces.
  • Witches and devils surround the sleeping peasant lad.
  • On a hill appear fiery serpents. The approach of Chernobog.
  • Chernobog climbs up from underground. Following him are Kashchey, Cherv, Chuma, Topelets, Smert, and the remaining members of his retinue.
  • Worship of Chernobog: dwarfs begin to circle Chernobog and bow down. Behind them are also visible demons. Chernobog gives the signal for general earthly worship.
  • Sabbath.
  • Ballet.
  • Stroke of a morning bell.
  • Satan and his retinue vanish. The scene is covered by clouds.

Surviving the transfer from Night on Mt.Triglav are the same supernatural characters, although Morena has been replaced by Death (Russian: Смерть, Smert'). Chernobog and his accomplices form a kind of Six Horsemen of the Apocalypse. The demon language the characters sing, of which Mussorgsky was contemptuous in a letter, is preserved. Interestingly, Mussorgsky does not differentiate Satan from Chernobog clearly, in either this scenario or the next. Four horsemen redirects here. ...


The following program was sent to Vladimir Stasov by Mussorgsky about three months after its composition in 1880: Stasov is a quintessential family of Russian intelligentsia. ...

"The peasant lad sleeps at the foot of a hillock at some distance from the hut where he should have been. In his sleep appear to him:

  1. Subterranean roar of non-human voices, uttering non-human words.
  2. The subterranean kingdom of darkness comes into its own -- mocking the sleeping peasant lad.
  3. Foreshadowing of the appearance of Chernobog and Satan.
  4. The peasant lad left by the spirits of darkness. Appearance of Chernobog.
  5. Worship of Chernobog and the black mass.
  6. Sabbath.
  7. At the wildest moment of the sabbath the sound of a Christian church bell. Chernobog suddenly disappears.
  8. Suffering of the demons.
  9. Voices of the clergy in church.
  10. Disappearance of the demons and the peasant lad's awakening."

This scenario parallels that found in Act III of Mlada – both Gritsko and Yaromir wake up in the wilderness at the break of day after an evening of real or imagined demonic revelries.


Rimsky Korsakov Edition (1886)


Setting:


For Rimsky-Korsakov's edition we apparently return to the 'Bald Mountain' (Lysa Hora) in or near Kiev.


Program:


“Subterranean sounds of unearthly voices. Appearance of the Spirits of Darkness, followed by that of Chernobog. Glorification of Chernobog and celebration of the Black Mass. Witches’ Sabbath. At the height of the orgy, the bell of the little village church is heard from afar. The Spirits of Darkness are dispersed. Daybreak.”


Versions by other hands

Rimsky Korsakov edition (1886)


In the years after Mussorgsky's death, his friends prepared his manuscripts for publication and created performing editions of his unfinished works to enable them to enter the repertoire. The majority of the editorial work was done by Rimsky-Korsakov, who in 1886 produced a heavily redacted edition of A Night on the Bare Mountain from the Dream Vision of the Peasant Lad vocal score: Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: Никола́й Андре́евич Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков), also Nikolai, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 18, 1844 &#8211... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vocal score or Piano-vocal score is a music score of an opera, or a vocal or choral composition with orchestra (like oratorio or cantata) where the vocal parts are written out in full but the accompaniment is reduced to two staves and adapted for playing on piano. ...

"When I started putting it in order with the intention of creating a workable concert piece, I took everything I considered the best and most appropriate out of the late composer’s remaining materials to give coherence and wholeness to this work."

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov

He apparently did not make use of the original tone poem of 1867 in making his revision. The published score of his edition states "Completed and orchestrated by N. Rimsky-Korsakov, 1886". If he had the score of the 1867 tone poem at hand, he would have noticed that it was both completed and orchestrated. He also did not remember Mussorgsky's letter to him announcing that he had finished the work on St. John's Day, and had composed the work directly into full orchestral score, a practice unusual for him. Mussorgsky's manuscript is believed to have been in the keeping of Balakirev at the time.


The Rimsky-Korsakov edition is by any standards a highly polished and effective score which has proved brilliantly successful, becoming one of the most popular works in the orchestral literature.


Stokowski arrangement (1940)


Millions of twentieth-century listeners owe their initial acquaintance with Mussorgsky's tone-poem to the use within Walt Disney's 1940 film Fantasia of a specially produced new version based on the Rimsky-Korsakov recomposition, but heavily edited and further revised by Leopold Stokowski. Stokowski went on to produce an even more drastic recomposition of the piece for concert performance. This version was shortened for use in Fantasmic! For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni Stanisław Bolesławowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Other adaptations

Isao Tomita , born April 22, 1932), is a renowned Japanese electronic music composer. ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th-century music. ... LOiseau de Feu (The Firebird) is a 1910 symphonic poem and ballet by Igor Stravinsky, based on the Russian folk tales of the magical glowing bird (see Firebird) that is both a blessing and doom of its captor. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Disco is a genre of dance-oriented pop music that was popularized in dance clubs (discothèques) in the mid-1970s, and which dominated mainstream pop until the late 1970s. ... Saturday Night Fever is a 1977 movie starring John Travolta as Tony Manero, a troubled Brooklyn youth whose weekend activities are dominated by visits to a Brooklyn discotheque. ... Progressive metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music which blends the powerful, guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex compositional structures, odd time signatures, and intricate instrumental playing of progressive rock. ... Thrash metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music, one of the extreme metal subgenres that is characterised by its signature high speed and aggression. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Yōko Shimomura (下村陽子 Shimomura Yōko, b. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ... Kingdom Hearts video game. ... Chernabog is a fictional character who appears in the Night on Bald Mountain segment of Walt Disneys Fantasia (1940). ... Kingdom Hearts video game. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... Crash Tag Team Racing, released in Japan as Crash Bandicoot: Gatchanko World ) is a racing game for three of the four sixth generation video game consoles and the PlayStation Portable. ... For the cartoon series, see Earthworm Jim (TV series). ... New Trolls Atomic System were an Italian progressive rock band which released one record in the early 1970s, New Trolls Atomic System. ... Symphonic rock is a subgenre of rock music, and more specifically, progressive rock. ... Black metal is an extreme heavy metal subgenre. ... Marduk is a Swedish black metal band, who are based in Norrköping. ... Heaven Shall Burn. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, see The Wizard of Oz (adaptations). ...

Discography

Original tone poem (1867)

  • Lloyd Jones, London Philharmonic Orchestra, 1971
  • Abbado, London Symphony Orchestra, 1980
  • Kitayenko, Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, 1991
  • Abbado, Berliner Philharmoniker, 1993
  • Kuchar, National Symphony Orchestra of the Ukraine, 2003
  • Salonen, Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, 2006

Dream Vision of the Peasant Lad (1880)


As part of Sorochintsï Fair:

  • Aranovich, Moscow Radio Orchestra and Chorus, 1969
  • Esipov, Chorus and Orchestra of the Stanislavsky Theater, 1983

Concert version:

  • Polyansky, Russian State Symphony Orchestra, 1997
  • Abbado, Berliner Philharmoniker, 1997

Rimsky-Korsakov edition (1886)


Recordings of Rimsky-Korsakov's revision are too numerous to catalog in this article.


Stokowski arrangement (1940)

  • Reiner, Сhicago Symphony Orchestra, 1957

References

  • Calvocoressi, M.D., Abraham, G., Mussorgsky, 'Master Musicians' Series, London: J.M.Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1946
  • Calvocoressi, M.D., Modest Mussorgsky: His Life and Works, London: Rockliff, 1956
  • Rimsky-Korsakov, N., Chronicle of My Musical Life, New York: Knopf, 1923

Michel Dimitri Calvocoressi (1877-10-02 in Marseilles, France – 1944-02-01 in London, United Kingdom) was a music writer and music critic of Greek descent. ...

External links

  • St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (1867 version, Part I) Youtube concert video
  • St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (1867 version, Part II) Youtube concert video
  • Open Source Music - Night on Bald Mountain recording from Musopen.

  Results from FactBites:
 
A Night on Bald Mountain (1352 words)
John's Night on Bald Mountain in the spring of 1866 and completed the orchestration in June 1867 (actually on St. John's Eve, June 23); it was apparently never performed in his lifetime, but he adapted the music for use in other forms, as detailed below.
The screen interpretation was reasonably faithful to Mussorgsky's concept: a wild convocation of witches and demons on Bald Mountain (otherwise known as Mount Triglav in the Julian Alps, the highest peak in Slovenia) on St. John's Eve, in which Satan, in the form of Tchernobog (literally, the “fl god”), is master of the revels.
I didn't sleep at night and finished the job, as it happened, exactly on the eve of St. John's Day; something so boiled up in me that I simply didn't know what was going on with me--that is, I knew, but it isn't necessary to know this, for otherwise one may grow conceited.
8897564CC - Night On Bald Mountain - Concert Band (372 words)
"Night On Bald Mountain" depicts a witches' Sabbath, and was used with great effect in the Walt Disney animated film "Fantasia".
Trills, staccato phrases, time signature changes and wide variances in dynamics all add to its effectiveness.
Questions: If you have any questions about "Night On Bald Mountain", or would like to ask a sales representative about another product, call us toll free at (800) 819-3055.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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