FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Nigger (word)

The word "nigger" is a highly controversial term used in many English-speaking countries, including the United States, Canada, Britain, and Australia to refer to individuals with dark skin, especially those of African descent who previously were racially classified by the now outdated term Negro. It was once the standard, casual English term for black people. Associated with the word traditionally have been an often casual contempt, an assumption of inherent inferiority, even of bestiality, making it extremely pejorative. A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement over which parties are actively arguing. ... English may refer to: The nation of England. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Negro means the color black in both Spanish and Portuguese languages, being derived from the Latin word niger of the same meaning. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term Blacks is often used in the West to denote race for persons whose progenitors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A word or phrase is pejorative or derogatory (sometimes misspelled perjorative) if it expresses contempt or disapproval; dyslogistic (noun: dyslogism) is used synonymously (antonyms: meliorative, eulogistic, noun eulogism). ...


Historically, African Americans have appropriated the slur, subverting it to a self-referential term that is often suggestive of familiarity, endearment or kinship. Many, however, always have rejected the term as racist and dehumanizing. Generally, "nigger" is considered a highly offensive racial epithet, especially when used by non-blacks. See the Wiktionary entry for "nigger" for more relating to this. African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... An African-American drinks out of a water cooler designated for use by colored patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. ... The following is a list of ethnic slurs, also known as ethnophaulisms, that are, or have been, used to refer to members of a given ethnicity (or, in some cases, nationality, region, or religion) in a derogatory or pejorative manner. ...

Contents


Origins

According to lexicographers, the ultimate origin of the word "nigger" is in the Latin niger meaning black. This gave rise to many cognate terms are found in the Romance languages (cf. Spanish and Portuguese negro, French noir, Italian nero). English acquired the word from French nègre, which can be seen in earlier English variants, such as negar, neegar, neger, and niggor. "Neger" is a current word in German (where it is today considered a pejorative term), as well as Dutch and Scandinavian languages. Lexicography is either of two things Practical lexicography is the art or craft of writing dictionaries. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Black is a color with several subtle differences in meaning. ... Cognates are words that have a common origin. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages or New Latin Languages, are a subset of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Latin dialects spoken by the common people in what is known as Latin Europe (Italian/Portuguese/Spanish Europa latina, French Europe latine) and Romania as Vulgar Latin...


A popular theory for the origin of the word, not regarded as correct by lexicographers, is that nigger came from the Southern U.S. pronunciation of "negro," which yielded phonetic mistranscriptions as nigra. Two 16th-century uses of the term commonly cited in dictionaries are actually taken from scholarly tracts. For much of its history, until the early 20th Century in America, nigger was a colloquial synonym for blacks. The term was a standard one throughout the United States, but particularly commonplace in the slaveholding South. Historically, many whites used the word casually, even dismissively. For most blacks, the term always has been associated with white supremacy, racism, violence and oppression. The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ...


The offensiveness of the term has grown over time, especially in the 20th century. A 1700 quote by judge Samuel Sewall uses the term in a denunciation of slavery. Gradually, however, polite discourse increasingly used the term Negro (which dates to at least 1555), and nigger became relegated to the realms of vulgarity, increasing in offensiveness over the centuries. When Mark Twain used the word in Huckleberry Finn, by the standards of his day, it was not particularly offensive (although, even then, it was a term that would not be used in polite society). Rather, the word "nigger" was a marker of the class and socio-economic status of the characters who used it. Author Rudyard Kipling used the word nigger many times, both in character dialogue and elsewhere, where it allegedly does not carry its modern derogatory aspects. Sometimes he spelled it phonetically, as "naygur," when spoken by a character with an Irish accent. The term vulgar originally meant of the common people, from the Latin vulgus. ... Huckleberry Finn is the protagonist of Mark Twains famous book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ... Rudyard Kipling - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Look up Accent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Accent may refer to— in linguistics, a method of pronouncing words common to a certain region. ...


Modern meanings

"Nigger" is almost always pejorative or suspect when used by nonblacks in America. Several American English dictionaries have labeled it as a vulgarism, and the term may refer also to anyone regarded as inferior or of subordinate status. This use of "nigger" to refer to a person who is considered backward, despised or powerless, regardless of race, is evident in author Jerry Farber's The Student as Nigger and Beatle John Lennon's song "Woman is the Nigger of the World." Jerry Farber is an American educator. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... John Lennon John Winston Lennon, later John Ono Lennon, (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), was best known as a singer, songwriter, and guitarist for The Beatles. ...


Previously used by blacks in only intra-ethnic settings, "nigger" as a socially acceptable term of kinship or endearment has become increasingly common among some African American youth. For example: "What's up, my nigga?" may be acceptable when spoken by one to another. The commercialization and subsequent proliferation of hip-hop culture internationally, for better or worse, has returned the term to broader public use across ethnicities, but in much the same way it is used by some African American youth, and as an artifact of hip-hop culture. Hip hop is a cultural movement that began among urban African Americans in New York City in the early 1970s, and has since spread around the world. ...


Problems with this use of "nigger" are illustrated in the comedy-drama movie Gridlock'd (1997), which features the use of the word in its affectionate sense by a white character (played by Tim Roth). He is close enough to his black friend (played by Tupac Shakur) for it to go unremarked, but later he uses it when there are other blacks around whom he does not know so well, causing a dramatic reaction. This is a list of film-related events in 1997. ... Tim Roth, British actor and director Tim Roth (b. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential rap artists of all time. ...


Among other ethnicities, some use it casually, as an archaism, to refer to African Americans; but most are rural, from poor areas of cities, and/or born before the 1950s. "Nigger" also persists in use as a racial slur among nonblacks across ethnic and class boundaries. In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the...


Uses of word

Usage

In the United States, "nigger" was freely, if sometimes fraughtly, used by both whites and blacks until the Civil Rights Era of the 1960s. A striking usage is in televised coverage of a march in Birmingham, Alabama, when protesters, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, were met with attack dogs and fire hoses. A white woman from another Alabama county was interviewed. Visibly upset, she said, "It's not right. We don't treat niggers like that here." In the South at that time, the term "nigger" was less noteworthy than the expression of support by an American white, as "nigger" was a common term for African Americans, along with "Negro" and "colored". For many white southerners in 1960s America, not using the word "nigger" required special effort. The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ... Birmingham is the largest city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Jefferson County. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ...


Today, the implications of racism are so strong that use of "nigger" in most situations is a social taboo in English-speaking countries. Many American magazines and newspapers will not even print "nigger" in full, instead using "n*gg*r," "n——," or simply "the N-word." A Washington Post article on Strom Thurmond's 1948 candidacy for President of the United States went so far as to replace "nigger" with the periphrasis "the less-refined word for black people." An African-American drinks out of a water cooler designated for use by colored patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. ... A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom declared as sacred and forbidden; breaking of the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society. ... ... Strom Thurmond James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003), known as Strom Thurmond, was the oldest and longest serving United States Senator, who represented South Carolina from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... 1948 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Seal of the President of the United States The President of the United States is the head of state of the United States. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ...


In Australia, the word is now rarely used in polite speech by urban whites in any context. It has, however, seen common use in rural or semi-frontier districts; although the usage was British colonial, e.g., applying generically to dark-skinned people of any origin (c.v. Rudyard Kipling). This has led to controversy, since Australian Aborigines have started to take the term strongly to heart, in both the pejorative and neorevisionist senses. See below under Place names. Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... The word nigger is a highly controversial term used in many countries, including the US, Canada, Britain, Australia and Russia, to refer to individuals with dark skin, especially those of indigenous African descent who previously were racially classified by the now outdated term Negro. ...


Literary uses

"Nigger" has a long history of causing controversy in literature. Carl Van Vechten, a white photographer and writer famous as a promoter of the Harlem Renaissance, caused a great controversy by titling his 1926 novel Nigger Heaven. The controversy centered on the use of the word "nigger" in the title and fueled the sales of the hit novel. Of the controversy, Langston Hughes wrote: Photographic self-portrait by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nigger Heaven (1926) is a book by Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964) set during the Harlem renaissance in the United States in the 1920s. ... Langston Hughes, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1936 Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an African American poet, novelist, playwright, and newspaper columnist. ...

No book could possibly be as bad as Nigger Heaven has been painted. And no book has ever been better advertised by those who wished to damn it. Because it was declared obscene, everybody wanted to read it, and I'll venture to say that more Negroes bought it than ever purchased a book by a Negro author. Then, as now, the use of the word "nigger" by a white was a flashpoint for debates about the relationship between African American culture and its White patrons.

The famous controversy over Mark Twain's novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), a classic frequently taught in American schools, revolves largely around the novel's 215 uses of the word, nigger, referring to Jim, Huck's raft mate. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was a famous and popular American humorist, writer and lecturer. ... Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) is commonly accounted as the first Great American Novel. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Slaves often pandered to racist assumptions about blacks by using "nigger" to their advantage as a typical, self-deprecatory artifice of Tomming. Implicit in so doing was the unspoken reminder that a presumed inherently morally or intellectually inferior person or subhuman -- in essence, a "nigger" -- could not reasonably be held responsible for work performed incorrectly, an "accidental" fire in the kitchen, or any other similar infraction. It was a means of deflecting responsibility in the hope of escaping the wrath of an overseer or master. The use of "nigger" as a self-referential term was also a way to avoid suspicion and put whites at ease. A slave who referred to himself or another black as a "nigger" presumably accepted the subordinate role that was his unfortunate lot and, therefore, posed no threat to white authority. Uncle Tom is a pejorative term for a black person who is obsequiously servile to white authority; eager to win the approval of white people; or, who rubber stamps white supremacist notions about the inherent superority of whites and its corollary, the inherent inferiority of blacks. ...


An example of this historical use in American English occurs in Edgar Allan Poe's short story The Gold Bug (1843). The narrator and a White character in the story use "negro" to refer to a black servant, Jupiter, while Jupiter himself uses nigger: This daguerreotype of Poe was taken less than a year before his death at the age of 40. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Gold Bug is a short story by one of the masters of the genre, Edgar Allan Poe. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

"De bug, Massa Will! --de goole bug!" cried the negro, drawing back in dismay --"what for mus tote de bug way up de tree? --d[am]n if I do!"

"If you are afraid, Jup, a great big negro like you, to take hold of a harmless little dead beetle, why you can carry it up by this string -- but, if you do not take it up with you in some way, I shall be under the necessity of breaking your head with this shovel."

"What de matter now, massa?" said Jup, evidently shamed into compliance; "always want for to raise fuss wid old nigger. Was only funnin' anyhow. Me feered de bug! what I keer for de bug?" Here he took cautiously hold of the extreme end of the string, and, maintaining the insect as far from his person as circumstances would permit, prepared to ascend the tree.

A popular children's rhyme once contained the word nigger for tiger (and still does in Britain and Ireland, although most children would be unaware of the meaning of the word). See: Eenie Meenie. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family, one of four big cats that belong to the Panthera genus, and the largest of all cats, living or extinct. ... Eeny, meeny, miny, moe or eeny, meenie, minie, moe is a childrens counting rhyme, used to select it in games and similar purposes. ...


Agatha Christie's novel, Ten Little Indians, originally appeared as Ten Little Niggers. Agatha Christie Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, DBE (September 15, 1890–January 12, 1976), was a British crime fiction writer. ...


Among the classic novels of Joseph Conrad is The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897). Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad (December 3, 1857 – August 3, 1924) was a Polish-born British novelist. ... In Joseph Conrads The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), the Narcissus is a merchant ship sailing from Bombay to London. ...


Nigger in popular culture

At one time, the word "nigger" was used freely in branding and packaging of consumer commodities in the U.S. and England. There were brands such as Nigger Hair Tobacco, Niggerhead Oysters and other canned goods. Brazil nuts casually were referred to as "nigger toes." As times changed, so did labeling practices. The tobacco brand became "Bigger Hare," and the canned goods brand became "Negro Head." Eventually, such names disappeared from the marketplace altogether. Binomial name Bertholletia excelsa Humb. ...


The comedian and activist Dick Gregory used the word as the title of his best-selling autobiography in 1964. In 1967, Muhammad Ali explained his refusal to be drafted to serve in the Vietnam War by saying, "I got nothing against no Viet Cong. No Vietnamese ever called me 'nigger,'" the implication being that white Americans had done so, and that, as a black man, he had no quarrel with the Vietnamese people. In 1972, John Lennon released a song, "Woman is the Nigger of the World", implying that as black people were discriminated against in some countries so were women globally. During the same year, Curtis Mayfield used the "N" word in the first verse of "I'm Your Pusherman" (a hit song from the Superfly soundtrack). Pierre Vallières, a founding member of the FLQ terrorist group, wrote a book in 1968 called Les Nègres blancs de l'Amérique, comparing the oppression of French-Canadians to that of blacks in the southern United States. When it was translated into English, it was published under the title White Niggers of America (incidentally, former Klu Klux Klan member and current Democratic U.S. Senator of West Virginia Robert Byrd used the term "white niggers" when asked in an interview about the state of race relations in America). Richard Dick Claxton Gregory, born October 12, 1932 in St. ... Autobiography (from the Greek auton, self, bios, life and graphein, write) is biography, the writing of a life story, from the viewpoint of the subject. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1967 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Muhammad Ali-Haj (born January 17, 1942 as Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. ... The Vietnam War was fought from 1957 to 1975 between Soviet-supported Vietnamese nationalist and Communist forces and an array of Western and pro-Western forces, most notably the United States. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... John Lennon John Winston Lennon, later John Ono Lennon, (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), was best known as a singer, songwriter, and guitarist for The Beatles. ... Pierre Vallières Pierre Vallières (February 22, 1938 – December 23, 1998), was a founding member and intellectual leader of the terrorist group, the Front de libération du Québec and a journalist and writer of militantly polemical essays and books in support of the Quebec sovereignty movement. ... The Front de Libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, was a separatist group founded in the 1960s and based primarily in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Robert C. Byrd Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is a West Virginia Democrat serving in the United States Senate. ...


Comedian Lenny Bruce used the word repeatedly in a comedy routine, suggesting that the more it was used and heard, the less power it would have. Lenny Bruce (October 13, 1925 – August 3, 1966), born Leonard Alfred Schneider, was a controversial American stand-up comedian and satirist of the 1950s and 60s. ...


Comedian Richard Pryor, whose albums included That Nigga's Crazy and Bicentennial Nigger, vowed to never use the word again after a trip to Africa in the 1980s. Commenting that he never saw any niggers while in Africa, Pryor said he realized that niggers were figments of white people's imaginations. Richard Pryor Richard Franklin Lenox Thomas Pryor (born December 1, 1940 in Peoria, Illinois) is an American comedian and actor. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...

Hip-hop group N.W.A.
Hip-hop group N.W.A.

In 1988, hip hop group N.W.A. ("Niggaz With Attitude") released the album Straight Outta Compton. Although they abbreviated it in all official contexts, their self-referential use of the word caused a great deal of controversy in America over the language and lyrics of hip hop. Today, the word is used nearly universally among black rappers in casual contexts. N.W.A. Straight Outta Compton (1988) File links The following pages link to this file: Nigger ... N.W.A. Straight Outta Compton (1988) File links The following pages link to this file: Nigger ... N.W.A (the abbreviation stands for Niggaz with Attitude) was a hip hop group that popularized gangsta rap with the groundbreaking Straight Outta Compton (1989) album, a vicious hardcore record that became an underground hit notorious for its hardcore lyrics, especially those of Fuck Tha Police, which resulted in... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... N.W.A (the abbreviation stands for Niggaz with Attitude) was a hip hop group that popularized gangsta rap with the groundbreaking Straight Outta Compton (1989) album, a vicious hardcore record that became an underground hit notorious for its hardcore lyrics, especially those of Fuck Tha Police, which resulted in... Straight Outta Compton is the 1989 (see 1989 in music) breakthrough album by N.W.A., released on Priority Records. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ...


While "nigga" raises relatively few objections when used by black rappers, it generally is considered off-limits to nonblack performers. The Beastie Boys were forced off-stage after using the word in a non-hostile context to refer to their audience. In 2001, Jennifer Lopez provoked the ire of the African American community when she used the word in a song written by two black songwriters. Eminem, on the other hand, who has not hesitated to use slurs aimed at women and homosexuals, refuses to use the word "nigga" in his songs. Beastie Boys (left to right): Mike D (Michael Diamond), Adrock (Adam Horovitz), and MCA (Adam Yauch) The Beastie Boys are an American hip hop music group originating from New York City. ... Jennifer Lopez on the cover of her Rebirth album. ... Eminem Eminem is the stage name of Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972 in St. ...


African American comedian Chris Rock's 1996 television special Bring the Pain and 1997 album Roll with the New included a segment known as "Niggas vs Black People", which used the former word to describe a self-destructive segment within the black community. Rock cast "niggas" as "low-expectation-havin'" individuals -- proud to be ignorant, violent, and on welfare. The controversy of this piece, which played upon racist stereotypes of black people, was such that it led Rock to cease performing it. Chris Rock Chris Rock (born February 7, 1965) is an African-American stand-up comedian and actor born in Georgetown, South Carolina. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An album (from Latin albus white, blank, relating to a blank book in which something can be inserted) is a packaged collection of related things. ... Niggas vs. ...


Conversely, white American comedian George Carlin performs a short routine, part of his repertoire concerning the use and context of words, and the fact that some people's uses of words trouble us because we think they're being racist, wherein he closes with, "We don't mind when Richard Pryor or Eddie Murphy uses it. Why? Because we know they're not racists. They're Niggers!" George Carlin in the film Jersey Girl George Dennis Carlin (born May 12, 1937 in New York City) is an Irish American (I used to be Irish Catholic, now Im an American. ...


Since the coining of the phrase "the N-word" (see below), some television broadcasters have added the word "nigger" retroactively to their lists of taboo words, thereby censoring movies and television programs from the past in which the word is used, no matter its context or the effect on the program. For example, television broadcasts of the movie Die Hard with a Vengeance which originally featured a character being forced to carry a sign saying "I hate niggers" around Harlem, are altered so that the sign now says "I hate everybody" which is not offensive - but, critics argue, renders the scene far less effective. The comedy series All in the Family, perhaps due to its classic status, is rarely censored even though the "N-word" is used frequently. On the other hand, Mel Brooks' anti-racism comedy, Blazing Saddles is rarely shown on American commercial television anymore due to the pervasive use of the word (though, like All in the Family, the movie's serious intent was to call attention to the issues of racism through satire; a fact discussed at length by Brooks when the film's 30th anniversary edition DVD was released in 2004). Censorship is the systematic use of group power to broadly control freedom of speech and expression, largely in regard to secretive matters. ... Harlem is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, long known as a major African American cultural and business center. ... All in the Family is a popular and acclaimed American situation comedy that was originally broadcast on the CBS television network from January 12, 1971 until April 8, 1979, when the final original episode aired. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an American actor, writer director, and theatrical producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and parodies. ... Blazing Saddles is a Warner Bros. ...


Black comedian Dave Chapelle did two sketches exploring the use of nigger. In his TV show's first season he presented a blind black white supremacist who used the word profusely; in one occasion white rap fans felt honored by his calling them “niggers.” In the introduction for this sketch, the white narrator at first says “the n-word” to finish with, “Nigger. There. I said it.” In his second season, he parodied 50's-style family sitcoms with the "Niggar Family" sketch featuring a white couple and son with the surname Niggar. Dave Chappelle Dave Chappelle (born August 23, 1972) is an African American comedian, actor, and social commentator. ...


Names of places and things

Because the word was freely used for many years, there are many official place-names containing the word "nigger." Examples include Nigger Bill Canyon, Nigger Hollow, and Niggertown Marsh. In 1967, the United States Board on Geographic Names changed the word "nigger" to "Negro" in 143 specific place names, but use of the word has not been completely eliminated. Negro Bill Canyon (fomerly called Nigger Bill Canyon) is a canyon in the southeast of Utah. ... The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a US Federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the Federal Government. ...


An isolated coral head was formerly often called a niggerhead. They are notorious as navigation hazards. Orders see Anthozoa zsnobordinkid505@aol. ... There are several traditions of navigation. ...


Many varieties of flora and fauna are still commonly referred to by terms which include the word "nigger." The nigger-head cactus, which is native to Arizona is round, the size of a cabbage, and covered with large, crooked thorns. The common name for echinacea, or coneflower, is known variously as "Kansas niggerhead" and "wild niggerhead." The "niggerhead termite" is native to Australia. State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano Official languages English Only State Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ... Species Echinacea angustifolia Echinacea pallida Echinacea purpurea The purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea, is a drought-tolerant perennial of the flowering plant Family Asteraceae and native to North America. ...


In April 2003, there was a stir in Australia over the naming of part of a stadium in Toowoomba, "E.S. Nigger Brown Stand." "Nigger Brown" was the nickname of Toowoomba's first international rugby player. Edward Stanley Brown had a particularly fair complexion and, hence, was given the nickname "Nigger," in a similar way that a tall person might be called "Shorty." He also used the shoe polish brand "Nigger Brown." The stand was named in the 1960s. As in the United States some decades ago, the word was used casually by whites, with little thought. Brown himself was happy with the nickname; in fact it is written on his tombstone. A growing black consciousness among Australia's aboriginal population, however, has meant the term increasingly has become an offensive one, particularly when uttered by whites. Even so, as in the U.S., some younger blacks have appropriated the term for self-referential use. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Toowoomba Ruthven Street Looking South City Skyline From Niel Street City CBD Looking South Toowoomba City Hall The Royal Bulls Head Inn Grand Central Shopping Centre The Empire Theatre Condamine Centre Heritage Plaza Cottesloe Crest Toowoomba garden Toowoomba is a city and Local Government Area of Queensland... A can of Kiwi shoe polish Shoe polish is a polish that is used to make shoes shine. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ...


Australian civil rights activist Stephen Hagan took the local council responsible to court over the use of the word. Hagan lost the court case at the district and state level, and the High Court ruled that the matter was not of federal jurisdiction. The federal government cited the High Court ruling on a lack of federal jurisdiction as its legal justification for continued inaction. (Hagan also has tried changing other "racial names" such as the Coon brand of cheese.)


Avoiding offense

"The N-Word"

The euphemism "the N-word" became a part of the American lexicon during the racially polarizing trial of O.J. Simpson, a retired African American football player charged with – and ultimately acquitted of – a widely publicized double murder. One of the prosecution's key witnesses was Los Angeles police detective Mark Fuhrman, who initially denied using racial slurs, but whose prolific and derogatory use of the word "nigger" on a taperecording brought his credibility into question. According to Fuhrman, he was using the word in a fictional story he was writing. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces. ... O.J. Simpson at USC. Orenthal James Simpson (born July 9, 1947), known by the initials O.J. (a common American abbreviation for orange juice) and nicknamed The Juice, is a Hall of Fame former college and professional football player and film actor. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... This article is about the largest city in California. ... Mark Fuhrman (born February 5, 1952) was a detective in the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) who found the bloody glove that linked O. J. Simpson to the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson. ...


Members of the media reporting on and discussing his testimony began using the term "the N-word" instead of repeating the actual word, presumably as a way to avoid offending audiences and advertisers. The euphemism was adopted quickly by Americans as a way to avoid uttering one of the most generally offensive words in American English. American English or U.S. English is the form of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ...


The euphemism is most often used in constructions like: "He called me the N-word" or "I can't believe she said the N-word." (This form mimics other euphemisms for offensive words such as "the F-word" for fuck or "the B-word" for bitch) Fuck is among the strongest, most controversial expletives in the modern English language and probably the most well-known vulgarism in the world. ... Look up Bitch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word bitch — originally used for the female members of the canid species, specially dogs — is more often employed in a figurative sense as an insult for a promiscuous woman, or a malicious, spiteful, domineering, intrusive, and/or mean person. ...


Near-homophones

The word niger is Latin for "black" and occurs in many Latin scientific terms and names. (See Niger for other meanings such as the river in Africa.) "Niger" is the root for some English words which are near homophones of "nigger." Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Nigra, which is the way "Negro" is pronounced by some people in the American South, was considered by some to be a more polite way to refer to a black person. Because of its similarity to "nigger," however, it generally is detested by blacks and is no longer acceptable. The word nigra can be:- A slang or derogatory word for black people: see nigger and negro. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


The words niggardly ("miserly") and snigger ("to laugh derisively") do not refer either to black people or to characteristics or behavior attributed to black people, nor do they have any etymological connection with the word nigger. Niggard (= miserly person) and the verb niggle come from the Old Norse verb nigla = "to fuss about small things". Many people are ignorant of this, however, and so refuse to use these words and take offense to their usage. David Howard, a white city official in Washington, D.C., resigned from his job in January 1999, when he used niggardly in a fiscal sense while talking with African American colleagues, who took offense at his use of the word. Howard later was reinstated, after the furor subsided. Niggardly is a word for stingy, often mistakenly associated with nigger, a racial slur against Blacks. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Revisionist usage

In the United Kingdom, the word was in common use throughout the first half of the twentieth century to denote a shade of dark brown. "Nigger" was famously the name of a Black Labrador belonging to the RAF Second World War hero Wing Commander Guy Gibson. The dog died before the 617 Squadron's 1943 raid on the Ruhr dams (the "Dam Busters raid"), and "Nigger" was adopted as the radio code word signaling the destruction of the Möhne dam. Because of the modern connotations of the name, the British television broadcaster ITV now tries to reduce offence by cutting some scenes including the dog when it broadcasts the film Dam Busters. This has been condemned by some as "revisionist", although the edited version apparently produced fewer complaints than a previous uncensored broadcast. However, this scene has probably been viewed more times than any other part of the movie. It was worked into the background of the infamous hotel-room sequence in the Pink Floyd movie The Wall, during which the word nigger can be plainly heard coming from the television. In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of the accepted facts and interpretations of history, with an eye towards updating it with newly discovered, more accurate, and less biased information. ... The Labrador Retriever (Labrador or Lab for short), one of the most familiar breeds of dog, is noted for its friendliness, intelligence, and obedience. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the UK Armed Forces. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This list of notable war heroes does not make judgements about what constitutes true heroism, but rather acknowledges the fact that the term is normally used to designate anyone serving a miltary role in time of hostilities, who is treated as an outstanding example of honorable service by their chain... Wing Commander (rank) is a rank in the Royal Air Force, equivalent to a Lieutenant Colonel in most Armies, the Royal Marines and the United States Marine Corps. ... Photo from 617 Squadron The dambusters Photo submitted by Roger Shenton - (taken by John Kramer) Photo of the Dambusters Memorial at Woodhall Spa. ... No. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet or, colloquially, Ruhrpott) is a metropolitan area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. ... Operation Chastise was the official name for the attacks on German dams on May 17, 1943 in World War II using a specially developed bouncing bomb. The attack was carried out by Royal Air Force No. ... Independent Television (ITV) is the name given to the original network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up to provide competition to the BBC. In England and Wales the channel was recently rebranded ITV1 by ITVplc who own the regional broadcasting lisences for the regions. ... Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... The Dam Busters is a 1954 British war film, set during World War II, and documenting the true story of the RAFs 617 Squadron, the development of the bouncing bomb, and Operation Chastise - the attack on the Ruhr dams in Germany. ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of the accepted facts and interpretations of history, with an eye towards updating it with newly discovered, more accurate, and less biased information. ... Pink Floyd c. ... Gerald Scarfes depiction of the wall from Pink Floyd The Wall Pink Floyd The Wall is a 1982 MGM film by British director Alan Parker based on the 1979 Pink Floyd album The Wall. ...


Rudyard Kipling's Just So Story "How the Leopard Got His Spots" tells of how an Ethiopian and a leopard, who are originally sand-colored, decide to paint themselves for camouflage when hunting in dense tropical forest. The story originally included a scene in which the leopard, who now has spots, asks the Ethiopian why he doesn't want spots as well. The Ethiopian's original reply, "Oh, plain black's best for a nigger," has been changed in many modern editions to read, "Oh, plain black's best for me." Rudyard Kipling - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling. ... Binomial name Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leopards (Panthera pardus) are one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera. ...


"Nigger" versus "nigga": the new revisionism

Hip-hop artist Tupac Shakur
Enlarge
Hip-hop artist Tupac Shakur

Since the 1980s, a common argument among some young African Americans and other youth centers around the pronunciation of "nigger" as nigga. Nigga, they contend, is simply a synonym for accepted slang words such as dude and guy. Such use of nigga is heavily dependent on context. It could be an insult to say, "Hey, you niggaz" (grammatically analogous to "Hey, you guys"), but saying, "What [sic] up, my niggaz?" would be perfectly acceptable. In the first example, the use of "you guys" is similar to "you people," a phrase often seen as off-putting when used by whites to refer to blacks. The second example is in the African-American tradition of using the word to express kinship or affection. Publicity photo, under fair use This work is copyrighted. ... Publicity photo, under fair use This work is copyrighted. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential rap artists of all time. ... Traditionally a dude (pronounced düd (American), or dyüd (British)) is a dandy; a man who dresses flashily. ... Guy is used as an alternative term to refer to a man in a similar vein to the terms bloke, fellow, dude and chap. ...


Proponents of this neorevisionist usage of the term believe "nigger," in its vernacular pronunciation, is harmless. Moreover, many believe it draws a line between blacks as victims of racism and blacks as empowered, street-wise individuals. In an interview in the documentary Tupac: Resurrection Tupac Shakur explains, "Niggers was the ones on the rope, hanging off the thing; Niggas is the ones with gold ropes, hanging out at clubs." [sic] A documentary is a work in a visual or auditory medium presenting political, scientific, social, or historical subjects in a factual and informative manner. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential rap artists of all time. ...


Opponents of this view argue that "nigga" is simply "nigger" pronounced with a southern accent, that the revisionist spelling is simply a phonetic representation of the word as it always has been pronounced in African American Vernacular English and nothing more. "Nigger," they point out, is also pronounced "nigga" by many who intend it as a racial slur. While proponents of the neorevisionist use of "nigga" contend they have "reclaimed" the word and robbed it of its racist connotations, critics such as Bill Cosby dispute this. They claim such usage has not changed the word's centuries-old, racist nature. African Americans generally still consider the term offensive and inappropriate in most, if not all, contexts— and never acceptable in any context when used by nonblacks. Usage by members of other ethnic groups is viewed as racist or, as with much of nonblack, hip-hop culture, a form of cultural appropriation. A passage from the African American Registry echoes this sentiment: Cosby on The Cosby Show Dr. William Henry Cosby, Jr. ... Cultural appropriation is the theft of rituals, aesthetic standards and behavior from one culture by another, often by a counterculture from an historical culture. ...

[Neorevisionist] arguments [for the use of "nigga"] may not be true to life. Brother (Brotha) and Sister (Sistah or Sista) are terms of endearment. Nigger was and still is a word of disrespect. ...the artificial dichotomy between blacks or African Americans (respectable and middle-class) and niggers (disrespectable and lower class) ought to be challenged. Black is a nigger, regardless of behavior, earnings, goals, clothing, skills, ethics, or skin color. Finally, if continued use of the word lessened its damage, then nigger would not hurt or cause pain now. Blacks, from slavery 'til today, have internalized many negative images that white society cultivated and broadcast about black skin and black people. This is mirrored in cycles of self-and same-race hatred. The use of the word nigger by blacks reflects this hatred, even when the user is unaware of the psychological forces involved. Nigger is the ultimate expression of white racism and white superiority no matter how it is pronounced.

Sociologists commonly point to black-on-black violence and its association with gangsta rap— the phenomenon most responsible for the rise in the revisionist use of the term among some black youth— as a manifestation of the self-destructive, self-loathing mind-set referred to above. Gangsta rap, also known as hardcore hip-hop refers to a subgenre of hip hop (rap music) which involves a lyrical focus on African American inner-city (ghetto) problems, and the violent lives and lifestyles of street-thugs and gangsters. ...


There is also a marked class difference in African-American use of the term. The more highly educated, the higher one's socioeconomic status, regardless of age, the less likely one is to use the term self-referentially, if at all.


Ethnophaulisms

Some social scientists refer to words like nigger, kike, spic, and wetback as ethnophaulisms (ethnic or racial slurs). These terms are the language of prejudice – verbal pictures of negative stereotypes. Howard J. Ehrlich, a social scientist, said that "ethnophaulisms are of three types: disparaging nicknames (chink, dago, nigger, and so forth); explicit group devaluations ("Jew him down," or "niggering the land"); and irrelevant ethnic names used as a mild term of disparagement ("jewbird" for cuckoos having prominent beaks or "Irish confetti" for bricks thrown in a fight). Virtually all racial and ethnic groups have been the subject of racial slurs; but few, if any, racial or ethnic groups have had as many racial slurs associated with them as blacks. The following is a list of ethnic slurs, also known as ethnophaulisms, that are, or have been, used to refer to members of a given ethnicity (or, in some cases, nationality, region, or religion) in a derogatory or pejorative manner. ... Wetback is a derogatory term for a Mexican laborer who, in order to obtain work in the United States, illegally enters the country by swimming or wading the Rio Grande. ... Terms of disparagement are pejorative terms such as yid, kike, nigger, whore, slut, fag and queer whose use usually arouses painful feelings in the target, members of the targeted group or sympathizers. ...


Combinations with other words

Within American culture, following the word "nigger" with a second word connotes an extremely negative conception of that second word, usually playing to racist stereotypes. Thus, to call someone "nigger-rich" is to say that they unwisely spend their entire paycheck upon its receipt. To say someone is playing "nigger hockey" implies that they're cheating. To say that something is "nigger-rigged" suggests that it was hastily or carelessly improvised from any available materials. While such phrases are used to describe people of any race, they are nonetheless considered as racist as using the word "nigger" by itself.


The term "wigger," or "whigger," refers to a young, white mimicker of certain affectations of hip-hop and thug culture. It is a portmanteau of "white" and "nigger". The word is usually considered offensive because of its similarity to "nigger" and because it reflects stereotypical notions about blacks. Wigger is a derogatory slang term used to describe a person, usually of European descent and with pale skin (often described as a Caucasian person), who dresses, speaks, or otherwise behaves in a manner that is stereotypically associated with certain aspects of urban African American culture — for example, speaking in... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... A portmanteau (plural: portmanteaux or portmanteaus) is a word that is formed by combining both sounds and meanings from two or more words. ...


Similarly, other portmanteaus formed from "nigger", also usually considered offensive, are used to describe other nonblacks who adopt certain, usually hip-hop, African American cultural affectations. These include combining "nigger" with Chinese, to produce "chigger". (A chigger is also a type of mite and a type of flea, pests whose bites cause intense itching); with "Korean", to produce "kigger"; and with "spic", a slur for a Latino who does not speak the majority language, to produce "spigger". Also, when combined with "Turk," the two words form "Tigger." The term chigger (or jigger) can refer to either of two distinct parasitic arthropods with similar behaviors. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... Families Tungidae - Sticktight and Chigoe fleas Pulicidae - Common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae - Carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae - Marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae - Rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae - Bird and rabbit fleas Ischnopsyllidae - Bat fleas Ceratophyllidae Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae - Rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name for any of the small wingless... Tigger is a fictional character from A. A. Milnes book, The House at Pooh Corner. ...


References

"Nigger Heaven and the Harlem Renaissance." Robert F. Worth, African American Review. Fall 1995. 29(3):461-473.


Further reading

  • Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word, by Randall Kennedy (ISBN 0375421726)

See also

The following is a list of ethnic slurs that are, or have been, used to refer to members of a given ethnicity (or in some cases, nationality, region, or religion) in a derogatory or pejorative manner. ... This is a list of derogatory or mildly insulting terms derived from the names of ethnic or religious groups. ... An African-American drinks out of a water cooler designated for use by colored patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. ... A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom declared as sacred and forbidden; breaking of the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society. ... Profanity is a word choice or usage which its audience considers to be offensive. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Wog Wog is a word with several meanings, one commonly derogatory, the others not. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wigger is a derogatory slang term used to describe a person, usually of European descent and with pale skin (often described as a Caucasian person), who dresses, speaks, or otherwise behaves in a manner that is stereotypically associated with certain aspects of urban African American culture — for example, speaking in...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nigger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4295 words)
A popular children's rhyme once contained the word nigger instead of tiger (and still does in Britain and Ireland, although many children would be unaware of the meaning of the word).
In the United Kingdom, the word was in common use throughout the first half of the twentieth century to denote a shade of dark brown.
The dog died before the 617 Squadron's 1943 raid on the Ruhr dams (the "Dam Busters raid"), and "Nigger" was adopted as the radio code word signaling the destruction of the Möhne dam.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m