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Encyclopedia > Night of the Long Knives
Nazism

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The Night of the Long Knives (German: Nacht der langen Messer ) or "Operation Hummingbird", took place in Nazi Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime executed at least 85 people for political reasons. Most of those killed were members of the "Storm Battalion" (SA) (German: Sturmabteilung), a Nazi paramilitary organization. Adolf Hitler moved against the SA and its leader, Ernst Röhm, because he saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his power. Hitler also wanted to forestall any move by leaders of the Reichswehr, the German military, who both feared and despised the SA, to curtail his rule, especially since Röhm made no secret of his ambition to absorb the Reichswehr with himself at its head. Finally, Hitler used the purge to act against conservative critics of his regime, especially those loyal to Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, and to settle scores with old enemies. Image File history File links De-Nacht_der_langen_Messer. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... There are at least eighty-five victims of the Night of the Long Knives who were executed during the purge, although the number may have been in the hundreds. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... Bust of Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (Memorial to the German Resistance, Berlin) The German Resistance refers to those individuals and groups in Nazi Germany who opposed the regime of Adolf Hitler between 1933 and 1945. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...


At least 85 people died during the purge, although the final death toll may have been in the hundreds,[1][2] and more than a thousand perceived opponents were arrested.[1] Most of the killings were carried out by the Schutzstaffel (SS), an elite Nazi corps, and the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei), the regime's secret police. The purge strengthened and consolidated the support of the Reichswehr for Hitler. It also provided a cloak of legality for the Nazi regime, as the German courts and cabinet quickly swept aside centuries of legal prohibition against extra-judicial killings to demonstrate their loyalty to the regime. SS redirects here. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... Extrajudicial punishment is punishment without the permission of a court or legal authority. ...


Before its execution, its planners sometimes referred to it as "Hummingbird" (German: Kolibri), as that was the codeword used to set the execution squads in motion on the day of the purge.[3] The codename for the operation appears to have been chosen arbitrarily. The phrase "Night of the Long Knives" in the German language predates the massacre itself, and it also refers generally to acts of vengeance. Its origin might be the "Night of the Long Knives", a massacre of Vortigern's men by Angle, Jute, and Saxon mercenaries in Arthurian myth.[citation needed] To this day, Germans still use the term "Röhm-Putsch" to describe the event, as that was the term the Nazi regime introduced into the language at the time, despite its false implication that the murders were necessary to forestall a coup. To emphasize this, German authors often use quotation marks or write about the so-called Röhm-Putsch. [4] For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... The Night of the Long Knives is the name Geoffrey of Monmouth gave to the (possibly apocryphal) slaughter of British chieftains by Jute, Anglo and Saxon mercenaries at a monastery (or perhaps Stonehenge) on Salisbury Plain in ca. ... Vortigern (also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen, and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn), was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among the Britons (Brythons). ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...

Contents

Hitler and the Sturmabteilung (SA)

Hitler posing with SA members in the late 1920s; Hermann Göring (who would turn against the SA) is pictured beneath Hitler, wearing medals.

President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor on January 30, 1933. Over the next few months, Hitler eliminated all rival political parties in Germany so that by the summer of 1933, the country had become a one-party state under his direction and control. However, despite his swift consolidation of political authority, Hitler did not exercise absolute power. As chancellor, Hitler did not command the army, which remained under the formal leadership of Hindenburg as its commander-in-chief. While many officers were impressed by Hitler's promises of an expanded army, a return to conscription, and a more aggressive foreign policy, the army continued to guard its traditions of independence during the early years of the Nazi regime. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 2530 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Hitler at Nazi party rally, Nuremberg, Germany Source: National Archives Collection of Foreign Records Seized, Heinrich Hoffman collection Date: ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 2530 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Hitler at Nazi party rally, Nuremberg, Germany Source: National Archives Collection of Foreign Records Seized, Heinrich Hoffman collection Date: ca. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitlers rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. ... This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ...


To a lesser extent, the Sturmabteilung (SA), a Nazi paramilitary organization, remained somewhat autonomous within the party itself. During the 1920s and 1930s, the SA functioned as a private militia that Hitler used to intimidate rivals and disrupt the meetings of competing political parties, especially those of the Social Democrats and the Communists. Also known as the "brownshirts" or "stormtroopers", the SA became notorious for their street battles with the Communists.[5] The violent confrontations between the two groups contributed to the destabilization of Germany's inter-war experiment with democracy, the Weimar Republic.[6] In June 1932, one of the worst months of political violence, there were over 400 street battles, resulting in 82 deaths.[7] This very destabilization had been crucial in Hitler's rise to power, however, not least because it convinced many Germans that once Hitler became chancellor, the endemic street violence would end. The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... SPD redirects here. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


Hitler's appointment as chancellor, followed by the suppression of all political parties except the Nazis, curtailed but did not end the violence of the stormtroopers. Deprived of Communist party meetings to disrupt, but inured to — and seduced by — violence, the stormtroopers would sometimes run riot in German streets after a night of drinking. Very often they would beat up passers-by, and then attack the police who were called to stop them.[8] Complaints of "overbearing and loutish" behavior by stormtroopers were common by the summer of 1933. Even the Foreign Office complained of instances of brownshirts manhandling foreign diplomats.[9] Such behavior disturbed the German middle classes and other conservative elements in society, such as the army. The German Foreign Office (in German, Auswärtiges Amt, or AA) is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, and is responsible for both its foreign politics and its relationship to the European Union. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Hitler's next move would be to strengthen his position with the army by moving against its nemesis, the SA.[10] On July 6, 1933, at a gathering of high-ranking Nazi officials, Hitler declared the success of the National Socialist, or Nazi, revolution. Now that the Nazi party had seized the reins of power in Germany, he said, it was time to consolidate its hold. As Hitler told the gathered officials, "The stream of revolution has been undammed, but it must be channeled into the secure bed of evolution."[11] Look up nemesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Hitler's speech signaled his intention to rein in the SA, whose ranks had grown rapidly in the early 1930s. This would not prove to be a simple task, however, as the SA constituted a large part of the most devoted followers of Nazism. The SA traced its dramatic rise in numbers in part to the onset of the Great Depression, when many Germans lost faith in traditional institutions. While Nazism was not exclusively — or even primarily — a working class phenomenon, the SA fulfilled the yearning of many workers for both class solidarity and nationalist fervor.[12] Many stormtroopers believed in the socialist promise of National Socialism and expected the Nazi regime to take more radical economic action, such as breaking up the vast landed estates of the aristocracy. That the regime did not take such steps disillusioned those who expected an economic as well as a political revolution.[13] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


Conflict between the army and the SA

Minister of Defence Werner von Blomberg, a conservative Prussian general who led army opposition to Röhm and the SA.

No one in the SA spoke more loudly for "a continuation of the German revolution", as one prominent stormtrooper put it, than Röhm.[14] As one of the earliest members of the Nazi party, Röhm had participated in the Beer Hall Putsch, an unsuccessful attempt by Hitler to seize power by force in 1923. A combat veteran of World War I, Röhm had recently boasted that he would execute 12 men in retaliation for the killing of any stormtrooper.[15] Röhm saw violence as a means to political ends. He took seriously the socialist promise of National Socialism, and demanded that Hitler and the other party leaders initiate wide-ranging socialist reform in Germany. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x740, 57 KB) Description: Portrait of General Werner von Blomberg Source: USHMM Photograph #80535 Post-Work: User:W.wolny Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x740, 57 KB) Description: Portrait of General Werner von Blomberg Source: USHMM Photograph #80535 Post-Work: User:W.wolny Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Werner von Blomberg. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


Not content solely with the leadership of the SA, Röhm lobbied Hitler to appoint him Minister of Defence, a position held by the conservative General Werner von Blomberg.[16] Although nicknamed the "Rubber Lion" by some of his critics in the army for his devotion to Hitler, Blomberg was not himself a Nazi, and therefore represented a bridge between the army and the party. Blomberg and many of his fellow officers were recruited from the Prussian nobility, and regarded the SA as a plebeian rabble that threatened the army's traditional high status in German society.[17] This article is about the political effort. ... Department of Defence redirects here. ... Werner von Blomberg. ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed nobility of Prussia and Eastern Germany - lands which are often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs were the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ...


If the regular army showed contempt for the masses belonging to the SA, many stormtroopers returned the feeling, seeing the army as insufficiently committed to the National Socialist revolution. Max Heydebreck, an SA leader in Rummelsburg, denounced the army to his fellow brownshirts, telling them, "Some of the officers of the army are swine. Most officers are too old and have to be replaced by young ones. We want to wait till Papa Hindenburg is dead, and then the SA will march against the army."[18] Miastko (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Miastkò; German: Rummelsburg), is a town in the Middle Pomerania region ofnorth-western Poland. ...


Despite such hostility between the brownshirts and the regular army, Blomberg and others in the military saw the SA as a source of raw recruits for an enlarged and revitalized army. Röhm, however, wanted to eliminate the generalship of the Prussian aristocracy altogether, using the SA to become the core of a new German military. Limited by the Treaty of Versailles to one hundred thousand soldiers, army leaders watched anxiously as membership in the SA surpassed three million men by the beginning of 1934.[19] In January 1934, Röhm presented Blomberg with a memorandum demanding that the SA replace the regular army as the nation's ground forces, and that the Reichswehr become a training adjunct to the SA.[20] This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


In response, Hitler met with Blomberg and the leadership of the SA and SS on February 28, 1934. Under pressure from Hitler, Röhm reluctantly signed a pledge stating that he recognized the supremacy of the Reichswehr over the SA. Hitler announced to those present that the SA would act as an auxiliary to the Reichswehr, not the other way around. After Hitler and most of the army officers had left, however, Röhm declared that he would not take instructions from "the ridiculous corporal"—a demeaning reference to Hitler.[21] While Hitler did not take immediate action against Röhm for his intemperate outburst, it nonetheless deepened the rift between them. is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Growing pressure against the SA

Franz von Papen, the conservative vice-chancellor who ran afoul of Hitler after denouncing the regime's failure to rein in the SA in his Marburg speech
Franz von Papen, the conservative vice-chancellor who ran afoul of Hitler after denouncing the regime's failure to rein in the SA in his Marburg speech

Despite his earlier agreement with Hitler, Röhm still clung to his vision of a new German army with the SA at its core. By the spring of 1934, this vision directly conflicted with Hitler's plan to consolidate power and expand the Reichswehr. Because their plans for the army were mutually exclusive, Röhm's success could only come at Hitler's expense. As a result, a political struggle within the party grew, with those closest to Hitler, including Prussian premier Hermann Göring, Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, SS Chief Heinrich Himmler, and Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess, arraying themselves against Röhm. Image File history File links Vonpapen1. ... Image File history File links Vonpapen1. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... The Propagandaministerium () (or State Ministry for Public enlightenment and Propaganda) was the Ministry of propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ...


While all of these men were veterans of the Nazi movement, only Röhm continued to demonstrate his independence from, rather than his loyalty to, Adolf Hitler. Röhm's contempt for the party's bureaucracy angered Hess. SA violence in Prussia gravely concerned Göring, Minister-President of Prussia.[22] As a means of isolating Röhm, on April 20, 1934 Göring transferred control of the Prussian political police to Himmler, who, Göring believed, could be counted on to move against Röhm.[23] Himmler envied the independence and power of the SA, although at the time he had already begun the restructuring of the SS from a bodyguard of Nazi leaders into an elite corps loyal to both himself and Hitler. That loyalty would prove useful to both men when Hitler chose to move against Röhm and the SA. is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demands for Hitler to constrain the SA strengthened. Conservatives in the army, industry, and politics placed Hitler under increasing pressure to reduce the influence of the SA and to move against Röhm. While Röhm's homosexuality did not endear him to conservatives, they were more concerned about his political ambitions. On June 17, 1934, conservative demands for Hitler to act came to a head when Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, confidant of the ailing Hindenburg, gave a speech at Marburg University warning of the threat of a "second revolution".[24] Privately, von Papen, a Catholic aristocrat with ties to army and industry, threatened to resign if Hitler did not act.[25] While von Papen's resignation as vice-chancellor would not threaten Hitler's position, it would nonetheless be an embarrassing display of independence from a leading conservative. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... The Marburg speech (die Marburger Rede in German) was an address given by German vice chancellor Franz von Papen at the University of Marburg on June 17, 1934. ... University of Marburg - Department of Social Sciences and University library The old university The University of Marburg (German: Philipps-Universität Marburg Philips University, Marburg), was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous, although the updated meaning haughty is sometimes given) as the... Aristocrat redirects here. ...


In response to conservative pressure to constrain Röhm, Hitler left for Neudeck to meet with Hindenburg. Blomberg, who had been meeting with the President, uncharacteristically reproached Hitler for not having moved against Röhm earlier. He then told Hitler that Hindenburg was close to declaring martial law and turning the government over to the Reichswehr if Hitler did not take immediate steps against Röhm and his brownshirts.[26] Hitler had hesitated for months in moving against Röhm, in part due to Röhm's visibility as the leader of a national militia with millions of members. However, the threat of a declaration of martial law from Hindenburg, the only person in Germany with the authority to potentially depose the Nazi regime, put Hitler under pressure to act. He left Neudeck with the intention of both destroying Röhm, and settling scores with old enemies. Both Himmler and Göring welcomed Hitler's decision, since both had much to gain by Röhm's downfall—the independence of the SS for Himmler, and the removal of a rival for the future command of the army for Göring.[27] Neudeck was the country estate of the Hindenburg family near Rosenberg, East Prussia. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


In preparation for the purge, both Himmler and his deputy Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the SS Security Service, assembled a dossier of manufactured evidence to suggest that Röhm had been paid twelve million marks by France to overthrow Hitler. Leading officers in the SS were shown falsified evidence on June 24 that Röhm planned to use the SA to launch a plot against the government (Röhm-Putsch).[28] Meanwhile Göring and Himmler, at Hitler's direction, drew up lists of people outside the SA that they wanted killed. On June 27, Hitler moved to secure the army's cooperation.[29] Blomberg and General Walther von Reichenau, the army's liaison to the party, gave it to him by expelling Röhm from the German Officers' League, and placing the army on alert.[30] Hitler felt confident enough in his position to attend a wedding reception in Essen, although he appeared somewhat agitated and preoccupied. From there, he called Röhm's adjutant at Bad Wiessee and ordered SA leaders to meet with him on June 30.[31] Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Walther von Reichenau (August 16, 1884 - January 17, 1942), German military commander, was the son of a Prussian general and joined the German Army in 1902. ... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Bad Wiessee is a spa town on Lake Tegernsee, Bavaria, Germany. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Purge

The architects of the purge: Hitler, Göring, Goebbels, and Hess. Only Himmler is missing.
The architects of the purge: Hitler, Göring, Goebbels, and Hess. Only Himmler is missing.

At about 4:30 on the morning of June 30, 1934, Hitler and his entourage flew into Munich. From the airport, they drove to the Bavarian Interior Ministry, where they assembled the leaders of an SA rampage that had taken place in city streets the night before. Enraged, Hitler tore the epaulets off the shirt of Obergruppenführer Schneidhuber, the Chief of the Munich Police, for failing to keep order in the city on the previous night. He shouted at him that he would be shot.[32] As the stormtroopers were hustled off to prison, Hitler assembled a large group of SS and regular police, and departed for the Hanselbauer Hotel in Bad Wiessee, where Röhm and his followers were staying.[33] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Epaulette [pronunciation: ĕp-ǝ-lĕt] is a French word meaning verbatim, little shoulders (epaule, referring to shoulder), often describes the shoulder decorations such as insignia or rank, especially in military or other organizations worn on the shoulder. ... Bad Wiessee is a spa town on Lake Tegernsee, Bavaria, Germany. ...


At Bad Wiessee, Hitler personally placed Röhm and other high-ranking SA leaders under arrest. According to Erich Kempka, one of the men present during the raid, Hitler turned Röhm over to "two detectives holding pistols with the safety catch removed", and the SS found Breslau SA leader Edmund Heines in bed with an eighteen-year-old SA Senior Troop leader.[34] Goebbels would emphasize the latter in subsequent propaganda justifying the purge as a crackdown on moral turpitude.[35] Both Heines and his partner were shot on the spot in the hotel grounds on the personal order of Hitler.[36] Meanwhile the SS arrested a number of SA leaders as they departed their train for a planned meeting with Röhm.[37] Erich Kempka. ... Wrocław. ... Edmund Heines (* July 21, 1897 in Munich; † June 30, 1934 in Munich) was one of Ernst Röhms lovers in the 1920s. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ...


The fact that no plot by Röhm to overthrow the regime ever existed did not prevent Hitler from denouncing the leadership of the SA.[35] Arriving back at party headquarters in Munich, Hitler addressed the assembled crowd. Consumed with rage, Hitler denounced "the worst treachery in world history". Hitler told the crowd that "undisciplined and disobedient characters, and asocial or diseased elements" would be annihilated. The crowd, which included party members and many SA members fortunate enough to escape arrest, shouted its approval. Hess, present among the assembled, even volunteered to shoot the "traitors" himself.[37] Goebbels, who had been with Hitler at Bad Wiessee, set the final phase of the plan in motion. Upon returning to Berlin, he telephoned Göring with the codeword Kolibri to loose the execution squads on the rest of their unsuspecting victims.[35] This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Against conservatives and old enemies

The regime did not limit itself to a purge of the SA, however. Having earlier imprisoned or exiled prominent Social Democrats and Communists, Hitler used the occasion to move against conservatives he considered unreliable. This included Vice-Chancellor Papen and those in his immediate circle. In Berlin, on Göring's personal orders, an armed SS unit stormed the Vice-Chancellery. Gestapo officers attached to the SS unit shot Papen's secretary Herbert von Bose without bothering to arrest him first. The Gestapo arrested and later executed Papen's close associate Edgar Jung, the author of the Marburg speech; they disposed of his body by dumping it in a ditch.[38] The Gestapo also murdered Erich Klausener, the leader of Catholic Action, and a close Papen associate.[36] The vice-chancellor himself was unceremoniously arrested at the vice-chancellery, despite his insistent protests that he could not be arrested. Although Hitler ordered him released days later, Papen would no longer dare to criticize the regime.[39] Herbert von Bose (1893 – 1934), was head of the press division of the Vice Chancellery (Reichsvizekanzlei) in Germany under Vice Chancellor Franz von Papen. ... Edgar Julius Jung (March 6, 1894 – July 1, 1934) was born in Ludwigshafen, Germany. ... Erich Klausener (January 25, 1885 – June 30, 1934) was a German Catholic politician who was murdered in the Night of the Long Knives as the Nazis purged their opponents. ...


Hitler, Göring, and Himmler unleashed the Gestapo against old enemies as well. Both Kurt von Schleicher, Hitler's predecessor as chancellor, and his wife were murdered at their home. Others killed included Gregor Strasser, a former Nazi who had angered Hitler by resigning from the party in 1932, and Gustav Ritter von Kahr, the former Bavarian state commissioner who crushed the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923.[40] Kahr's fate was especially gruesome. His body was found in a wood outside Munich; he had been hacked to death, apparently by pickaxes. The murdered included at least one accidental victim: Willi Schmid, the music critic of the Münchner Neuste Nachrichten, a Munich newspaper. The Gestapo mistook him for Ludwig Schmitt, a past supporter of Otto Strasser, the brother of Gregor.[41] Such relentless violence did much to add to the fearsome reputation of the Gestapo as the Nazis' secret police.   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ... Gustav Ritter von Kahr (1862–June 30, 1934) was a German right-wing conservative politician, active in the state of Bavaria. ... Pickhandle redirects here. ...


Röhm's fate

Röhm was held briefly at Stadelheim Prison in Munich, while Hitler considered his fate. Certainly, Röhm's service to the Nazi regime counted for something. On the other hand, he could not be held in prison indefinitely or exiled, and a public trial might bring unwanted scrutiny to the purge.[42] In the end, Hitler decided that Röhm had to die. On July 2, at Hitler's behest, Theodor Eicke, the later commandant of the Dachau concentration camp, and SS Officer Michel Lippert visited Röhm. Once inside Röhm's cell, they handed him a loaded Browning pistol and told him that he had ten minutes to kill himself, or else they would do it for him. Röhm demurred, telling them, "If I am to be killed, let Adolf do it himself."[36] Having heard nothing in the allotted time, they returned to Röhm's cell to find him standing with his bare chest puffed out in a gesture of defiance.[43] Lippert shot him to death at point-blank range.[44] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Theodor Eicke (October 17, 1892 - February 26, 1943) was a Nazi official, SS-Obergruppenführer, commander of the SS-Division (mot) Totenkopf of the Waffen-SS and one of the key figures in the establishment of concentration camps in Nazi Germany. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ... John Moses Browning (January 21[1] or January 23,[2] 1855 – November 26, 1926), born in Ogden, Utah, was an American firearms designer who developed myriad varieties of weapons, cartridges, and gun mechanics, many of which are still in use around the world. ...


Aftermath

Hitler triumphant: The Führer reviewing SA in 1935. An SS soldier stands by the car, on Hitler's left.
Hitler triumphant: The Führer reviewing SA in 1935. An SS soldier stands by the car, on Hitler's left.

As the purge claimed the lives of so many prominent Germans, it could hardly be kept secret. At first, its architects seemed split on how to handle the event. Göring instructed police stations to burn "all documents concerning the action of the past two days";[45] meanwhile, Goebbels tried to prevent newspapers from publishing lists of the dead, but at the same time used a July 2 radio address to describe how Hitler had narrowly prevented Röhm and Schleicher from overthrowing the government and throwing the country into turmoil.[46] Then, on July 13, 1934, Hitler justified the purge in a nationally-broadcast speech to the Reichstag:[47] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1638 × 1917 pixel, file size: 671 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Parade of SA troops past Hitler. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1638 × 1917 pixel, file size: 671 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Parade of SA troops past Hitler. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I became the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason, and I further gave the order to cauterise down to the raw flesh the ulcers of this poisoning of the wells in our domestic life. Let the nation know that its existence—which depends on its internal order and security—cannot be threatened with impunity by anyone! And let it be known for all time to come that if anyone raises his hand to strike the State, then certain death is his lot.

Concerned with presenting the massacre as legally sanctioned, Hitler had the cabinet approve a measure on July 3 that declared, "The measures taken on June 30, July 1 and 2 to suppress treasonous assaults are legal as acts of self-defense by the State."[48] Reich Justice Minister Franz Gürtner, a conservative who had been Bavarian Justice Minister in the years of the Weimar Republic, demonstrated his loyalty to the new regime by drafting the statute, which added a legal veneer to the purge. Signed into law by both Hitler and Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick, the "Law Regarding Measures of State Self-Defense" retrospectively legalised the murders committed during the purge.[49] Germany's legal establishment further capitulated to the regime when the country's leading legal scholar, Carl Schmitt, wrote an article defending Hitler's July 13 speech. It was named "The Führer Upholds the Law".[50] is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Franz Gürtner (August 26, 1881 - January 29, 1941) was a German Minister of Justice in Adolf Hitlers cabinet, responsible for coordinating jurisprudence in the Third Reich. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ... An ex post facto law (from the Latin for from something done afterward) or retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of acts committed or the legal status of facts and relationships that existed prior to the enactment of the law. ... Carl Schmitt (July 11, 1888 – April 7, 1985) was a German jurist, political theorist, and professor of law. ...


Reaction

With almost complete unanimity, the army applauded the Night of the Long Knives, despite the fact that it had resulted in the death of two of its generals, Kurt von Schleicher and Ferdinand von Bredow. The ailing President Hindenburg, Germany's most revered military hero, sent a telegram expressing his "profoundly felt gratitude".[51] General von Reichenau went so far as to publicly give credence to the lie that Schleicher had been plotting to overthrow the government. The army's support for the purge, however, would have far-reaching consequences for the institution. The humbling of the SA ended the threat it had posed to the army but, by standing by Hitler during the purge, the army bound itself more tightly to the Nazi regime.[52] One retired captain, Erwin Planck, seemed to realise this: "if you look on without lifting a finger," he said to his friend, General Werner von Fritsch, "you will meet the same fate sooner or later."[53] Another rare exception was Field Marshal August von Mackensen, who spoke about the murders of Schleicher and Bredow at the annual General Staff Society meeting in February of 1935.[54]   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Major General Ferdinand von Bredow (b. ... Werner Freiherr von Fritsch (4 August 1880 in Benrath - 22 September 1939 Praga near Warsaw) was a prominent Wehrmacht officer, member of the German High Command, and the first German general to die in the Second World War. ... Field Marshal August von Mackensen August von Mackensen (December 6, 1849–November 8, 1945), was a German Field Marshal, born August Mackensen in Haus Leipnitz, in the Prussian province of Saxony, to Louis and Marie Louise Mackensen. ...


Without an independent press to report on the events of the purge, rumours about the Night of the Long Knives rapidly spread. Many Germans approached the official news of the events as described by Joseph Goebbels with a great deal of skepticism. At the same time, however, many others seemed prepared to take the regime at its word, and to believe that Hitler had saved Germany from a descent into chaos.[55] Luise Solmitz, a Hamburg schoolteacher, echoed the sentiments of many Germans when she cited Hitler's "personal courage, decisiveness and effectiveness" in her private diary. She even compared him to Frederick the Great, the legendary King of Prussia.[1] Others were appalled at the scale of the executions and at the relative complacency of many of their fellow Germans. "A very calm and easygoing mailman," the diarist Victor Klemperer wrote, "who is not at all National Socialist, said, 'Well, he simply sentenced them.'" It did not escape Klemperer's notice that many of the victims had played a role in bringing Hitler to power. "A chancellor", he wrote, "sentences and shoots members of his own private army!"[56] The extent of the massacre and the relative ubiquity of the Gestapo, however, meant that those who disapproved of the purge generally kept quiet about it. This article is about the city in Germany. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Victor Klemperer (Landsberg (Prussia), now Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland, October 9, 1881–February 11, 1960, Dresden, GDR), decorated veteran of World War I, businessman, journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technical College of Dresden (now Technische Universität Dresden). He was the...


Hitler named Victor Lutze to replace Röhm as head of the SA. Hitler ordered him, as one prominent historian described it, to put an end to "homosexuality, debauchery, drunkenness, and high living" in the SA.[57] Hitler expressly told him to stop SA funds from being spent on limousines and banquets, which he considered evidence of SA extravagance.[57] A weak man, Lutze did little to assert the SA's independence in the coming years, and the SA gradually lost its power in Hitler's Germany. The regime had all of the decorative SA daggers ground to remove the name of Röhm from the blade, which was replaced with the words Blut und Ehre (blood and honor). Membership in the organization plummeted from 2.9 million in August 1934 to 1.2 million in April 1938.[58] Categories: Stub | 1890 births | 1943 deaths | Nazi leaders ...


The Night of the Long Knives represented a triumph for Hitler, and a turning point for the German government. It established Hitler as "the supreme judge of the German people", as he put it in his July 13 speech to the Reichstag. Later, in April 1942, Hitler would formally adopt this title, thus placing himself de jure as well as de facto above the reach of the law. Centuries of jurisprudence proscribing extra-judicial killings were swept aside. Despite some initial efforts by local prosecutors to take legal action against those who carried out the murders, which the regime rapidly quashed, it appeared that no law would constrain Hitler in his use of power.[59] The Night of the Long Knives also sent a clear message to the public that even the most prominent Germans were not immune to arrest or even summary execution should the Nazi regime perceive them as a threat. In this manner, the purge established a pattern of violence that would characterise the Nazi regime, from its use of force to establish an empire of conquest, to the later enormity of the Holocaust. Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


See also

There are at least eighty-five victims of the Night of the Long Knives who were executed during the purge, although the number may have been in the hundreds. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Evans (2005), p. 39. "At least eighty-five people are known to have been summarily killed without any formal legal proceedings being taken against them. Göring alone had over a thousand people arrested."
  2. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 517. "The names of eighty-five victims [exist], only fifty of them SA men. Some estimates, however, put the total number killed at between 150 and 200."
  3. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 515.
  4. ^ "Röhm-Putsch". Deutsches Historisches Museum (DHM), German Historical Museum. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  5. ^ Reiche (2002), pp. 120–121.
  6. ^ Toland (1976), p. 266.
  7. ^ Shirer (1960), p. 165.
  8. ^ Evans (2005), p. 23.
  9. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 501
  10. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 435
  11. ^ Evans (2005), p. 20.
  12. ^ Schoenbaum, (1997) pp. 35–42. "The most general theory—that National Socialism was a revolution of the lower middle class—is defensible but inadequate."
  13. ^ Bullock (1958), p. 80. "But in origin the National Socialists had been a radical anti-capitalist party, and this part of the National Socialist programme was not only taken seriously by many loyal Party members but was of increasing importance in a period of economic depression. How seriously Hitler took the socialist character of National Socialism was to remain one of the main causes of disagreement and division within the Nazi party up to the summer of 1934."
  14. ^ Frei (1987), p. 126. The quote is attributed to Breslau SA Chief Edmund Heines.
  15. ^ Frei (1987), p. 13.
  16. ^ Evans (2005), p. 24.
  17. ^ Wheeler-Bennett (2005), pp. 712–739.
  18. ^ Bessel (1984), p. 97.
  19. ^ Evans (2005), p. 22.
  20. ^ Wheeler-Bennett (2005), p. 726.
  21. ^ Evans (2005), p. 26.
  22. ^ Martin and Pedley (2005), p. 33.
  23. ^ Evans (2005), p. 29.
  24. ^ Papen (1953), pp. 308–312.
  25. ^ Papen (1953), p. 309.
  26. ^ Wheeler-Bennett (2005), pp. 319–320.
  27. ^ Evans (2005), p. 31.
  28. ^ Evans (2005), p. 30.
  29. ^ O'Neill (1967), p. 72–80.
  30. ^ Bullock (1958) p. 165.
  31. ^ Evans (2005), p. 31.
  32. ^ Shirer (1960), p. 221.
  33. ^ Bullock (1958), p. 166.
  34. ^ Kempka interview.
  35. ^ a b c Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 514.
  36. ^ a b c Shirer (1960), p. 221.
  37. ^ a b Evans (2005), p. 32.
  38. ^ Evans (2005), p. 34.
  39. ^ Evans (2005), pp. 33–34.
  40. ^ Spielvogel (2005) pp. 78–79.
  41. ^ Evans (2005), p. 36.
  42. ^ Fest, Joachim (1974). Hitler. Harcourt, 458. 
  43. ^ Evans (2005), p. 33.
  44. ^ Years later, in 1957, the German authorities tried Lippert in Munich for Röhm's murder. He was one of the few executioners of the purge not to have escaped justice.
  45. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 517.
  46. ^ Evans (2005), p. 36.
  47. ^ Fest (1974), p. 469.
  48. ^ Fest (1974), p. 468.
  49. ^ Evans, Richard (2005). The Third Reich in Power. Penguin Group, 72. 
  50. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 519.
  51. ^ Fest (1974), p. 470.
  52. ^ Martin and Pedley (2005), p. 33–34.
  53. ^ Höhne (1970), pp. 113–118.
  54. ^ Schwarzmüller, 299–306.
  55. ^ Kershaw, Myth, (2001), p. 87. "It was plain that there was wide acceptance of the deliberately misleading propaganda put out by the regime."
  56. ^ Klemperer (1998), p.74.
  57. ^ a b Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 520.
  58. ^ Evans (2005), p. 40.
  59. ^ Evans (2005), p. 72. "After the 'Night of the Long Knives,' [Reich Minister for Justice Franz Gürtner] nipped in the bud the attempts of some local state prosecutors to initiate proceedings against the killers."

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bessel, Richard. Political Violence and the Rise of Nazism: The Storm Troopers in Eastern Germany 1925–1934. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-30-003171-8.
  • Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: Harper, 1958.
  • Collier, Martin and Pedley, Phillip. Hitler and the Nazi State. New York: Harcourt, 2005. ISBN 0-43-532709-7.
  • Evans, Richard. The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Group, 2005. ISBN 0-14-303790-0.
  • Fest, Joachim. Hitler. New York: Harcourt, 1974. ISBN 0-15-602754-2.
  • Frei, Norbert. National Socialist Rule in Germany: The Führer State 1933–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-63-118507-0.
  • Höhne, Heinz. The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS. New York: Coward-McCann, 1970. ISBN 0-14-139012-3.
  • Kempka, Erich. Library of Congress: Adolf Hitler Collection, C-89, 9376-88A-B, Erich Kempka interview, October 15, 1971.
  • Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: 1889–1936 Hubris. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999. ISBN 0-39-332035-9.
  • Kershaw, Ian. The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280206-2.
  • Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness: The diaries of Victor Klemperer. New York: Random House, 1998. ISBN 0-679-45969-1.
  • O'Neill, Robert. The German Army and the Nazi Party 1933–1939. New York: James H Heineman, 1967. ISBN 0-68-511957-2.
  • Reiche, Eric G. The Development of the SA in Nürnberg, 1922–1934. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-52-152431-8.
  • Schoenbaum, David. Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany, 1933–1939. W. W. Norton & Company, 1997. ISBN 0-39-331554-1.
  • Schwarzmüller, Theo. Zwischen Kaiser und "Führer": Generalfeldmarschall August von Mackensen, eine politische Biographie. Paderborn: Dtv, 1995. ISBN 3-42-330823-0.
  • Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History. New York: Prentice Hall, 1996. ISBN 0-13-189877-9.
  • Toland, John. Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography. New York: Doubleday, 1976. ISBN 0-38-542053-6.
  • Wheeler-Bennett, John. The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918–1945 Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd Edition, 2005. ISBN 1-40-391812-0.

Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock (December 13, 1914 - February 2, 2004), was a British historian, who wrote an influential biography of Adolf Hitler and many other works. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Joachim C. Fest (December 8, 1926 – September 11, 2006) was a German journalist and author, best known in English-speaking countries for his work with Albert Speer while writing his memoirs and his biography of Adolf Hitler. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Lewis Thorpe, Professor of French at the University of Nottingham, translator, and husband of the Italian scholar and lexicographer Barbara Reynolds. ... Heinz Höhne (also Hoehne) is a German journalist who specializes in Nazi and intelligence history. ... Erich Kempka. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Victor Klemperer (Landsberg (Prussia), now Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland, October 9, 1881–February 11, 1960, Dresden, GDR), decorated veteran of World War I, businessman, journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technical College of Dresden (now Technische Universität Dresden). He was the... Robert John ONeill (born 1936) was director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and Chichele Professor of the History of War at Oxford University from 1987 to 2000. ... David Schoenbaum (born 1935, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is an American social scientist, historian. ... Shirer (at far left) after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by journalist William L. Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. ... // Summary Jackson J. Spielvogel is an associate professor emeritus at Pennsylvania State University. ... John Willard Toland (June 29, 1912 in La Crosse, Wisconsin - January 4, 2004 in Danbury, Connecticut) was an American author and historian. ... Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, (October 13, 1902-December 9, 1975) was a conservative British historian of German and diplomatic history. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...

Further reading

  • Evans, Richard J.. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Group, 2004. ISBN 0-14-303469-3.
  • Maracin, Paul The Night of the Long Knives: 48 Hours that Changed the History of the World, New York: The Lyons Press, 2004. ISBN 1-59-921070-3.
  • Mau, Herman. "The 'Second Revolution'—June 30, 1934". In Republic to Reich: The Making of the Nazi Revolution, edited by Hajo Holborn. New York: Pantheon Books, 1972. ISBN 0-39-447122-9.
  • Tolstoy, Nikolai. Night of the Long Knives. New York: Balantine Books, 1972. ISBN 0-34-502787-6.

Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Count Nikolai Dmitrievich Tolstoy-Miloslavsky (23 June 1935) is a prominent Russo-British historian and author, who writes under the name Nikolai Tolstoy. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
::The Night of the Long Knives:: (788 words)
The Night of the Long Knives, in June 1934, saw the wiping out of the SA's leadership and others who had angered Hitler in the recent past in Nazi Germany.
The Night of the Long Knives not only removed the SA leaders but also got Hitler the army's oath that he so needed.
On the night of June 29th - June 30th 1934, units of the SS arrested the leaders of the SA and other political opponents.
Night of the Long Knives: The Times Report - Sidebar - MSN Encarta (213 words)
Night of the Long Knives: The Times Report - Sidebar - MSN Encarta
Hitler chose to secure the support of the army and with Himmler and the SS, purged the Nazi ranks of the SA leaders, using the purge to also turn against other prominent opponents of his regime.
This report of the Night of the Long Knives, as it became known, appeared in The Times of July 2, 1934.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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