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Encyclopedia > Nickel silver

Nickel silver is a metal alloy of copper with nickel and often but not always zinc. It is named for its silvery appearance, but contains no elemental silver. Other common names for this alloy are German Silver, Paktong, New Silver and Alpacca (or Alpaca). Alpaca can refer to either: Alpaca, the animal. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...

Contents

Composition

Many alloys fall within the general term of "Nickel Silver". All contain copper and nickel, while some formulations may additionally include zinc, antimony, tin, lead or cadmium. A representative industrial formulation, Alloy No. 752, is 65% copper, 18% nickel, and 17% zinc. In metallurgical science, such alloys would be more properly termed nickel brass. The white alloy of 75% copper and 25% nickel used in coins, such as the United States nickel, is better known as copper-nickel, cupro-nickel or cupronickel. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ...


Some nickel silver alloys, especially those containing high proportions of zinc, are stainless (corrosion-resistant). For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


Nickel silver alloys are commonly named by listing their percentages of copper and nickel, thus "Nickel Silver 55-18" would contain 55% copper, 18% nickel, and 27% other elements, most probably entirely zinc. A two-element alloy may be named for its nickel content alone, thus NS-12 is 88% copper and 12% nickel.


Uses

Nickel silver first became popular as a base metal for silver plated cutlery and other silverware, notably the electroplated wares called EPNS (Electro-plated Nickel Silver). Used cutlery: a plate, a fork and knife, and a drinking glass. ... Starch-polyester disposable cutlery Cutlery refers to any hand utensil used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... EPNS can stand for English Place-Name Society Electroplated Nickel silver This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


It is used in zippers, better quality keys, costume jewellery, for making musical instruments (e.g., cymbals), and is valuable for electrically powered model railway layouts as its oxide is conductive. Also, after about 1920, its use became widespread for pocketknife bolsters, due to its machinability and corrosion resistance. Prior to this point, most common was iron. This article is about the fastening device called the zip. ... Amber jewellery in the form of pendants Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... This article needs cleanup. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... // A kitchen knife is any knife that is intended to be used in food preparation. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


It is widely used in the production of coins (e.g. GDR marks, Portuguese escudo). This article is about monetary coins. ... Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ... ISO 4217 Code DDM User(s) German Democratic Republic Pegged with Deutsche Mark = M11 Subunit 1/100 pfennig Symbol M Plural Mark pfennig Pfennig Coins Freq. ... The escudo was the official currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro in 1 January 1999 (euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ...


Its industrial and technical uses include marine fittings and plumbing fixtures for its corrosion resistance, and heating coils for its high electrical resistance.


It was used in the construction of the early tricone resophonic guitar. It is also used to produce the tubes (called staples) onto which oboe reeds are tied. Guitar frets are made from it, as well on mandoline, banjo, bass, etc. A modern tricone resonator guitar, with electric pickup A resonator guitar or resophonic guitar is an acoustic guitar whose sound is produced by one or more metal resonators rather than by a wooden guitar belly. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Alto and tenor saxophone reeds. ...


Musical instruments, including the flute, saxophone, and french horn can be made of nickel silver. For example, some leading saxophone manufactuers such as Selmer, P.Mauriat, Yanagisawa, and Yamaha offer saxophones made of nickel silver which possess a bright and powerful sound quality; an additional benefit is that nickel silver does not require a lacquer finish. ♠ This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... Selmer is a town located in McNairy County, Tennessee. ... P.Mauriat is a saxophone manufacturing company based in Taiwan. ... Yanagisawa (柳沢) is a Japanese surname. ... Yamaha may refer to: Yamaha Corporation – A manufacturer of a diverse range of musical instruments and electronics. ...


Toxicity

According to the Merck Manual 17th edition p56, prolonged contact of copper alloys with acidic food or beverages (including boiling milk) can leach out the copper and cause toxicity. Long term, low doses can lead to cirrhosis. It should be of interest that cadmium is known to cause renal failure. Cirrhosis of the liver is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ...


History

Nickel silver is first known in China, and was known in the west from imported wares called Paktong or Pakfong (銅, literally "white copper") where the silvery metal colour was used to imitate sterling silver. It was discovered to be a copper-nickel-zinc alloy in the 18th century. In 1770 the Suhl (Germany) metalworks were able to produce a similar alloy and in 1823 a competition was initiated to perfect the production process by creating an alloy that possessed the closest visual similarity to silver. The brothers Henniger in Berlin and A. Geitner in Schneeberg independently achieved this goal. Alpacca became a widely known name in northern Europe for nickel silver after it was used as a trademark brand by the manufacturer Berndorf. A form of German Silver was also invented in Birmingham, England in 1832. Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... Suhl is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Schneeberg is a town in the Aue-Schwarzenberg district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Nickel silver became widely used after 1840 with the development of electroplating, as it formed an ideal strong and bright substrate for the plating process. It was also used unplated in applications such as cheaper grades of cutlery. Used cutlery: a plate, a fork and knife, and a drinking glass. ...


See also

Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ... Britannia Silver is a silver alloy like Sterling silver. ...

External links

  • National Pollutant Inventory - Copper and compounds fact sheet
  • Nickel Silver, German Silver and related alloys
  • Products made of alpaca silver

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