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Encyclopedia > Nicotine
Nicotine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(S)-3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrroli-

dinyl)pyridine Nicotine may refer to: Nicotine, an organic compound Nicotine (software), a filesharing application Nicotine Caffeine, a video game character Nicotinic acid, otherwise known as niacin or Vitamin B3 Nicotine gum Nicotine patch Nicotine poisoning Category: ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x917, 42 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nicotine ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ...

Identifiers
CAS number 54-11-5
ATC code N07BA01
PubChem 942
Chemical data
Formula C10H14N2 
Mol. mass 162.26 g/mole
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Physical data
Density 1.01 g/cm³
Melt. point -79 °C (-110 °F)
Boiling point 247 °C (477 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life 2 hours
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

?(US) CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Legal status

Unscheduled(AU) ?(UK) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ...

Dependence Liability Medium to high
Routes Smoked (as tobacco), Insufflated (as snuff), Chewed

Nicotine as an indicator of a person's exposure to smoke. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body. ...


In high doses, nicotine will cause a blocking of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is the reason for its toxicity and its effectiveness as an insecticide.[citation needed] Drugs can block neuromuscular transmission etiher by acting presynaptically, to inhibit ACh synthesis or release, or by acting postsynaptically, the latter being the site of action ofa ll of the clincally important drugs. ... Historically, most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of its use as an insecticide; however, such use is less frequent now than previously. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

In CNS

By binding to CNS type nicotinic receptors, nicotine increases dopamine levels in the reward circuits of the brain. In this way, it activates the reward system and generates feelings of pleasure. For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Look up Pleasure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Furthermore, nicotine activates the sympathetic nervous system[citation needed], acting via splanchnic nerves to the adrenal medulla, stimulates the release of epinephrine. Acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers of these nerves acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, causing the release of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) into the bloodstream. The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... The splanchnic nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...


Studies have shown that other ingredients in inhaled tobacco smoke (as opposed to pure nicotine) inhibit the production of monoamine oxidase (MAO)[1], an enzyme responsible for breaking down monoaminergic neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, in the brain. Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidases (singular abbreviation MAO) (EC 1. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ...


Dependence

See also: Smoking cessation

Modern research shows that nicotine acts on the brain to produce a number of effects. Specifically, its addictive nature has been found to show that nicotine activates reward pathways—the circuitry within the brain that regulates feelings of pleasure and euphoria. [2] A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ... This article is about the concept. ...


Dopamine is one of the key neurotransmitters actively involved in the brain. Research shows that by increasing the levels of dopamine within the reward circuits in the brain, nicotine acts as a chemical with intense addictive qualities. In many studies it has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine and heroin, though chronic treatment has an opposite effect on reward thresholds. Like other physically addictive drugs, nicotine causes down-regulation of the production of dopamine and other stimulatory neurotransmitters as the brain attempts to compensate for artificial stimulation. In addition, the sensitivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors decreases. To compensate for this compensatory mechanism, the brain in turn upregulates the number of receptors, convoluting its regulatory effects with compensatory mechanisms meant to counteract other compensatory mechanisms. The net effect is an increase in reward pathway sensitivity, opposite of other drugs of abuse (namely cocaine and heroin, which reduce reward pathway sensitivity)[citation needed]. This neuronal brain alteration persists for months after administration ceases. Due to an increase in reward pathway sensitivity, nicotine withdrawal is relatively mild compared to ethanol or heroin withdrawal.[citation needed] Nicotine also has the potential to cause dependence in many animals other than humans. Mice have been administered nicotine and exhibit withdrawal reactions when its administration is stopped.[3] For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ...


A study found that nicotine exposure in adolescent mice retards the growth of the dopamine system, thus increasing the risk of substance abuse during adulthood.[4]


There is significant anecdotal evidence from pharmacist vendors, via their customers, about addiction to nicotine gum or nicotine patches. Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body. ... A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin. ...


Toxicology

The LD50 of nicotine is 50 mg/kg for rats and 3 mg/kg for mice. 40–60 mg (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) can be a lethal dosage for adult humans.[5] [6] This makes it an extremely deadly poison. It is more toxic than many other alkaloids such as cocaine, which has an LD50 of 95.1 mg/kg when administered to mice. Spilling liquid nicotine on human skin could result in death.[7] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... This article is about rats. ... This article is about the rodent. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ...


The carcinogenic properties of nicotine in standalone form, separate from tobacco smoke, have not been evaluated by the IARC, and it has not been assigned to an official carcinogen group. The currently available literature indicates that nicotine, on its own, does not promote the development of cancer in healthy tissue and has no mutagenic properties. Its teratogenic properties have not yet been adequately researched, and while the likelihood of birth defects caused by nicotine is believed to be very small or nonexistent, nicotine replacement product manufacturers recommend consultation with a physician before using a nicotine patch or nicotine gum while pregnant or nursing. However, nicotine and the increased cholinergic activity it causes have been shown to impede apoptosis[citation needed], which is one of the methods by which the body destroys unwanted cells (programmed cell death). Since apoptosis helps to remove mutated or damaged cells that may eventually become cancerous, the inhibitory actions of nicotine create a more favourable environment for cancer to develop. Thus nicotine plays an indirect role in carcinogenesis. Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... // Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster-birth, which derives from teratology, the study of the frequency, causation, and development of congenital malformations—misleadingly called birth defects. ... A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin. ... Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ion channels in cells plasma membranes. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (/̩æ.pəpˈto. ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (/̩æ.pəpˈto. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ...


At least one study has concluded that exposure to nicotine alone, not simply as a component of cigarette smoke, could be responsible for some of the neuropathological changes observed in infants dying from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).[8] Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a syndrome marked by the symptoms of sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year. ...


It has been noted that the majority of people diagnosed with schizophrenia smoke tobacco. Estimates for the number of schizophrenics that smoke range from 75% to 90%. It was recently argued that the increased level of smoking in schizophrenia may be due to a desire to self-medicate with nicotine. [9] [10] More recent research has found the reverse, that it is a risk factor without long-term benefit, used only for its short term effects.[11] However, research on nicotine as administered through a patch or gum is ongoing. Self-medication is the use of drugs, sometimes illicit, to treat a perceived or real malady, often of a psychological nature. ...


Nicotine and oxidative stress

Nicotine is detoxified by the cytochrome p450 in liver. Recently it has been published that it produces free radicals in this reaction. Study on bidi workers carried out in Solapur district of Maharashtra state of India revealed that nicotine may be the potent free radical generetor. Sanjay Swami et. al. also suggested the carcinogenic effect of nicotine may be due to its free radical generating potential.[12] In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


Link to circulatory disease

Nicotine has very powerful[specify] effects on arteries throughout the body. Nicotine is a stimulant, speeding up the heart by about 20 beats per minute with every cigarette; it raises blood pressure, and is a vasoconstrictor, making it harder for the heart to pump through the constricted arteries. It causes the body to release its stores of fat and cholesterol into the blood. A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... A vasoconstrictor, also vasopressor or simply pressor, is any substance that acts to cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of the lumena of blood vessels) and usually results in an increase of the blood pressure. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


Nicotine increases the risk of blood clots significantly.[citation needed] If blood clots in an artery, blood flow is reduced or halted, and tissue loses its source of oxygen and nutrients and dies in minutes.


Peripheral circulation, arteries going to the extremities, are also highly susceptible to the vasoconstrictor effects of nicotine as well as the increased risk of clots and clogging.[citation needed]


Therapeutic uses

The primary therapeutic use of nicotine is in treating nicotine dependence in order to eliminate smoking with its risks to health. Controlled levels of nicotine are given to patients through gums, dermal patches, lozenges, or nasal sprays in an effort to wean them off their dependence. For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ...


However, in a few situations, smoking has been observed to apparently be of therapeutic value to patients. These are often referred to as "Smoker’s Paradoxes"[13]. Although in most cases the actual mechanism is understood only poorly or not at all, it is generally believed that the principal beneficial action is due to the nicotine administered, and that administration of nicotine without smoking may be as beneficial as smoking, without the higher risk to health due to tar and other ingredients found in tobacco. Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


For instance, recent studies suggest that smokers require less frequent repeated revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).[13] Risk of ulcerative colitis has been frequently shown to be reduced by smokers on a dose-dependent basis; the effect is eliminated if the individual stops smoking.[14][15] Smoking also appears to interfere with development of Kaposi's sarcoma,[16] breast cancer among women carrying the very high risk BRCA gene,[17] preeclampsia,[18] and atopic disorders such as allergic asthma.[19] A plausible mechanism of action in these cases may be nicotine acting as an anti-inflammatory agent, and interfering with the inflammation-related disease process, as nicotine has vasoconstrictive effects.[20] Revascularization is the process of restoring the functionality of an affected organ. ... Percutaneous coronary intervention is an invasive cardiologic therapeutic procedure to treat narrowed coronary arteries (artery stenosis). ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... The BRCA or British Radio (Controlled) Car Association is a club for members of all types of radio controlled cars in Britain. ... Pre-eclampsia (previously called toxemia) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. ... Eczema-a typical atopic manifestation Atopy (Greek ατοπία - placelessness) or atopic syndrome is an allergic hypersensitivity affecting parts of the body not in direct contact with the allergen. ... Allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by allergies. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


With regard to neurological diseases, a large body of evidence suggests that the risks of Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease might be twice as high for non-smokers than for smokers.[21] Many such papers regarding Alzheimer's disease[22] and Parkinson's Disease[23] have been published. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ...


Recent studies have indicated that nicotine can be used to help adults suffering from Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The same areas that cause seizures in that form of epilepsy are also responsible for processing nicotine in the brain.[24] Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a rare epileptic disorder that causes frequent violent seizures during sleep. ...


Nicotine and its metabolites are being researched for the treatment of a number of disorders, including ADHD, Schizophrenia and Parkinson's Disease. [25] DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Parkinsons disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferers motor skills and speech. ...


The therapeutic use of nicotine as a means of appetite-control and to promote weight loss is anecdotally supported by many ex-smokers who claim to put on weight after quitting. However studies of nicotine in mice [26] suggests it may play a role in weight-loss that is independent of appetite. And studies involving the elderly suggest that nicotine affects not only weight loss, but also prevents some weight gain. [27]


See also

This article is about the concept of addiction. ... The Easy Way to Stop Smoking by Allen Carr, a famous book teaching smoking cessation Allen Carr (born 2 September 1934), who until 1983 was a chain smoker himself, is most notable as the author of books on how to stop smoking and, as he stresses, escape nicotine addiction. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... Four tins of dipping tobacco: Skoal Straight, Skoal Long Cut Mint, Copenhagen Straight, and Copenhagen Long Cut. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Nicogelâ„¢ is a tobacco gel, applied to skin as a substitute for cigarette use. ... A nicotini is any alcoholic drink which includes the addictive drug nicotine as an ingredient. ... NicVax is a vaccine to reduce or eliminate physical addiction to nicotine. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... For other uses, see Snuff (disambiguation). ... Portioned snus of the Granit label. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Pappas N, Logan J, MacGregor R, Alexoff D, Wolf AP, Warner D, Cilento R, Zezulkova I (1998). "Neuropharmacological actions of cigarette smoke: brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) inhibition.". Journal of addictive diseases. PMID 9549600. 
  2. ^ NIDA - Research Report Series - Tobacco Addiction - Extent, Impact, Delivery, and Addictiveness
  3. ^ NIDA - Publications - NIDA Notes - Vol. 19, No. 2 - Research Findings
  4. ^ Nolley E.P. & Kelley B.M. "Adolescent reward system perseveration due to nicotine: Studies with methylphenidate.," Neurotoxicol Teratol., 2006 Oct 4
  5. ^ Okamoto M., Kita T., Okuda H., Tanaka T., Nakashima T. (1994). "Effects of aging on acute toxicity of nicotine in rats". Pharmacol Toxicol. 75 (1): 1-6. 
  6. ^ IPCS INCHEM
  7. ^ [1] "Interview with Prof Thoedore Slotkin"
  8. ^ Machaalani et al. (2005) "Effects of postnatal nicotine exposure on apoptotic markers in the developing piglet brain"
  9. ^ Schizophr. Res. 2002
  10. ^ Am. J. Psychiatry 1995
  11. ^ Br. J. Psychiatry 2005
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ a b Cohen, David J.; Michel Doucet, Donald E. Cutlip, Kalon K.L. Ho, Jeffrey J. Popma, Richard E. Kuntz (2001). "Impact of Smoking on Clinical and Angiographic Restenosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention". Circulation 104: 773. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. 
  14. ^ Longmore, M., Wilkinson, I., Torok, E. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine (Fifth Edition) p. 232
  15. ^ Green, JT; Richardson C, Marshall RW, Rhodes J, McKirdy HC, Thomas GA, Williams GT (November, 2000). "Nitric oxide mediates a therapeutic effect of nicotine in ulcerative colitis". Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14 (11): 1429-1434. PMID: 11069313. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. 
  16. ^ "Smoking Cuts Risk of Rare Cancer", UPI, March 29, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. (English) 
  17. ^ Recer, Paul. "Cigarettes May Have an Up Side", AP, May 19, 1998. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. (English) 
  18. ^ Lain, Kristine Y.; Robert W. Powers, Marijane A. Krohn, Roberta B. Ness, William R. Crombleholme, James M. Roberts (November 1991). "Urinary cotinine concentration confirms the reduced risk of preeclampsia with tobacco exposure". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 181 (5): 908-14. PMID: 11422156. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. 
  19. ^ Hjern, A; Hedberg A, Haglund B, Rosen M (June 2001). "Does tobacco smoke prevent atopic disorders? A study of two generations of Swedish residents". Clin Exp Allergy 31 (6): 908-914. PMID: 11422156. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. 
  20. ^ Lisa Melton (June 2006). "Body Blazes". Scientific American: p.24. 
  21. ^ Fratiglioni, L; Wang HX (August 2000). "Smoking and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease: review of the epidemiological studies". Behav Brain Res 113 (1-2): 117-120. PMID: 10942038. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. 
  22. ^ Thompson, Carol. Alzheimer's disease is associated with non-smoking. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  23. ^ Thompson, Carol. Parkinson's disease is associated with non-smoking. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  24. ^ Nicotine as an antiepileptic agent in ADNFLE: An n-of-one study.
  25. ^ Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Reuters Health. Reuters (December 2001). Archived from the original on 2006-04-26. “Nicotine improves ADHD symptoms. Although such findings should certainly not encourage anyone to smoke, some studies are focusing on benefits of nicotine therapy in adults with ADHD.”
  26. ^ NIH, online at [3]
  27. ^ Cigarette Smoking and Weight Loss in Nursing Home Residents [4]

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Guardian article: "Nicotine could soon be rehabilitated as a treatment for schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as hyperactivity disorders."
  • Nicotine Therapy for ADNFLE: "Nicotine as an antiepileptic agent in ADNFLE: An n-of-one study"
  • Minna, John D.: "Nicotine exposure and bronchial epithelial cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in the pathogenesis of lung cancer"
  • Fallon, J.H., et al. (2005) Gender: A major determinant of brain response to nicotine. International Journal of Neuropharmacology. 8:1-10. [5]
  • West, Kip A., et al.: "Rapid Akt activation by nicotine and a tobacco carcinogen modulates the phenotype of normal human airway epithelial cells"
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse
  • Powledge TM (2004) Nicotine as therapy. PLoS Biol 2(11): e404.: [6]
  • Erowid information on tobacco[7]
Addiction is an uncontrollable compulsion to repeat a behavior regardless of its negative consequences. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Varenicline (trade name Chantix in the USA and Champix in Europe, Mexico and Canada, manufactured by Pfizer, usually in the form of varenicline tartrate) is a prescription medication used to treat smoking addiction. ... Mecamylamine is a nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. ... Clonidine is a direct-acting adrenergic agonist prescribed historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Disulfiram is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to alcohol. ... Calcium carbimide, sold as the citrate salt under the trade name Temposil®, is an alcohol sensitizing agent. ... acamprosate ... Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. ... Nalmefene (Revex) is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence, and also has been investigated for the treatment of other addictions such as pathological gambling and addiction to shopping. ... Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics, a division of Johnson & Johnson. ... Clonidine is a direct-acting adrenergic agonist prescribed historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. ... Opioid dependence is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individuals inability to stop using opioids even when objectively in his or her best interest to do so. ... Buprenorphine, is an opioid drug with partial agonist and antagonist actions. ... Methadone (Dolophine®, Amidone®, Methadose®, Physeptone®, Heptadon® and many others) is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic, antitussive and a maintenance anti-addictive for use in patients on opioids. ... Levacetylmethadol (INN, or methadyl acetate) is a drug used in treating opioid addiction. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC, Drocode, Paracodeine and Parzone and by the brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, SS Bron, Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, Codhydrine, Dekacodin, DH-Codeine, Didrate, Dihydrin, Hydrocodin, Nadeine, Novicodin, Rapacodin, Fortuss, Dico, and DF-118 amongst others, is a semi-synthetic opioid... China is one of the only countries in the world to prescribe Dihydroetorphine, (a close relative of Etorphine) to humans. ... Clonidine is a direct-acting adrenergic agonist prescribed historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. ... Lofexidine is an alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist, can be used as a short acting (short half life) anti-hypertensive, but mostly used to help with relief from symptoms of heroin or opiate withdrawal in opiate dependency. ... Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. ... Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid, a long-acting hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its application in the treatment of opioid addiction and similar addiction syndromes. ... 18-methoxycoronaridine. ... This article is about the drug. ... Sustained-Release 15mg Dexedrine Spansules. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Dextroamphetamine (also known as dextroamphetamine sulfate, dexamphetamine, dexedrine, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Robese, Spancap #1, and, informally, Dex), a stereoisomer of amphetamine, is an indirect-acting stimulant that releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, thus promoting nerve impulse transmission. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Vanoxerine, also known as GBR-12909, is a piperazine derivative which is a potent and selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor. ... The Nocaine family includes a diverse assortment of piperidine based cocaine mimics. ... Vigabatrin is an anticonvulsant that inhibits the catabolism of GABA. It is an analog of GABA, but it is not a receptor agonist. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Clonidine is a direct-acting adrenergic agonist prescribed historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Vanoxerine, also known as GBR-12909, is a piperazine derivative which is a potent and selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor. ... The Nocaine family includes a diverse assortment of piperidine based cocaine mimics. ... Baclofen (brand names Kemstro® and Lioresal®) is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid, and is an agonist specific to mammalian but not fruit fly (Drosophila) GABAB receptors[1][2]. It is used for the treatment of spastic movement, especially in instances of spinal cord injury, spastic diplegia and multiple sclerosis. ... Vigabatrin is an anticonvulsant that inhibits the catabolism of GABA. It is an analog of GABA, but it is not a receptor agonist. ...

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Nicotine - MSN Encarta (312 words)
Nicotine is a very powerful poison, and it forms the base of many insecticides.
The amount of nicotine absorbed by the body from inhaling smoke depends on many factors including the type of tobacco, whether the smoke is inhaled, and whether a filter is used.
Nicotine is drawn into the lungs, where it enters the bloodstream and is pumped by the heart to the brain.
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