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Encyclopedia > Niger
République du Niger
Republic of Niger
Flag of Niger
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Fraternité, Travail, Progrès"  (French)
"Fraternity, Work, Progress"
Anthem
La Nigérienne
Capital
(and largest city)
Niamey
13°32′N, 2°05′E
Official languages French
Demonym Nigerien
Government Parliamentary democracy
 -  President Tandja Mamadou
 -  Prime Minister Seyni Oumarou
Independence from France 
 -  Declared August 3, 1960 
Area
 -  Total 1,267,000 km² (22nd)
489,189 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.02
Population
 -  July 2005 estimate 13,957,000 (64th)
 -  Density 11/km² (206th)
28/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $910.951 million (132nd)
 -  Per capita $872 (171st)
HDI (3502) 0.311 Expression error: Unrecognised word "expression"(177th)
Currency CFA franc (XOF)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .ne
Calling code +227

Niger (pronounced /niːˈʒɛər/, US variant: /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/), in French pronounced [niˈʒɛːʁ]), officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. It borders Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria and Libya to the north and Chad to the east. The capital city is Niamey. Niger can be: Niger, a country in West Africa The Niger River, in West Africa Niger State, in Nigeria Nigger, offensive term sometimes used to refer to a black person in the USA HMS Niger, the name of several British warships Niger Innis, a conservative American activist Peter Georg Niger... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ... Image File history File links Niger_coa. ... Flag ratio: 6:7 Prior to independence from French West Africa, the flag of Niger was adapted. ... Description The coat of arms of Niger shows a four-part flag draping in the national colors orange, white, and green. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... La Nigérienne is the national anthem of Niger. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The largest ethnic groups in Niger are the Hausa, who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria, and the Zarma Songhay (also spelled Djerma-Songhai), who also are found in parts of Mali. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Niger. ... Tandja Mamadou (born 1938) is a Niger politician and current President. ... List of Heads of Government of Niger Affiliations See also Niger Heads of State of Niger Lists of Incumbents Categories: Lists of office-holders | Niger ... Seyni Oumarou (born August 9, 1950[1]) is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since June 2007. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... now. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in western and west-central Africa (though not in countries west of Benin, which instead use GMT). ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ne is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Niger. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... West Africa is the region of western Africa generally considered to include these countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Equatorial Guinea Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Chad, Mauritania, and... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Demonym

The demonym of Niger is Nigerien /niːˈʒɛɹiən/ (var. /naɪdʒɪɹiˈɛn/), which derives from the French nigérien, -ne and should not be confused with Nigerian /naɪˈdʒiɹiən/ for Nigeria. There are different opinions about the adjective form however. Merriam-Webster lists Nigerois (which has, despite its sound, no equivalent form in French) only as the noun form. However, there are instances of Nigerois having been used adjectivally. CNN and other news sources often circumvent using the adjective altogether, using the noun instead, e.g. 'the Niger parliament', 'Niger leader slain' or 'Niger's capital', 'Niger's people'. In French, the citizens of Niger use the adjective 'nigérien'. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


History

Main article: History of Niger

One of the first empires in what is now Niger was the Songhai Empire. During recent centuries, the nomadic Tuareg formed large confederations, pushed southward, and, siding with various Hausa states, clashed with the Fulani Empire of Sokoto, which had gained control of much of the Hausa territory in the late 18th century. This is the history of Niger. ... The Songhai Empire, (ca. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. ... The Fulani Empire was one of the most powerful states in sub-Saharan Africa in the years prior to European colonization. ... Location of Sokoto in Nigeria, Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to where the Sokoto River and Rima River meet. ...


In the 19th century, contact with the West began when the first European explorers—notably Mungo Park (British) and Heinrich Barth (German)—explored the area, searching for the source of the Niger River. Although French efforts at "pacification" began before 1900, dissident ethnic groups, especially the desert Tuareg, were not fully subdued until 1922, when Niger became a French colony. Mungo Park Title illustration of (1859) Mungo Park (September 10, 1771 – 1806) was a Scottish explorer of the African continent. ... Heinrich Barth (1821-1865), German explorer, was born at Hamburg on February 16, 1821, and educated at Berlin University, where he graduated in 1844. ... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... The word pacification is most often used as a euphemism for counter-insurgency operations by a dominant military force. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...


Niger's colonial history and development parallel that of other French West African territories. France administered its West African colonies through a governor general in Dakar, Senegal, and governors in the individual territories, including Niger. In addition to conferring French citizenship on the inhabitants of the territories, the 1946 French constitution provided for decentralization of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory assemblies. Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ...


Early independence

A further revision in the organization of overseas territories occurred with the passage of the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of July 23, 1956, followed by reorganizing measures enacted by the French Parliament early in 1957. In addition to removing voting inequalities, these laws provided for creation of governmental organs, assuring individual territories a large measure of self-government. After the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on December 4, 1958, Niger became an autonomous state within the French Community. Following full independence on August 3, 1960, however, membership was allowed to lapse. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Niger

For its first fourteen years as an independent state, Niger was run by a single-party civilian regime under the presidency of Hamani Diori. In 1974, a combination of devastating drought and accusations of rampant corruption resulted in a coup d'état that overthrew the Diori regime. Col. Seyni Kountché and a small military group ruled the country until Kountché's death in 1987. He was succeeded by his Chief of Staff, Col. Ali Saibou, who released political prisoners, liberalized some of Niger's laws and policies, and promulgated a new constitution. However, President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the end of 1990. New political parties and civic associations sprang up, and a national conference was convened in July 1991 to prepare the way for the adoption of a new constitution and the holding of free and fair elections. The debate was often contentious and accusatory, but under the leadership of Prof. André Salifou, the conference developed consensus on the modalities of a transition government. A transition government was installed in November 1991 to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put into place in April 1993. While the economy deteriorated over the course of the transition, certain accomplishments stand out, including the successful conduct of a constitutional referendum; the adoption of key legislation such as the electoral and rural codes; and the holding of several free, fair, and non-violent nationwide elections. Freedom of the press flourished with the appearance of several new independent newspapers. Nigers new constitution was approved in July 1999. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Niger. ... Diori Hamani (b. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Coup redirects here. ... Seyni Kountché Seyni Kountché (b. ... Ali Saibou (b. ... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... A transitional government is a temporary national administration usually put into place pending the establishment of a permanent government. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...


The results of the January 1995 parliamentary election meant cohabitation between a rival president and prime minister; this led to governmental paralysis, which provided Col. Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara a rationale to overthrow the Third Republic in January 1996. While leading a military authority that ran the government (Conseil de Salut National) during a 6-month transition period, Baré enlisted specialists to draft a new constitution for a Fourth Republic announced in May 1996. Baré organized a presidential election in July 1996. While voting was still going on, he replaced the electoral commission. The new commission declared him the winner after the polls closed. His party won 90% of parliament seats in a flawed legislative election in November 1996. When his efforts to justify his coup and subsequent questionable elections failed to convince donors to restore multilateral and bilateral economic assistance, a desperate Baré ignored an international embargo against Libya and sought Libyan funds to aid Niger's economy. In repeated violations of basic civil liberties by the regime, opposition leaders were imprisoned; journalists often arrested, and deported by an unofficial militia composed of police and military; and independent media offices were looted and burned. Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. ... Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara (May 9, 1949 - April 9, 1999) was a military officer in the West African country of Niger who overthrew the government of President Mahamane Ousmane on January 27, 1996. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ...


As part of an initiative started under the 1991 national conference, however, the government signed peace accords in April 1995 with all, meaning Tuareg and Toubou groups that had been in rebellion since 1990. The Tuareg claimed they lacked attention and resources from the central government. The government agreed to absorb some former rebels into the military and, with French assistance, help others return to a productive civilian life. For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Toubou are an ethnic group in northern Chad. ...

In 9 April 1999, Baré was killed in a coup led by Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké, who established a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a Fifth Republic with a French style semi-presidential system. In votes that international observers found to be generally free and fair, the Nigerien electorate approved the new constitution in July 1999 and held legislative and presidential elections in October and November 1999. Heading a coalition of the National Movement for a Developing Society (MNSD) and the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS), Mamadou Tandja won the election. Image File history File links Mamadou_Tandja_2005. ... Image File history File links Mamadou_Tandja_2005. ... Tandja Mamadou (born 1938) is a Niger politician and current President. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Niger. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... The National Movement of the Development Society (French: Mouvement National de la Societé de Développement) is a political party in Niger. ... The Democratic and Social Convention (French: Convention démocratique et sociale-Rahama) is a political party in Niger. ... Tandja Mamadou (born 1938) is a Niger politician and current President. ...


Niger's new constitution was approved in July 1999. It restored the semi-presidential system of government of the December 1992 constitution (Third Republic) in which the president of the republic, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, and a prime minister named by the president share executive power. As a reflection of Niger's increasing population, the unicameral National Assembly was expanded in 2004 to 113 deputies elected for a 5 year term under a majority system of representation. Political parties must attain at least 5% of the vote in order to gain a seat in the legislature. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The unicameral National Assembly of Niger is the countrys legislative body. ...


The constitution also provides for the popular election of municipal and local officials, and the first-ever successful municipal elections took place 24 July 2004. The National Assembly passed in June 2002 a series of decentralization bills. As a first step, administrative powers will be distributed among 265 communes (local councils); in later stages, regions and departments will be established as decentralized entities. A new electoral code was adopted to reflect the decentralization context. The country is currently divided into 8 regions, which are subdivided into 36 districts (departments). The chief administrator (Governor) in each department is appointed by the government and functions primarily as the local agent of the central authorities. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The current legislature elected in December 2004 contains seven political parties. President Mamadou Tandja was re-elected in December 2004 and reappointed Hama Amadou as Prime Minister. Mahamane Ousmane, the head of the CDS, was re-elected President of the National Assembly (parliament) by his peers. The new second term government of the Fifth Republic took office on 30 December 2002. In August 2002, serious unrest within the military occurred in Niamey, Diffa, and Nguigmi, but the government was able to restore order within several days. Tandja Mamadou (born 1938) is a Niger politician and current President. ... Mahamane Ousmane Mahamane Ousmane (born 20 January 1950)[1] is a Nigerien political figure. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Diffa is a town in southeast Niger, near that countrys border with Nigeria, with a population of 23,600 (2004). ... Nguigmi is a small city in the eastern most part of Niger, very near to Lake Chad - lying on its shore until the lake retreated. ...


In June 2007, Seyni Oumarou was nominated as the new Prime Minister after Hama Amadou was democratically forced out of office by the National Assembly through a motion of no confidence. Seyni Oumarou (born August 9, 1950[1]) is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since June 2007. ...


Departments, arrondissements, and communes

Niger is divided into 7 departments and one capital district. The departments are subdivided into 36 arrondissements and further subdivided into 129 communes. The departments and capital district are: Niger is divided into 7 departments (departements; singular - departement) (each departments capital is the same as its name): Agadez Diffa Dosso Maradi Tahoua Tillaberi Zinder Additionally, the national capital, Niamey, comprises a capital district. ... Arrondissements of Niger The Departments of Niger are subdivided into 36 arrondissements. ... Communes of Niger The Arrondissements of Niger are subdivided into 129 communes. ... The word department has a number of meanings: It can mean an administrative sector of the government. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... A commune is a system of social and economic organization which involves the common ownership of resources and/or shared obligations. ...

Agadez is an administrative department in Niger. ... Diffa is an administrative department of Niger, the capital of the region is Diffa. ... Dosso is an administrative department of Niger, the capital of the department in Dosso, the department includes 31,002 km2. ... This article is about the departement of Niger. ... Tahoua is an administrative department in Niger, the capital of the department is Tahoua. ... Tillabéri is an administrative department in Niger; the capital of the Department is Tillabéri. ... Zinder is an administrative department in Niger, the capital of the Department is Zinder. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Foreign relations

Niger pursues a moderate foreign policy and maintains friendly relations with the West and the Islamic world as well as nonaligned countries. It belongs to the United Nations and its main specialized agencies and in 1980-81 served on the UN Security Council. Niger maintains a special relationship with France and enjoys close relations with its West African neighbors. It is a charter member of the African Union and the West African Monetary Union and also belongs to the Niger River and Lake Chad Basin Commissions, the Economic Community of West African States, the Nonaligned Movement, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference. The westernmost regions of Niger are joined with contiguous regions Mali and Burkina Faso under the Liptako-Gourma Authority. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29... Staates of UEMOA The West African Monetary Union (or UEMOA from its name in French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization of states of West Africa established to promote economic integration among countries that share a common currency, the CFA Franc. ... The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen countries, founded on May 28, 1975 when fifteen West African countries signed the Treaty of Lagos. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... The Liptako-Gourma Authority is an regional organization seeking to develop the contiguous areas of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger. ...


The border dispute with Benin, inherited from colonial times and concerning inter alia Lete Island in the River Niger was finally solved by the ICJ in 2005 to Niger's advantage. Lété island is an island in the River Niger approx. ... The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4000 km). ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Military

Further information: Military of Niger

The Niger Armed Forces total 10,000 personnel with approximately 3,700 gendarmes, 300 air force, and 6,000 army personnel. The air force has four operational transport aircraft. The armed forces include general staff and battalion task force organizations consisting of two paratroop units, four light armored units, and nine motorized infantry units located in Tahoua, Agadez, Dirkou, Zinder, Nguigmi, N'Gourti, and Madewela. Since January 2003, Niger has deployed a company of troops to Cote d’Ivoire as part of the ECOWAS stabilization force. In 1991, Niger sent four hundred military personnel to join the American-led allied forces against Iraq during the Gulf War. The Niger Armed Forces total 8,000 personnel, in addition to 2,700 national gendarmes and 4,000 members of the Garde Republicaine. ...


Niger's defense budget is modest, accounting for about 1.6% of government expenditures. France provides the largest share of military assistance to Niger. Morocco, Algeria, China, and Libya have also provided military assistance. Approximately 15 French military advisers are in Niger. Many Nigerien military personnel receive training in France, and the Nigerien Armed Forces are equipped mainly with material either given by or purchased in France. In the past, U.S. assistance focused on training pilots and aviation support personnel, professional military education for staff officers, and initial specialty training for junior officers. A small foreign military assistance program was initiated in 1983. A U.S. Defense Attaché office opened in June 1985 and assumed Security Assistance Office responsibilities in 1987. The office closed in 1996 following a coup d'état. A U.S. Defense Attaché office reopened in July 2000. The United States provided transportation and logistical assistance to Nigerien troops deployed to Cote d’Ivoire in 2003. Additionally, the U.S. provided initial equipment training on vehicles and communications gear to a select contingent of Nigerien soldiers as part of the Department of State Pan-Sahel Initiative. Coup redirects here. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Niger
Map of Niger
Satellite image of Niger, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Satellite image of Niger, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library

Niger is a landlocked nation in West Africa located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. Its geographic coordinates are latitude 16°N and longitude 8°E. Its area is 1,267,000 square kilometres (489,000 sq mi) of which 300 square kilometres (115 sq mi) is water. This makes Niger slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas, and the world's twenty-second largest country (after Chad). Niger is comparable in size to Angola. Niger is a landlocked nation in West Africa located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Niger Geography of Niger Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Niger Geography of Niger Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1901x1421, 3069 KB) ECW to TIFF to PNG (compression level 9). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1901x1421, 3069 KB) ECW to TIFF to PNG (compression level 9). ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Satellite image of Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


Niger borders seven countries on all sides and has a total of 5,697 kilometres (3,540 mi) of borders. The longest border is Nigeria to the south (1,497 km; 930 mi). This is followed by Chad to the east, at 1,175 kilometres (730 mi), Algeria to the north-northwest (956 km; 594 mi), and Mali at 821 kilometres (510 mi). Niger also has small borders in its far southwest frontier with Burkina Faso at 628 kilometres (390 mi) and Benin at 266 kilometres (165 mi) and to the north-northeast (Libya at 354 kilometres (220 mi). “Miles” redirects here. ...


Niger's subtropical climate is mainly very hot and dry, with much desert area. In the extreme south there is a tropical climate on the edges of the Niger River basin. The terrain is predominantly desert plains and sand dunes, with flat to rolling savannah in the south and hills in the north. Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ...


The lowest point is the Niger River, with an elevation of 200 metres (722 ft). The highest point is Monts Bagzane at 2,022 metres (6,634 ft). Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ...

See also: List of cities in Niger

Map of Niger This is a list of cities and towns in Niger: Abalak Agadez Arlit Assodé Ayourou Bilma Birni NGaouré Birni-NKonni Dakoro Diffa Dogondoutchi Dosso Filingué Gaya Madaoua Maradi Mayahi Miria Nguigmi Niamey Tahoua Tchin-Tabaraden Téra Tessaoua Tillabéri Timia Zinder Categories: | | | ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Niger
Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub.
Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub.

Niger is the poorest country in the world, ranking last on the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index. It is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Drought cycles, desertification, a 2.9% population growth rate, and the drop in world demand for uranium have undercut the economy. Niger is a landlocked Sub-Sahara African nation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 334 KB) Summary The capital of Niger, Niamey by night. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 334 KB) Summary The capital of Niger, Niamey by night. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...


Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. now. ... Headquarters Established 1961 President Charles Konan Banny Central Bank of West African Economic and Monetary Union Currency West African CFA franc ISO 4217 Code XOF Website www. ... Staates of UEMOA The West African Monetary Union (or UEMOA from its name in French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization of states of West Africa established to promote economic integration among countries that share a common currency, the CFA Franc. ...


In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. In December 2005, it was announced that Niger had received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translates into the forgiveness of approximately $86 million USD in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Uranium prices have recovered somewhat in the last few years. A drought and locust infestation in 2005 led to food shortages for as many as 2.5 million Nigeriens. The 38 states recognized as the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). ... The Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) is an arm of the International Monetary Fund which lends to the worlds poorest countries. ...


Agriculture

The fertile south of Niger near the river delta.
The fertile south of Niger near the river delta.

Niger's agricultural and livestock sectors are the mainstay of all but 18% of the population. Fourteen percent of Niger's GDP is generated by livestock production—camels, goats, sheep, and cattle—said to support 29% of the population. The 15% of Niger's land that is arable is found mainly along its southern borders with Nigeria, Benin and Burkina Faso. Rainfall varies and when insufficient, Niger has difficulty feeding its population and must rely on grain purchases and food aid to meet food requirements. Although the rains in 2000 were not good, the three following years brought relatively plentiful and well-distributed rainfall, resulting in good harvests. Millet, sorghum, and cassava are Niger's principal rain-fed subsistence crops. Cowpeas and onions are grown for commercial export, as are limited quantities of garlic, peppers, gum arabic, and sesame seeds. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 261 KB) Summary Nigers southern parts are much more fertile than the desert landscapes of the north. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 261 KB) Summary Nigers southern parts are much more fertile than the desert landscapes of the north. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ... “Sheep” redirects here. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Acacia senegal plant from Koehlers Medicinal-Plants 1887 Gum arabic, a natural gum also called gum acacia, is a substance that is taken from two sub-Saharan species of the acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame (Sesamum indicum)is a crop grown primarily for its seeds. ...


Exports

Uranium is Niger's largest export. Foreign exchange earnings from livestock, although difficult to quantify, are second. Actual exports far exceed official statistics, which often fail to detect large herds of animals informally crossing into Nigeria. Some hides and skins are exported, and some are transformed into handicrafts.


The persistent uranium price slump has brought lower revenues for Niger's uranium sector, although uranium still provides 72% of national export proceeds. The nation enjoyed substantial export earnings and rapid economic growth during the 1960s and 1970s after the opening of two large uranium mines near the northern town of Arlit. When the uranium-led boom ended in the early 1980s, however, the economy stagnated, and new investment since then has been limited. Niger's two uranium mines—SOMAIR's open pit mine and COMINAK's underground mine—are owned by a French-led consortium and operated by French interests. However, as of 2007, many licences have been given to other companies from countries such as Canada and Australia in order to exploit new deposits. General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ...


Exploitable deposits of gold are known to exist in Niger in the region between the Niger River and the border with Burkina Faso. On October 5, 2004 President Tandja announced the official opening of the Samira Hill Gold Mine in the region of Tera and the first Nigerien gold ingot was presented to him. This marked a historical moment for Niger as the Samira Hill Gold Mine represents the first commercial gold production in the country. Samira Hill is owned by a company called SML (Societe des Mines du Liptako) which is a joint venture between a Moroccan company, Societe Semafo, and a Canadian company, Etruscan Resources. Both companies own 80% (40% - 40%) of SML and the Government of Niger 20%. The first year’s production is predicted to be 135,000 troy ounces (4,200 kg; 9,260 lb avoirdupois) of gold at a cash value of USD 177 per ounce ($5.70/g). The mine reserves for the Samira Hill mine total 10,073,626 tons at an average grade of 2.21 grams per ton from which 618,000 troy ounces (19,200 kg; 42,400 lb) will be recovered over a 6 year mine life. SML believes to have a number of significant gold deposits within what is now recognized as the gold belt known as the "Samira Horizon", which is located between Gotheye and Ouallam. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modern gold ingots from the Bank of Sweden An Ingot is a mass of material cast into a shape which is easy to handle. ... Societe Semafo is a mining company active in West Africa. ... Etruscan Resources is a mining company based in Nova Scotia, in Canada, that operates gold and diamond mines in Africa. ... Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals, black powder, and gemstones. ... The avoirdupois (IPA: ; French IPA: ) system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. ...


Substantial deposits of phosphates, coal, iron, limestone, and gypsum also have been found in Niger. Niger has oil potential. In 1992, the Djado permit was awarded to Hunt Oil, and in 2003 the Tenere permit was awarded to the China National Petroleum Company. An ExxonMobil-Petronas joint venture now holds the sole rights to the Agadem block, north of Lake Chad, and oil exploration is ongoing. The parastatal SONICHAR (Societe Nigerienne de Charbon) in Tchirozerine (north of Agadez) extracts coal from an open pit and fuels an electricity generating plant that supplies energy to the uranium mines. There are additional coal deposits to the south and west that are of a higher quality and may be exploitable. In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ... Lake Chad (in French: Lac Tchad) is a large, shallow lake in Africa. ...


The economic competitiveness created by the January 1994 devaluation of the Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) franc contributed to an annual average economic growth of 3.5% throughout the mid-1990s. But the economy stagnated due to the sharp reduction in foreign aid in 1999 (which gradually resumed in 2000) and poor rains in 2000. Reflecting the importance of the agricultural sector, the return of good rains was the primary factor underlying economic growth of 5.1% in 2000, 3.1% in 2001, 6.0% in 2002, and 3.0% in 2003. now. ...


In recent years, the Government of Niger drafted revisions to the investment code (1997 and 2000), petroleum code (1992), and mining code (1993), all with attractive terms for investors. The present government actively seeks foreign private investment and considers it key to restoring economic growth and development. With the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), it has undertaken a concerted effort to revitalize the private sector.


Foreign aid

The importance of external support for Niger's development is demonstrated by the fact that about 45% of the government's FY 2002 budget, including 80% of its capital budget, derived from donor resources. The most important donors in Niger are France, the European Union, the World Bank, the IMF, and UN agencies—UNDP, UNICEF, FAO, WFP, and UNFPA. Other donors include the United States, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, China, Italy, Libya, Egypt, Morocco, Iran, Denmark, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. While the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) does not have an office in Niger, the United States is a major donor, contributing on average $8 million each year to Niger’s development increasing to $12 million in FY 2004. The United States also is a major partner in policy coordination in food security, education, water management and HIV/AIDS sectors. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


Economic reform

In January 2000, Niger's newly elected government inherited serious financial and economic problems, including a virtually empty treasury, past-due salaries (11 months of arrears) and scholarship payments, increased debt, reduced revenue performance, and lower public investment. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund (IMF) program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). In January 2001, Niger reached its decision point and subsequently reached its completion point in 2004. Total relief from all of Niger's creditors is worth about $890 million, corresponding to about $520 million in net present value (NPV) terms, which is equivalent to 53.5% of Niger’s total debt outstanding as of 2000. IMF redirects here. ... The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative aims at assisting the worlds poorest countries by bringing their external debt to sustainable levels, conditional on their governments showing satisfactory performance levels. ... The Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) is an arm of the International Monetary Fund which lends to the worlds poorest countries. ...


The debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing about $40 million per year over the coming years for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. The overall impact on Niger's budget is substantial. Debt service as a percentage of government revenue will be slashed from nearly 44% in 1999 to 10.9% in 2003 and average 4.3% during 2010-19. The debt relief cuts debt service as a percentage of export revenue from more than 23% to 8.4% in 2003, and decreases it to about 5% in later years. A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In addition to strengthening the budgetary process and public finances, the Government of Niger has embarked on an ambitious program to privatize 12 state-owned companies. To date, seven have been fully privatized, including the water and telephone utilities, with the remainder to be privatized in 2005. A newly installed multisectoral regulatory agency will help ensure free and fair competition among the newly privatized companies and their private sector competitors. In its effort to consolidate macroeconomic stability under the PRGF, the government is also taking actions to reduce corruption, and as the result of a participatory process encompassing civil society, has devised a Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan that focuses on improving health, primary education, rural infrastructure, agricultural production, environmental protection, and judicial reform.


Privatization and liberalization have however also been the subject of strong criticism. The UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, for instance, has noted that privatization affects the poorest and most vulnerable members of Niger's society. See his reports on Niger at http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/food/visits.htm


Also, the obligations to creditor institutions and governments has locked Niger in to a process of trade liberalization that might be harmful for small farmers and in particular women, as noted by a recent report by 3D → Trade - Human Rights - Equitable Economy, on Agriculture trade liberalization and women's rights. See http://www.3dthree.org/pdf_3D/3DCEDAWNigerAg.pdf


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Niger
Population age of Niger.
Population age of Niger.

The largest ethnic groups in Niger are the Hausa, who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria,the Djerma-Songhai, who also are found in parts of Mali. Both groups, along with the Gourmantche, are sedentary farmers who live in the arable, southern tier of the country. The remainder of Nigeriens are nomadic or semi-nomadic livestock-raising peoples—Fulani, Tuareg, Kanuri, Arabs, and Toubou. With rapidly growing populations and the consequent competition for meager natural resources, lifestyles of agriculturalists and livestock herders have come increasingly into conflict in Niger in recent years. The largest ethnic groups in Niger are the Hausa, who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria, and the Zarma Songhay (also spelled Djerma-Songhai), who also are found in parts of Mali. ... Image File history File links Niger-bevoelkerungspyramide. ... Image File history File links Niger-bevoelkerungspyramide. ... The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. ... The Songhai are an ethnic group living in western Africa, akin to the Mandé and Tuareg. ... Gurma, also called Gorma or Gourmantche, is an ethnic group in Fada Ngourma, Burkina Faso. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Kanuri are an African ethnic group living in northeastern Nigeria in the state of Bornu. ... The Toubou are an ethnic group in northern Chad. ...


Niger's high infant mortality rate is comparable to levels recorded in neighboring countries. However, the child mortality rate (deaths among children between the ages of 1 and 4) is exceptionally high (248 per 1,000) due to generally poor health conditions and inadequate nutrition for most of the country's children. According to the organization Save the Children, Niger has the world's highest infant mortality rate [1]. Nonetheless, Niger has the highest fertility rate in the world (7.2 births per woman); this means that nearly half (49%) of the Nigerien population is under age 15. Between 1996 and 2003, primary school attendance was around 30% [2], including 36% of males and only 25% of females. Additional education occurs through madrassas. Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


The majority of Niger's population practises Islam: 80%[1], while 15% practises Animism, and 5% practise Protestant and Catholic Christianity, as well as a growing number of Jehovah's Witnesses[citation needed]. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Culture and religion

Main article: Culture of Niger
A mosque in Niamey.
A mosque in Niamey.

The Nigerien culture is mainly based on a traditional Muslim culture. The Nigerien culture is typical of many West African cultures. Islamic influences from North Africa have had a powerful effect on the culture of Niger. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2016 KB) Summary A Mosque in Niamey, Niger a country in which 80% of the people are followers of Islam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2016 KB) Summary A Mosque in Niamey, Niger a country in which 80% of the people are followers of Islam. ...

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Niger is an African country inhabited by a mix of ethnic groups, mostly Hausa, Beriberi, Songhai, Djerma, Dendi, Puel - Woodabe and Bororo and Tuareg peoples. ... African Writers (by country): This is a list of prominent and notable literary figures from the African continent, listed by country, including poets, novelists, childrens writers, essayists, and scholars, listed by country. ...

Media

Niger began developing diverse media in the late 1990s. Niamey boasts scores of newspapers and magazines, many of which are fiercely critical of the government.


Radio is the most important medium, as television sets are beyond the buying power of many of the rural poor, and illiteracy prevents print media from becoming a mass medium. In addition to the national and regional radio services of the state broadcaster ORTN, there are four privately owned radio networks which total more than 100 stations. Three of them—the Anfani Group, Sarounia and Tenere—are urban based commercial format FM networks in the major towns. There is also a network of over 80 community radio stations spread across all seven regions of the country, governed by the Comité de Pilotage de Radios de Proximité (CPRP), a civil society organisation. The independent sector radio networks are collectively estimated by CPRP officials to cover some 7.5 million people, or about 70% of the population (2005). The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length...


Aside from Nigerien radio stations, the BBC's Hausa service is listened to on FM repeaters across wide parts of the country, particularly in the south, close to the border with Nigeria. Radio France Internationale also rebroadcasts in French through some of the commercial stations, via satellite. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Radio France Internationale logo Radio France Internationale (RFI) was created in 1975 as part of Radio France by the Government of France to serve as a broadcast vehicle for French Equatorial Africa. ...


Tenere also runs a national independent television station of the same name.


Despite relative freedom at the national level, Nigerien journalists say they are often pressured by local authorities. The state ORTN network depends financially on the government, partly through an addition to electricity bills and partly through direct subsidy.


The sector is governed by the Conseil Supérieur de Communications, established as an independent body in the late 1990s, headed by Maryam Keita, a former TV presenter at ORTN.


See also

The Association des Scouts du Niger (in local languages Iskutun Niger and Nizer Skutey), the national Scouting organization of Niger, was founded in 1947, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1996. ... Niger vegetation maps. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 13,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995) Telephone system: small system of wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned international: satellite... Niger pursues a moderate foreign policy and maintains friendly relations with both East and West. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Niger. ... This is a list of famous or important people from Niger: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it // In the news Artists Authors and poets Painters Yinka Shonibare, British/Nigerian artist, born in London, educated in Nigeria from age 3, now lives and works in London. ... The Niger Armed Forces total 8,000 personnel, in addition to 2,700 national gendarmes and 4,000 members of the Garde Republicaine. ... The Plame affair (also known as the CIA leak scandal or the CIA leak case) is a political controversy in the United States, involving high-level officials of the George W. Bush administration and members of the media, and resulting in a federal grand jury investigation, a criminal trial, and... Railways: 0 km Highways: total: 10,100 km paved: 798 km unpaved: 9,302 km (1996 est. ... The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.zyama.com/Iowa/Countres/Niger.htm
  • Samuel Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Niger, 3rd ed. (Scarecrow Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8108-3136-8) - a comprehensive collection of Niger topics
  • CIA World Factbook (entry on Niger)
  • US State Department [3] (Note: This article contains material from the State Department website.)
  • Unicef Niger statistics
  • Unesco manuscript on child work and schooling in Niger

World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

External links

Find more information on Niger by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Government
  • Niger Assemblee Nationale official site
  • Mission of Niger to the United Nations official site
News
  • allAfrica - Niger news headline links
  • Nigerportal - Niger web portal on Niger in french
  • Nigerdiaspora - Niger network for the Niger diaspora worldwide
  • Infos Niger for exchanging information about Niger both in french and english
Overviews
Tourism
Other
  • Aid to Niger
  • Friends of Niger
  • Map of Niger with departements
  • Maps of Niger, pictures of Agadez, Tuaregs and handcraft from Niger
  • Anti-slavery.org page on slavery in Niger
  • Niger's photogallery

References

  1. ^ http://www.zyama.com/Iowa/Countres/Niger.htm

  Results from FactBites:
 
Niger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4391 words)
Niger was an important economic crossroads, and the empires of Songhai, Mali, Gao, Kanem, and Bornu, as well as a number of Hausa states, claimed control over portions of the area.
Niger is a landlocked nation in West Africa located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions.
Fourteen percent of Niger's GDP is generated by livestock production--camels, goats, sheep, and cattle--said to support 29% of the population.
Niger (2109 words)
Niger is a vast landlocked country with an estimated population of 10.3 million concentrated in a narrow band of arable land along its southern border.
Niger experienced a short-lived period of sustained growth in the late 1970’s, recording double-digit GDP growth rates in some years, when activity was stimulated by the uranium boom.
The Niger region was penetrated early by Muslim missionaries for it was on the central caravan route from North Africa to the Hausa States and the empires of Mali and Songhai.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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