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Encyclopedia > Niels Bohr
Niels Henrik David Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr
Born October 7, 1885(1885-10-07)
Copenhagen, Denmark
Died November 18, 1962 (aged 77)
Copenhagen, Denmark
Nationality Danish
Field Physics
Institutions University of Copenhagen
University of Manchester
Alma mater University of Cambridge
University of Copenhagen
Academic advisor   Christian Christiansen
Ernest Rutherford
Known for Copenhagen interpretation
Complementarity
Bohr model
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1922)

Niels Henrik David Bohr [nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ] (October 7, 1885November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. He was also part of the team of physicists working on the Manhattan Project. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund in 1912, and one of their sons, Aage Niels Bohr, grew up to be an important physicist who, like his father, received the Nobel prize, in 1975. Bohr is widely considered to be the one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century.[citation needed] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Main campus on Frue Plads. ... Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Main campus on Frue Plads. ... Christian Christiansen (born October 9, 1843 in Loenborg, Denmark, died 1917) was a Danish physicist. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Early twentieth century studies of the physics of very small-scale phenomena led to the Copenhagen interpretation. ... // In physics, complementarity is a basic principle of quantum theory closely identified with the Copenhagen interpretation, and refers to effects such as the wave-particle duality, in which different measurements made on a system reveal it to have either particle-like or wave-like properties. ... The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small positively charged atomic nucleus, and an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Aage Niels Bohr Aage Niels Bohr (born in Copenhagen, Denmark on June 19, 1922) is the son of Margrethe and Niels Bohr. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Niels Henrik David Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1885. His father, Christian Bohr, a devout Lutheran, was professor of physiology at the University of Copenhagen, while his mother, Ellen Adler Bohr, came from a wealthy Jewish family prominent in Danish banking and parliamentary circles. His brother was Harald Bohr, a mathematician and Olympic soccer player who played on the Danish national team. Niels Bohr was a passionate soccer player as well, and the two brothers played a number of matches for Akademisk Boldklub. For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Christian Harald Lauritz Peter Emil Bohr (1855-1911, both in Copenhagen) was a Danish physician, and father of the famous physicist Niels Bohr, as well as the famous mathematician Harald Bohr. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Main campus on Frue Plads. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Harald Bohr (22 April 1887 – 22 January 1951) was a Danish mathematician, and younger brother of the physicist Niels Bohr. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Soccer redirects here. ... First international Denmark 9 - 0 France B (London, England; 19 October 1908) Biggest win Denmark 17 - 1 France A (London, England; 22 October 1908) Biggest defeat Official: Germany 8 - 0 Denmark (Breslau, Germany; 16 May 1937) Unofficial: Denmark 1-11 Basque Country (Denmark; 29 August 1937) World Cup Appearances 3... Akademisk Boldklub or AB is a Danish football club from Copenhagen. ...


Bohr studied as an undergraduate, graduate and, under Christian Christiansen, as a doctoral student at Copenhagen University, receiving his doctorate in 1911. As a post-doctoral student, Bohr first conducted experiments under J. J. Thomson at Trinity College, Cambridge. He then went on to study under Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester in England. On the basis of Rutherford's theories, Bohr published his model of atomic structure in 1913, introducing the theory of electrons traveling in orbits around the atom's nucleus, the chemical properties of the element being largely determined by the number of electrons in the outer orbits. Bohr also introduced the idea that an electron could drop from a higher-energy orbit to a lower one, emitting a photon (light quantum) of discrete energy. This became a basis for quantum theory. Christian Christiansen (born October 9, 1843 in Loenborg, Denmark, died 1917) was a Danish physicist. ... University of Copenhagen The University of Copenhagen (Danish: Københavns Universitet) is the oldest and largest university and research institution in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Joseph John “J.J.” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was a British physicist and Nobel laureate, credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small positively charged atomic nucleus, and an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


Physics

In 1916, Niels Bohr became a professor at the University of Copenhagen, and director of the newly constructed "Institute of Theoretical Physics" in 1920. In 1922, Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them". Bohr's institute served as a focal point for theoretical physicists in the 1920s and '30s, and most of the world's best known theoretical physicists of that period spent some time there. The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... Main campus on Frue Plads. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Ionizing radiation is radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit). ...

Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein debating quantum theory at Paul Ehrenfest's home in Leiden (December 1925).
Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein debating quantum theory at Paul Ehrenfest's home in Leiden (December 1925).

Bohr also conceived the principle of complementarity: that items could be separately analyzed as having several contradictory properties. For example, physicists currently conclude that light is both a wave and a stream of particles — two apparently mutually exclusive properties — on the basis of this principle. Bohr also found philosophical applications for this daringly original principle. Albert Einstein much preferred the determinism of classical physics over the probabilistic new physics of Bohr (to which Max Planck and Einstein himself had contributed). He and Bohr had good-natured arguments over the truth of this principle throughout their lives (see Bohr Einstein debate). One of Bohr's most famous students was Werner Heisenberg, a crucial figure in the development of quantum mechanics, who was also head of the German atomic bomb project. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (749x1024, 130 KB) Niels Bohr as a young man. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (749x1024, 130 KB) Niels Bohr as a young man. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x2123, 1676 KB) Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein Foto by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933) originally uploaded to de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x2123, 1676 KB) Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein Foto by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933) originally uploaded to de. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Paul Ehrenfest Paul Ehrenfest (Vienna, January 18, 1880 – Amsterdam, September 25, 1933) was an Austrian physicist and mathematician, who obtained Dutch citizenship on March 24, 1922. ... // In physics, complementarity is a basic principle of quantum theory closely identified with the Copenhagen interpretation, and refers to effects such as the wave-particle duality, in which different measurements made on a system reveal it to have either particle-like or wave-like properties. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... “Planck” redirects here. ... Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein The Bohr-Einstein debates is a popular name given to what was actually a series of epistemological challenges presented by Albert Einstein against what has come to be called the standard or Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


Niels Bohr and his wife Margrethe Nørlund had six children. Two died young, and most of the others went on to lead successful lives. One, Aage Niels Bohr, also became a very successful physicist; like his father, he won a Nobel Prize. When awarded the Order of the Elephant by the Danish government, he designed his own coat of arms which featured a yin-yang. Aage Niels Bohr Aage Niels Bohr (born in Copenhagen, Denmark on June 19, 1922) is the son of Margrethe and Niels Bohr. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Coat of arms of Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway surrounded by the collars of the Order of the Elephant and the Order of the Dannebrog. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ...


In 1941, during the German occupation of Denmark in World War II, Bohr was visited by Heisenberg in Copenhagen (see section below). In 1943, shortly before he was to be arrested by the German police, Bohr escaped to Sweden, and then traveled to London. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Denmarks occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II. When German authorities in Denmark ordered that Danish Jews be arrested and deported to Germany in October 1943, many Danes and Swedes took part in a collective effort to evacuate the roughly... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Atomic research

He worked at the top-secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico, U.S., on the Manhattan Project, where, according to Richard Feynman, he was known by the assumed name of Nicholas Baker for security reasons. His role in the project was important. He was seen as a knowledgeable consultant or "father confessor" on the project. He was concerned about a nuclear arms race, and is quoted as saying, "That is why I went to America. They didn't need my help in making the atom bomb."[1] Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... This article is about the physicist. ...


Bohr believed that atomic secrets should be shared by the international scientific community. After meeting with Bohr, J. Robert Oppenheimer suggested Bohr visit President Franklin D. Roosevelt to convince him that the Manhattan Project should be shared with the Russians in the hope of speeding up its results. Roosevelt suggested Bohr return to England to try to win British approval. Winston Churchill disagreed with the idea of openness towards the Russians to the point that he wrote in a letter: "It seems to me Bohr ought to be confined or at any rate made to see that he is very near the edge of mortal crimes."[2] J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ... FDR redirects here. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


After the war Bohr returned to Copenhagen, advocating the peaceful use of nuclear energy. He died in Copenhagen in 1962. He is buried in the Assistens Kirkegård in the Nørrebro section of Copenhagen. This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The Assistens Cemetery (Danish: Assistens KirkegÃ¥rd) is located in a large park in the Nørrebro section of Copenhagen, Denmark. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Contributions to physics

The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small positively charged atomic nucleus, and an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Early twentieth century studies of the physics of very small-scale phenomena led to the Copenhagen interpretation. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... // In physics, complementarity is a basic principle of quantum theory closely identified with the Copenhagen interpretation, and refers to effects such as the wave-particle duality, in which different measurements made on a system reveal it to have either particle-like or wave-like properties. ...

Kierkegaard's influence on Bohr

It is generally accepted that Bohr read the 19th century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. Richard Rhodes argues in The Making of the Atomic Bomb that Bohr was influenced by Kierkegaard via the philosopher Harald Høffding, who was strongly influenced by Kierkegaard and who was an old friend of Bohr's father. In 1909, Bohr sent his brother Kierkegaard's Stages on Life's Way as a birthday gift. In the enclosed letter, Bohr wrote, "It is the only thing I have to send home; but I do not believe that it would be very easy to find anything better.... I even think it is one of the most delightful things I have ever read." Bohr enjoyed Kierkegaard's language and literary style, but mentioned that he had some "disagreement with [Kierkegaard's ideas]."[3] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Richard Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American author of fiction and verity, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb in 1986, and most recently, John James Audubon: the Making of an American in 2004. ... Richard Lee Rhodes (b. ... Harald Høffding (March 11, 1843 - July 2, 1931) was a Danish philosopher. ... Stages on Lifes Way (Danish: Stadier PÃ¥ Livets Vej) is a philosophical work by Søren Kierkegaard written in 1845. ...


Given this, there has been some dispute over whether Kierkegaard influenced Bohr's philosophy and science. David Favrholdt[4] argues that Kierkegaard had minimal influence over Bohr's work; taking Bohr's statement about disagreeing with Kierkegaard at face value, while Jan Faye[5] endorses the opposing point of view by arguing that one can disagree with the content of a theory while accepting its general premises and structure.[6]


Relationship with Heisenberg

Bohr and Werner Heisenberg enjoyed a strong mentor/protégé relationship up to the onset of World War II. Heisenberg had made Bohr aware of his talent during a lecture in 1922 in Göttingen. During the mid-1920s Heisenberg worked with Bohr at the institute in Copenhagen. Heisenberg, as most of Bohr's assistants, learned Danish. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle was developed during this period. Bohr's complementarity principle likewise. By the time of World War II, the relationship became strained because, among other reasons Bohr, with his partially-Jewish heritage, remained in occupied Denmark, while Heisenberg remained in Germany and became head of the German nuclear efforts. Heisenberg made a now-famous visit to Bohr in September/October 1941, and during a private moment, it seems that he began to address nuclear energy and morality as well as the war effort. Neither Bohr nor Heisenberg spoke about it in any detail to outsiders nor left written records of this part of the meeting at the time, and they were alone and outside.[7] Bohr seems to have reacted by terminating that conversation abruptly while not giving Heisenberg any hints in any direction. While some suggest that the relationship became strained at this meeting, other evidence shows that the level of contact had been reduced considerably for some time already. One source, Heisenberg himself, suggests that the fracture occurred later. In correspondence to his wife, Heisenberg described the final visit of the trip: "Today I was once more, with Weizsaecker, at Bohr's. In many ways this was especially nice, the conversation revolved for a large part of the evening around purely human concerns, Bohr was reading aloud, I played a Mozart Sonata (A-Major)."[8] Ivan Supek, one of Heisenberg's students and friends, claimed that the main figure of the meeting was actually Weizsäcker who tried to persuade Bohr to mediate for peace between Great Britain and Germany.[9] Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... In quantum physics, the outcome of even an ideal measurement of a system is not deterministic, but instead is characterized by a probability distribution, and the larger the associated standard deviation is, the more uncertain we might say that that characteristic is for the system. ... Ivan Supek (photo circa 2003) Ivan Supek (April 8, 1915 - March 5, 2007) was a Croatian physicist, philosopher, writer, peace activist and humanist. ... Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, 1993 Carl Friedrich Freiherr (Baron) von Weizsäcker (28 June 1912, Kiel – 28 April 2007, Söcking near Starnberg) was a German physicist and philosopher. ...


Tube Alloys

"Tube Alloys" was the code-name for the British nuclear weapon program. The British intelligence services inquired about Bohr's availability for work or insights of particular value. Bohr's reply made it clear that he could not help. This reply, like his reaction to Heisenberg, made sure that, if Gestapo intercepted anything attributed to Bohr it would simply point to no particularly relevant knowledge regarding nuclear energy, as it stood in 1941. This does not exclude the possibility that Bohr privately did make calculations going further than his work in 1939 with Wheeler. // Tube Alloys was the code-name for the British nuclear weapon programme during World War II, when the very possibility of nuclear weapons was kept at such a high level of secrecy that it had to be referred to by code even in the highest circles of government. ...


After leaving Denmark in the dramatic day and night (October 1943) when most Jews were able to escape to Sweden due to a series of very exceptional circumstances, Bohr was quickly asked, again, to join British efforts, and he was flown to the UK for that purpose. He was evacuated from Stockholm in 1943 in an unarmed De Havilland Mosquito bomber (carried in an improvised cabin in the bomb bay) sent by the RAF. The flight almost ended in tragedy as Bohr did not don his oxygen equipment as instructed, and passed out. He would have died had not the pilot, surmising from Bohr's lack of response to intercom communication that he had lost consciousness, descended to a lower altitude for the remainder of the flight. Bohr's comment was that he had slept like a baby for the entire flight. The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ...


As part of the UK team on "Tube Alloys" Bohr was also included at Los Alamos. Oppenheimer credited Bohr warmly for his guiding help during certain discussions among scientists there. Discreetly, he met President Franklin D. Roosevelt and later Winston Churchill to warn against the perilous perspectives that would follow from separate development of nuclear weapons by several powers rather than some form of controlled sharing of the basic scientific knowledge, which would spread quickly in any case. Only in the 1950s, after the immense surprise that the Soviets could and did in fact develop the weapons independently, was it possible to create the IAEA along the lines of Bohr's old suggestion. Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... FDR redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


Speculation

In 1957, while the author Robert Jungk was working on the book Brighter Than a Thousand Suns, Heisenberg wrote to Jungk explaining that he had visited Copenhagen to communicate to Bohr his view that scientists on either side should help prevent development of the atomic bomb, that the German attempts were entirely focused on energy production, and that Heisenberg's circle of colleagues tried to keep it that way.[10] However, Heisenberg acknowledged that his cryptic approach of the subject had so alarmed Bohr that the discussion failed. Heisenberg nuanced his claims, though, and avoided the implication that he and his colleagues had purposely sabotaged the bomb effort. However, this nuance was lost in Jungk's original publication of the book, which strongly implied that the German atomic bomb project was rendered purposely stillborn by Heisenberg. Robert Jungk (1913-1994) was an Austrian writer and journalist who wrote mostly on issues relating to nuclear weapons. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ...


When Bohr saw Jungk's erroneous depiction in the Danish translation of the book, he disagreed wholeheartedly. He wrote - to Heisenberg, but never sent it - that while Heisenberg had indeed discussed the subject of nuclear weapons in Copenhagen Heisenberg never alluded to the fact that he might be resisting efforts to build such weapons. Bohr dismissed the idea of any pact as an after-the-fact construction.[11]


Michael Frayn's play Copenhagen, which was performed in London (for five years), Copenhagen, Gothenburg, Rome, Geneva and on Broadway in New York, explores what might have happened at the 1941 meeting between Heisenberg and Bohr. Frayn points in particular to the onus of being one of the few, or the first one, to understand what it would mean in practice to create a nuclear weapon. Michael Frayn (born 8 September 1933) is an English playwright and novelist. ... Copenhagen is a play by Michael Frayn, based around an event that occurred in Copenhagen in 1941, a meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ...


Legacy

Commemorations

The Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics is part of the Faculty of Science at the University of Copenhagen. ... Main campus on Frue Plads. ... The Niels Bohr Institute is part of the Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics of the University of Copenhagen. ... The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small positively charged atomic nucleus, and an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Common Man featured in a commemorative golden postage stamp released by the Indian Postal Service on the 150th anniversary of the Times of India - 1988 A commemorative stamp is a postage stamp issued to honor or commemorate a place, event or person. ... Denmark has issued stamps since 1851. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... In mathematics and in the sciences, a formula (plural: formulae, formulæ or formulas) is a concise way of expressing information symbolically (as in a mathematical or chemical formula), or a general relationship between quantities. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... 3948 Bohr - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Danish National Bank is the central bank of Denmark. ... The Danish 500 kroner bill (DKK500) is a denomination of Danish currency. ...

Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Niels Bohr
  • "If quantum mechanics hasn't profoundly shocked you, you haven't understood it yet."
  • "Nothing exists until it is measured."
  • "A triviality is a statement whose opposite is false. However, a great truth is a statement whose opposite may well be another great truth."
  • "Your theory is crazy, but it's not crazy enough to be true."
  • "How wonderful that we have met with a paradox. Now we have some hope of making progress!"
  • "Einstein, stop telling God what to do." Sometimes quoted including: "...with his dice."
  • Alternate version: "Don't you think caution is needed when using ordinary language to ascribe attributes to God?"
  • "The complement of truth is clearness."
  • "It is very difficult to make an accurate prediction, especially about the future." (Org. Storm P.)
  • "An expert is a person who has made all the mistakes that can be made in a very narrow field."
  • "Never talk faster than you think."
  • "There are some things so serious you have to laugh at them."
  • "It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature."

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Robert Storm Petersen (September 19, 1882–[]March6]] 1949) was a Danish cartoonist, writer, animator, illustrator, painter and humorist. ...

Further reading

Primary

  • Bohr, N. (1913). On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules, Philosophical Magazine, Series 6, Vol. 26. pg. 1-25.
  • Bohr, N., Causality and Complementarity: Epistemological Lessons of Studies in Atomic Physics, 1999 Ox Bow Press: ISBN 1-881987-13-2, the 1949–50 Gifford lectures
  • Bohr, N., Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge (1958), Wiley Interscience, 1987 Ox Bow Press: ISBN 0-91802452-8, seven essays written from 1933 to 1957

The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ...

Secondary

  • Niels Bohr: The Man, His Science, and the World They Changed, by Ruth Moore; ISBN 0-262-63101-6
  • Niels Bohr's Times, In Physics, Philosophy and Polity, by Abraham Pais; ISBN 0-19-852049-2
  • Suspended In Language: Niels Bohr's Life, Discoveries, And The Century He Shaped by Jim Ottaviani (graphic novel); ISBN 0-9660106-5-5
  • Harmony and Unity : The Life of Niel's Bohr, by Niels Blaedel; ISBN 0-910239-14-2
  • Niels Bohr: A Centenary Volume, edited by A. P French and P.J. Kennedy. ISBN 0-674-62415-7
  • Copenhagen Michael Frayn ISBN 0 413 72490 5
  • Faust in Copenhagen: A Struggle for the Soul of Physics by Gino Segre; ISBN 0-670-03858-X

Abraham (Bram) Pais (May 19, 1918, Amsterdam, The Netherlands — July 28, 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. ... Copenhagen is a play by Michael Frayn, based around an event that occurred in Copenhagen in 1941, a meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. ... Michael Frayn (born 8 September 1933) is an English playwright and novelist. ...

References

  1. ^ Long, Doug. Niels Bohr - The Atomic Bomb and beyond. Hiroshima - was it necessary?. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  2. ^ Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.), pgs. 528-538.
  3. ^ Register, Bryan (1997-12-01). Complementarity: Content, Context and Critique. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  4. ^ Favrholdt, David. Niels Bohr’s Philosophical Background. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (1992): pp. 42-63.
  5. ^ Faye, Jan. "Niels Bohr: His Heritage and Legacy." Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers (1991).
  6. ^ Mark Richardson, et al. Religion & Science: History, Method, Dialogue. Routledge 1996, pg.289
  7. ^ Heisenberg, Elisabeth (1984). Inner Exile: Recollections of a Life With Werner Heisenberg. Boston MA: Birkhauser, p77 et seq. ISBN 0817631461. 
  8. ^ Heisenberg, Werner. Letter from Werner Heisenberg to his wife Elisabeth written during his 1941 visit in Copenhagen. Heisenberg, Jochen. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  9. ^ Jutarnji list. A March 2006 interview with Ivan Supek relating to 1941 Bohr - Heisenberg meeting (Croatian). Jutarnji list. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  10. ^ Heisenberg, Werner. Letter From Werner Heisenberg to Author Robert Jungk. The Manhattan Project Heritage Preservation Association, Inc.. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  11. ^ Aaserud, Finn (2002-02-06). Release of documents relating to 1941 Bohr-Heisenberg meeting. Niels Bohr Archive. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jutarnji list (trans. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small positively charged atomic nucleus, and an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . ... The Bohr model of the atom In atomic physics, the Bohr model depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by waves of electrons in orbit — similar in structure to the solar system, but with electrostatic forces providing attraction, rather than gravity, and with waves spread over entire... Early twentieth century studies of the physics of very small-scale phenomena led to the Copenhagen interpretation. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Niels Henrik David Bohr
Persondata
NAME Bohr, Niels Henrik David
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bohr, Niels
SHORT DESCRIPTION Danish physicist
DATE OF BIRTH October 7, 1885
PLACE OF BIRTH Copenhagen, Denmark
DATE OF DEATH November 18, 1962
PLACE OF DEATH Copenhagen, Denmark

is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ...


 
 

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