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Encyclopedia > Nieuport
Nieuport 17 C.1 fighter of World War I

Nieuport is a French aeroplane company famous for racers before World War I (WWI) and fighter aircraft during WWI and between the wars. WW1 - Nieuport biplane fighter. ... WW1 - Nieuport biplane fighter. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Beginnings

Originally formed as Nieuport-Duplex in 1902 for the manufacture of engine components (and for which it developed a good reputation), it was reformed in 1909 as the Societe Generale d'Aero-locomotion, and its products (including ignition components) were marketed to the aviation industry. During this time, their first aircraft were built, starting with a small single-seat monoplane, which was destroyed in a flood. A second design flew before the end of 1909 and had the essential form of the modern aircraft, including a non-lifting tail (where the lifting force pushed it down, as opposed to up as on the Bleriots - a much safer system) and an enclosed fuselage with the pilot fully protected from the elements.


In 1911, the company was reformed specifically to build aircraft (though it continued to build all of the other components including propellers) with the name Nieuport et Deplante. In 1911, Edouard Nieuport (one of several brothers) died after being thrown from his aircraft, and the company was taken over by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe, a famous supporter of aviation development. With his financing, the name was changed to Societe Anonyme des Establissements Nieuport, and development of the existing designs was continued, though in 1913 and 1914 the company began to lag behind and was setting fewer and fewer records, especially after Charles Nieuport (brother no. 2) had died in another accident (he stalled and spun in) in 1912, and the position of chief designer was taken over by Franz Schneider, who would later have his next employer, L.V.G., build illegal copies of the (then hopelessly obsolete) Nieuport and have a long-running fight with Anthony Fokker over machine gun interrupter / synchronizer patents. Fokkers first airplane, the Spin (1910) Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Damaged propeller from a Sopwith Baby aircraft circa 1916/17 with evidence of bulletholes from a machine gun fired behind the propeller without an Interruptor. ...


Gustave Delage and World War I

A Nieuport Scout plane
A Nieuport Scout plane

With Schneider's departure, Gustave Delage (no connection to the Delage automobile company) took over, and major changes occurred immediately. - including updates to the majority of the company's design lineup to bring them up to 1914 standards, and he began on a biplane racer - technically it was a sesquiplane as the lower wing was much smaller than the top. This aircraft wouldn't be ready to fly until after World War I had begun, and initially he had a hard job selling it as the French had already settled on the aircraft they wanted. The British Royal Naval Air Service (R.N.A.S.) was desperate for anything flyable, and bought a batch of what was designated the Nieuport 10, which they found so useful they not only bought a lot more, the French and Russians also started buying them. Its performance was so good that not only were they used as fighters, but also Nieuport came out with an improved development specifically intended as a fighter - the Nieuport 11. In the French designation system, used when it was being trialed, it was considered a type 'B'. Nieuport's own internal designation system also labelled it as a type 'B' (for biplane - there had been a Nieuport 11 monoplane in 1914), with the result that it was written down as the 11 BB - or as pronounced in French - bebe or baby. (Morane Saulnier, another French company, deliberately called one of its aircraft a BB as well.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Delage emblem The Delage Automobile company was established in 1905 in Levallois, a northwesterly suburb of Paris, France. ... Hs123 biplane. ... A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings of similar spans, normally one mounted above, and the other level with, the underside of the fuselage. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Personnel of No 1 Squadron RNAS in late 1914 The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I, when it merged with the British Armys Royal Flying Corps (RFC) to form the Royal Air Force. ... Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier is a French aircraft manufacturer formed by Raymond Saulnier and the Morane Brothers in October 1911. ...


Until 1917, most of the companies' aircraft would be successive developments of this one design, with bigger engines, longer wings, and more refined fuselages, but it would reach the end of the road with the Nieuport 27. The basic design lasted so long partly because it combined the advantages of both monoplane (speed) and biplane (strength and visibility) while being supremely maneuverable and suffering no vices. Its climb rate was not to be beaten until 1918, with the arrival of the Fokker D.VII and Junkers D.I 'thick wing' fighters. It had pioneered the concept of concentration of masses long before Sopwith mangled it with their poorly-designed Camel (which had center-of-gravity problems caused in part by having the fuel behind the pilot), and its biggest weakness was really in not carrying two Vickers machine guns. With the later higher-powered versions, if put into a long sustained power-on dive, the lower wings could be ripped off; however, this sort of maneuver was rarely required (especially by a skilled pilot) since the Nieuport aircraft could outclimb nearly any opponent. Fokkers first airplane, the Spin (1910) Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. ... Junkers & Co was a major German aircraft manufacturer. ... The Sopwith Aviation Company was a British aircraft company that designed and manufactured aeroplanes mainly for the British Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service and later Royal Air Force in the First World War, most famously the Sopwith Camel. ... The Sopwith Camel Scout was a British World War I single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its maneuverability. ... In physics, the center of mass of a system of particles is a specific point at which, for many purposes, the systems mass behaves as if it were concentrated. ...


The next design appeared to be a clean sheet; however, its internal structure was very similar. With much improved aerodynamics, however, it was able to make the leap to the next family from Nieuport's stable. The Nieuport 28 was bypassed by the French as they had already chosen the almost identically performing S.P.A.D. XIII by the time it had flown, and the Nieuport 28 didn't offer enough of an advantage to counterbalance the impact on production. Despite this, a small batch was built for the American United States Army Air Service, which used it until enough S.P.A.D.s were available. In fact, the U.S. Army liked it so much more than the S.P.A.D. that an entire unit mutinied over the change to the S.P.A.D., which they considered to be a 'dog' of an airplane. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about SPAD, the French aircraft manufacturer. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... This article is about SPAD, the French aircraft manufacturer. ...


Post-WWI

By 1918, Nieuport had two derivatives flying, the Nieuport 29 and the Nieuport 31. The 29 was basically a 28 with a wooden monocoque fuselage, a 300-hp Hispano-Suiza engine, and a slightly improved airframe. The 31 was a monoplane that had evolved from the same fuselage as the 28. Specially modified Nieuport 29 and 31 aircraft set speed and height records, and the 31 was the first aircraft to exceed 200 mph in level flight (in the hands of Joseph Sadi-Lecointe). Monocoque (French for single shell) is a construction technique that uses the external skin of an object to support some or most of the load on the structure. ... Hispano-Suiza is a French engineering firm best known for their engine and weapon designs in the pre-World War II period, work that developed out of their earliest work in luxury automobile design. ...


At this time, Nieuport became Nieuport-Astra, with the absorption of Astra, a company known for aerial balloons, though this name would not be used for long, before becoming Nieuport-Delage, in honour of the work of the chief designer, Gustave Delage, and because he was running the company. Also at this time, Tellier (who built seaplanes) was also absorbed. He continued developing this basic design as the Nieuport-Delage NiD.42/52/62/72, and it would see service during the Spanish Civil War, although by that time it was obsolete and was retired before the end of the conflict. Despite this, several French second-line escadrilles were equipped with them during the invasion of France, though it is unlikely they did any flying. Other types were developed; however, the vast majority of these were one-offs, or did not result in significant development. // Astra may refer to: Astra (Marvel), Marvel comics character Astra missile, missile developed by India Astra (album), a 1985 album by Asia Astra (manga), by Jerry Robinson. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ...


The end of Nieuport

In 1932, as a result of the forced amalgamations taking place in the French aviation industry, Delage retired and Nieuport-Delage reverted back to Nieuport, albeit only briefly before becoming Loire-Nieuport, then disappearing completely into SNCAO. Without a skilled chief designer, the company was unable to produce any memorable aircraft and had pretty much disappeared before World War II. SNCAO would eventually be merged into the massive conglomerate known as Aerospatiale; however, the companies' records were destroyed during World War II (WWII), when they were burned to prevent their falling into German hands. This step didn't prevent the Germans from charging several employees with espionage, as the last aircraft to carry the Nieuport name looked remarkably like a Junkers 87 -- albeit as a single-seater with retractable gear. Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques de louest (SNCAO) was a French aircraft manufacturer, which originated on November 16, 1936, from the merger of the factories of Breguet in Bouguenais, and Loire-Nieuport in St Nazaire and Issy-les-Moulineaux. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Aerospatiale Corvette first flew in 1970 and went into service in 1974. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Aircraft produced

(AR = Arriere - passenger sat in rear seat, AV = Avant passenger sat in front seat) (C.1 = single seat Chasseur/Fighter, A.2 = two seat reconnaissance, E.2 = ecole/trainer)


Nieuport II (variants include III)

Single-seat racer, 18-28 hp, beat 200-hp Bleriot in pylon race. Blériot may refer to: Louis Blériot, a French aviation pioneer Blériot Aéronautique, an aircraft manufacturer founded by Louis Blériot This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Nieuport IV (variants include VI, VII, VIII, IX, X)

Two/Three-seat racer, set many height, distance, and speed records. The Nieuport IV was also manufactured under license in Russia.


Nieuport 10 (variants include 10 AR, 10 AV, 10 A.2, 10 C.1, 10 E.2 and 83 E.2)

The Nieuport 10 was the company's first production biplane, initially designed as racer, later used as fighter, trainer, bomber, photo recon, artillery spotter, and barnstormer. The one-seater and two-seater Nieuport X versions were also manufactured under license in Russia. The Nieuport 10 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I. In January 1914 designer Gustave Delage joined the Société Anonyme des Establissements Nieuport and started the series of aircraft that made him and the company famous. ...


Nieuport 11 C.1 (variants include 16 C.1)

The Nieuport 11, Nieuport's first purpose-built fighter, ended the Fokker monoplane menace. The Nieuport 11 was powered by the 80-hp Le Rhone 9c rotary engine that was slightly throttleable, from 900 to 1200 rpm. Initially equipped with one non-synchronized, 47-round Lewis machine gun mounted on the top wing, above the propeller arc, it could use its overall superior maneuverability to quickly despatch the Fokker Eindecker, even those armed with twin synchronized Maxim guns. The Nieuport 11 was designed in response to the Fokker Scourge of 1915. ... Fokkers first airplane, the Spin (1910) Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. ...


Nieuport 12 A.2 (variants include 12bis A.2, 13 A.2, 20 A.2, 12 E.2, 80 E.2 81 E.2)

Two-seat artillery spotting aircraft, a development of the Nieuport 10. Also built in United Kingdom by Beardmore. Used until end of war and after as trainer.


Nieuport 16

The Nieuport 16 was essentially an Nieuport 11 airframe powered by the Le Rhone 9J 110-hp engine. Visible differences included a pilot headrest fairing and larger aperture in front of the "horse shoe" cowling. Later versions had a deck-mounted synchronized Vickers gun, but in this configuration the combined effect of the heaver 9J engine and the heavier Vickers gun compromised the maneuverability and made the craft decidedly nose-heavy. This disadvantage was remedied in the next variant, the slightly larger Nieuport 17 C1.


Nieuport 17 C.1 (variants include 17bis C.1, 21 C.1, 23 C.1)

The Nieuport 17 was similar to the earlier Nieuport 11, but had a more powerful engine, larger wings, and a more refined structure in general. First equipped with a 110-hp (82 kW) engine, later upgraded to a 130-hp (97 kW) engine. It had outstanding maneuverability, but was the first to suffer from the problems mentioned abover with the lower wing. Widely used during World War I. The Nieuport 17, Nieuport 21 and Nieuport 23 versions were also manufactured under license in Russia. Top scoring Commonwealth ace William Avery (Billy) Bishop scored many victories in a Nieuport 17. The Nieuport 17 was a biplane fighter aircraft manufactured by Nieuport, and prominent during the World War I era. ... The Nieuport 17 was a biplane fighter aircraft manufactured by Nieuport, and prominent during the World War I era. ... The Nieuport 21 was a French single-seat, single-engine fighter used during the First World War. ... Air Marshal William Avery Billy Bishop VC CB DSO & Bar MC DFC ED (8 February 1894 – 11 September 1956) was a Canadian First World War flying ace, officially credited with 72 victories, the highest number for a British Empire pilot. ...


Nieuport 24 C.1 (variants include 17bis C.1, 24bis C.1, 25 C.1, 27 C.1)

Cleaned up version of the Nieuport 17, with stringers fairing in the fuselage sides and some minor mods to the wings. Some versions featured a new plywood empennage and a new wing section was introduced. Used by France, the RFC (Royal Flying Corps), RNAS (Royal Naval Air Service), IRAS (Imperial Russian Air Service), United States Army Air Service and postwar in Japan and several other countries. The Nieuport 24 bis. version was also manufactured under license in Russia. Empennage is an aviation term used to describe the tail portion of an aircraft. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. // Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... Personnel of No 1 Squadron RNAS in late 1914 The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I, when it merged with the British Armys Royal Flying Corps (RFC) to form the Royal Air Force. ... Ilya Muromets Aircraft marking Ramming attack performed by Pyotr Nesterov Remains of Austrian aircraft Albatros, first enemy airplane destroyed in flight in the history of military aviation. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... The Nieuport 24 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage as a replacement for the successful Nieuport 17. ...


Nieuport 27

The Nieuport 27 was the last and best of the Nieuport "V-strut" aircraft to see service during WWI. Based on the Nieuport 17 and 24 fighters, it incorporated a large plywood vertical tail and a redesigned, rounded horizontal tail to improve stability. Nieuport 27 The Nieuport 27 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage. ...


Nieuport 28 C.1

The Nieuport 28 was the first single-seat biplane fighter used by the United States Army Air Service in WWI. It was more maneuverable than the sturdier SPAD S.XIII that replaced it, but also had a reputation for fragility and a tendency to shed its upper wing fabric in a dive. The Nieuport 28 (N.28C-1) was a French biplane fighter aircraft flown during World War I, built by Nieuport and designed by Gustave Delage. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... The SPAD S.XIII was a French biplane fighter aircraft of World War I, developed by Société Pour LAviation et ses Dérivés (SPAD) from the earlier highly successful SPAD S.VII. It was one of the most capable fighters of the war, and one of the...


Nieuport 29 C.1

Single-seat biplane fighter that entered service as World War I ended, used by France, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Argentina, Italy, and others. One example was flown by Lindberg for lengthy aerobatic display for Paris crowds after crossing Atlantic. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Lindberg is a common Swedish surname. ...


Nieuport 31 C.1 (variants include 42S, 42 C.1, 52 C.1, 62 C.1, 622 C.1, 623 C.1, 72 C.1)

See also: Nieuport Ni-52. Nieuport Ni-52 Delage, the full name of this type is Nieuport-Delage NiD-52 A French built biplane fighter of the 30s. ...


Monoplanes and parasol monoplanes, design frequently copied. Used by Spain in Civil War


Loire-Nieuport LN.40 (variants include LN.401, LN.402, LN.411, LN.42)

Last Nieuport to see operational service. Single engine, single seater dive bomber with inverted gull wing. Lack of air superiority resulted in these attack aircraft largely being shot down.


External links

  • Nieuport fighters in Russia

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Nieuport - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1895 words)
Nieuport is a French aeroplane company famous for racers before World War I (WWI) and fighter aircraft during WWI and between the wars.
Nieuport's own internal designation system also labelled it as a type 'B' (for biplane - there had been a Nieuport 11 monoplane in 1914), with the result that it was written down as the 11 BB - or as pronounced in French - bebe or baby.
The Nieuport 28 was bypassed by the French as they had already chosen the almost identically performing S.P.A.D. XIII by the time it had flown, and the Nieuport 28 didn't offer enough of an advantage to counterbalance the impact on production.
Osprey - Hunters of the Air: Nieuport and Albatros Aces of World War 1 (3645 words)
One of the first RFC squadrons to use the Nieuport Scout as a fighter was No.11 and, as the Germans had done with the Eindeckers, this unit had a few Nieuports attached as fighting machines.
While the Nieuport Scout pilots were often able to hold their own in combat situations, the RFC nevertheless lost 43 during April and the French 12.
The famous American volunteer escadrille, N124 Lafayette, also flew Nieuports in 1916-17, and when the Americans came into the war, their first fighting machines were the Nieuport 28 fighters, made famous by Edward Rickenbacker, Douglas Campbell and James Meissner.
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