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Encyclopedia > Nicias
Nicias' expeditions, before the Sicilian campaign.
Nicias' expeditions, before the Sicilian campaign.

Nicias or Nikias (470-413 BC) was a statesman and a Strategos, in Ancient Athens. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 478 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (612 × 768 pixel, file size: 595 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This pictures base was a Wikicommons picture: [1] I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 478 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (612 × 768 pixel, file size: 595 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This pictures base was a Wikicommons picture: [1] I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Events Euric, king of the Visigoths, defeats an attempted invasion of Gaul by the Celtic magnate Riothamus. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC - 413 BC - 412 BC 411 BC 410... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... View of part of central Athens and some of the citys southern suburbs from Lykavittos Hill. ...


Nicias was a member of the Athenian upper class because, from his father, he had inherited a large fortune, which was invested by Nicias, into the silver mines at Attica's Mt. Laurium. However, Nicias' family hadn't been patrician. A nugget of silver Silver Mining refers to the resource extraction of the precious metal element silver, mostly through mines. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Laurium or Laurion (Λαύριον, Thoricum before early 1000s BC, Ergastiri throughout the medieval times and the mid to late 1000s, Ergastiri is Greek for Workplace) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece and is one of the southernmost and the seat of...


By reason of his wealth, Nicias was naturally integrated into the aristocratic party, from which he did all his politics. After Pericles' death, in 429 BC, Nicias became this party's leader, rivaling Cleon 's popular party. Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC - 429 BC - 428 BC 427 BC... Cleon (d. ...


In 421 BC, Nicias was Peace of Nicias' sole agent, bringing Athens into peace with the belligerent Sparta, after ten years of ferocious Peloponnesian War. Then, for limited time, all Athenians believed that Nicias had been their savior until, imposing his own plans, the so controversial aristocrat Alcibiades decided restarting the war. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC - 421 BC - 420 BC 419 BC... The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty that was signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles, Cleon, Nicias, Alcibiades Archidamus II, Brasidas, Lysander The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict, fought between Athens and their empire and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ...

Contents

His Fortune

Nicias inherited from his father Niceratus a considerable fortune invested mainly in the silver mines of Laurium. At these mines, Nicias had 1000 slaves, who were hired out. Nicias' large fortune was entirely due to the mines. General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Laurium or Laurion (Λαύριον, Thoricum before early 1000s BC, Ergastiri throughout the medieval times and the mid to late 1000s, Ergastiri is Greek for Workplace) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece and is one of the southernmost and the seat of...


However, Nicias was easily intimidated so, normally, Nicias was forced and he handed much money over to people. Much individual was needy. Though, other ones were aggressive and they received money, by malicious threats against the scared Nicias. Many epoch poets reflected such pusillanimous attitude.[1]


His politics

Nicias didn't have noble ancestors[2] although, naturally, he gravitated toward the aristocratic party. Particularly, Nicias began being publicly known whilst Pericles was in the Athenian government. Right after Pericles' death, in 429 BC, Nicias became the foremost Athenian politician, as the aristocratic party's leader. Thus, Nicias confronted Cleon's popular party.[3] Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC - 429 BC - 428 BC 427 BC... Cleon (d. ...


Indeed, the lower Athenian class began supporting Nicias since Cleon, who had once been a great poor people's defender, was both too greedy and arrogant. The Athenians respected Nicias' complicated personality because, generally, they were respectfully treated. Other favorable point was that, usually, the corrupt demagogues spoke against Nicias.[4]


Logically, to gain popular support, Nicias could resort neither to charisma nor to eloquence. Instead, Nicias gained popular favor, spending his wealth:

  • He supplied choruses to theaters.
  • Lavishly, he organized sporting events.
  • He erected Athena's statue, which was adorned with gold.
  • He patched Dionysus' temple, at which he had been an awarded choragus.[5]

Among his most memorable events, Delos' festival was. Nicias built a boat bridge, between Delos and Rhenea islands. The ships were ornamented, with garlands, gilding, and rich tapestry, whereas a richly dressed chorus passed over. Nicias gifted a 10,000 drachmas property so the Delians would continue celebrating further, praying always in his behalf. Such instructions were engraved onto a pillar.[6] Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (from the Ancient Greek Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος, associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Rineia or Rhenea is a Greek island in the Cyclades. ... Garland is a decoration, used for Christmas, or other holidays, seasons, or special events. ... Gilding is the art of spreading gold, either by mechanical or by chemical means, over the surface of a body for the purpose of ornament. ... This article is about tapestry the textile. ... Chorus may refer to: // choir, a vocal ensemble Greek chorus refrain or chorus of a song, pre-chorus may refer to bridge (music) strophic form or chorus form, in music arrangement chorus effect, the perception of similar sounds from multiple sources as a single, richer sound; signal processors design to... Drachma, pl. ...


His Military Profile

Nicias was Strategos, in both 427 BC and 425 BC. About these years, Nicias was afraid because the Athenians had so caustic use that their greatest military leaders had ended condemned by some reason. Consequently, he avoided engaging in any important military enterprise, as commander. Indeed, good fortune accompanied Nicias because, for years, he could dodge the worst Athenian misfortunes, which were either military or political.[7] The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC - 427 BC - 426 BC 425 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC - 425 BC - 424 BC 423 BC...


On the other hand, Nicias achieved many military victories. However, such triumphs hid his complicated nature and the Athenian soldiers preferred other leaders, instead of him. An example was the popular Alcibiades, during the Sicilian Expedition. Also, Nicias avoided attributing any victory to his own actions, crediting them to good fortune instead, so the difficult Athenian public opinion may not go stirred by his fame. Accordingly with his personality, in the field, Nicias was an extremely cautious leader and Plutarch states that "Nicias declined all difficult and lengthy enterprises; if he took a command, he was for doing what was safe." However, Plutarch wrote that, on the battlefield, Nicias was recognized as a fair combatant, fighting as courageously as any other soldier.[8] Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Capturing Minoa (426 BC)

In 426 BC, Nicias invaded Minoa Island, which was right in front of Nisaea port. He intended blockading Megara closely for it was allied with Sparta. Nicias destroyed the enemy's garrison, from the sea, and then he launched an amphibious attack. He spent few days building a wall, on the near mainland, and garrisoning Minoa.[9] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC - 426 BC - 425 BC 424 BC... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ...


Raiding Greek Mainland (425 BC)

In 425 BC, 60 ships were commended to Nicias. Initially, he attempted subduing Melos island, which was completely independent from the Athenian Empire. Nicias defeated the local forces but, still, Melos refused joining Athens.[10] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC - 425 BC - 424 BC 423 BC... Milos (formerly Melos, and before the Athenian genocide Malos) is a volcanic island in the Aegean Sea. ...


Subsequently, Nicias shored in Oropus, northern Attica. His army joined many other Athenian squads and, together, they wrought havoc around Tanagra. Also, they defeated Theban forces, which arrived subsequently.[11] Oropos, or Oropus is a Greek seaport, on the Euripus in Attica, opposite Eretria. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Tanagra (Greek: Τανάγρα) is a community north of Athens in Boeotia, not far from Thebes, that was noted in antiquity for its mass-produced mold-cast and fired terracotta figurines. ... Thebes (in Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva, Katharevousa: — Thēbai or Thíve) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ...


Then, Nicias sailed toward Locris, harassing its coast too.[12] Locris was a region of ancient Greece, made up of two districts. ...


Struggling about Pylos (424 BC)

By General Demosthenes --who wasn't the statesman--, Athens could garrison Pylos but 400 Spartan soldiers remained at the frontal Sphacteria island. Most Athenian wanted to capture them. However, at Sphacteria, the blockading Athenian forces were under harsh geographical conditions so they couldn't resolve the battle.[13][14] Demosthenes (Greek: Δημοσθένης, died 413 BC), son of Alcisthenes, was an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War. ... Pylos (Greek Πύλος), formerly Navarino, is the name of a bay and a town on the west coast of the Peloponnese, in the district of Messenia in southern Greece. ... Sphacteria is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece. ...


In 424 BC, in the Athenian Assembly, Cleon ranted excessively about the circumstances. Whereas this politician was awfully deemed by his peers, Cleon said incidentally that, as commander, he would capture Sphacteria. The assemblymen began murmuring and Nicias offered, teasingly, to transfer his own rank of General to Cleon so he may take all necessary troops to Sphacteria. Cleon, who was considered a mediocre leader, ended accepting the quite difficult challenge. However, Cleon could capture Sphacteria in a swift move. This was a severe drawback, to Nicias' reputation.[15] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC...


Throughout Northeastern Peloponnesus (424 BC)

Then, also in 424 BC, Nicias sailed 80 warships with 1,200 soldiers, toward Corinth. The expedition disembarked in Solygeia. The aware Corinthians awaited him, almost with their entire army, but Nicias defeated the defenders.[16] Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Solygeia (Σολυγεία) is a municipality in Corinthia, Greece. ...


The enemy was about being further reinforced so Nicias embarked again, fleeing. However, Nicias discovered that two Athenian corpses had been forgotten behind so he claimed these formally to Corinth, by a herald. Nicias didn't care that, accordingly with the Greek tradition, Athens lost the battle for it was believed that the battlefield ended owned by the victorious side, which has the left cadavers.[17] Henry Edgar Paston-Bedingfeld, Her Majestys York Herald of Arms in Ordinary at the College of Arms. ...


Nicias disembarked at Crommyon, in northern Corinth. During a night, he struck the region. Then, he sailed southward, to Methana's peninsula. There, Nicias erected a wall on the isthmus and he garrisoned the peninsula, which became an Athenian stronghold.[18] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Invading Kythira (BC 423)

In 423 BC, together with other two commanders, Nicias led the expedition to capture Kythira. This island was the main defense, for all Laconia's sea routes. The Athenian expedition comprised 60 battleships and 2,000 soldiers. The Athenians could capture Kythira city because Nicias negotiated so no citizen would be expelled. The island was captured and garrisoned, by Athens. For the next week, the Athenian forces laid waste, throughout Laconia gulf's shore.[19] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC - 423 BC - 422 BC 421 BC... Kythira (Μodern Hellenic: Κύθηρα), also known as Cerigo (Τσιρίγο), also spelt: Kithira, Kythera, Cythera, Cerigo or Tsirigo, is an hellenic island, historically part of the Ionian Islands. ... Laconia (; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a prefecture in Greece. ...


Attacking Chalkidiki (422 BC)

In 422 BC, with other commander, Nicias led the assault against both Mende and Scione, at Chalkidiki. The expedition was composed of 50 ships and 1,700 soldiers. Nicias landed in Potidaea. The enemy was assisted by some Peloponnesian forces. After some bitter confrontations, at which Nicias was wounded even, both cities surrendered. The region was further plundered whereas much inhabitant was massacred for retaliation.[20] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC - 422 BC - 421 BC 420 BC... Categories: Greece geography stubs ... Potidaea (Greek: Ποτίδαια Potidaia, modern transliteration: Potidea) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point in Pallene (now Kassandria) in the western point of Chalkidiki (Chalcidice) in what was known as Thrace, Potidaea was maintaining trade with Macedonia. ...


Then, the Macedonian King Perdiccas II inked peace with Athens and Nicias demanded proof of this. Consequently, Perdiccas II reacted against the Peloponnesian forces, which were at Thessaly.[21] Perdiccas II was king of Macedonia from about 454 BC to about 413 BC. He was the son of Alexander I. Categories: Stub | Macedonian monarchs ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ...


Peace of Nicias

After fighting for a decade in the Peloponnesian War, both Athens and Sparta were exhausted. After the two Athenian generals, who were opposing peace, Cleon and Brasidias, were slain in battle, Nicias decided actuating the Athenians for peace. Also, he spoke with the Spartans and, particularly, they listened after Nicias restored the prisoners, who had been captured at Pylos. These prisoners had important families, who were members of the Spartan aristocracy.[22][23] The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty that was signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles, Cleon, Nicias, Alcibiades Archidamus II, Brasidas, Lysander The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict, fought between Athens and their empire and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ...


Nicias obtained a 1 year truce and, subsequently, a definitive peace was inked, in 421 BC. The Peace of Nicias stipulated that both sides should restore territories and cities, to their original owners. By bribery, Nicias got that Sparta had to return firstly.[24] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC - 421 BC - 420 BC 419 BC...


Athens celebrated. People said that the war had been Pericles' contemptible mistake, submerging Athens in misery. Instead, Nicias was the saviour, having persuaded all for peace.[25]


As, feeling dissatisfied, both Corinth and Boeotia menaced to restart the war, Nicias convinced Sparta, forming an alliance against any potential enemy.[26] Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ...


Against Alcibiades

At the same time, Alcibiades was a rising Athenian politician, who had been opposing peace. Particularly, Alcibiades --who had a wild personality-- was jealous because he resulted ignored whilst, instead, the entire peace affair was strengthening Nicias' political stand up. When some Athenians began distrusting Sparta, Alcibiades launched an open campaign for war. His first move was convincing Argos to form an alliance.[27] Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Coordinates 37°37′ N 22°43′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Argolis Province Argos Population 29,505 Area 5. ...


However, as Alcibiades couldn't do enough politically, he decided maliciously to trick Nicias. Coincidently, on a same day, both Sparta and Argos had ambassadors at Athens, to speak before both Athenian chambers. Alcibiades convinced the Spartan representatives, who had arrived with their best intentions, that he would defend their issues personally if they may lie to the Athenian Assembly, about their diplomatic powers. During the session, the diplomats did so but, then, Alcibiades claimed that such foreign prevaricators shouldn't be listened. Nicias could do nothing to escape such embarrassment whilst the furious assemblymen began calling the Argive ambassadors so both nations may ally, renewing the war. However, the session was interrupted after a small earthquake happened.[28][29] The Athenian Assembly was created in Athens during Greece’s Golden Age (480-404 BCE). ... Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnesus near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor, named for Nauplius. ...


During the pause, Nicias regained some political force and, in the next session, he could convince the assemblymen and the peace was maintained. Then, Nicias said that he would travel to Sparta, in a diplomatic mission, to resolve some pending issues. At Sparta, Nicias was treated as a friend, by his well known decisions. However, Spartan politicians had already been negotiating an alliance with Boeotia so Nicias' proposals weren't heard further. The politically devastated Nicias returned to Athens although no particular retaliation happened against him. Instead, Alcibiades was immediately appointed general and he tied Athens, Argos, Elis, and Mantinea, into an alliance against Sparta. Additionally, naval forces were sent to Pylos, to plunder the enemy's coasts. By these actions, the war restarted.[30] Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... Mantinea is a city in the central Peloponnese that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history. ...


Ostracizing Hyperbolus

Between Nicias and Alcibiades, the duel was so bitter that people decided that one had to end ostracized. Indeed, as both were polticians of great caliber, all Athenians followed the process attentively. Beside the war issue, Nicias was more disliked for he was deemed as an aristocrat, whose policies were unpopular. However, it was clear that the controversial Hyperbolus would occupy the political vacancy, which would be left by the ostracized politician. Before this might happen, Nicias and Alcibiades decided setting the dispute aside and they conjoined forces, to ostracize the venturing Hyperbolus, in 417 BC.[31] By this hidden maneuver, the Athenians were so angered that the ostracism was never used again.[32] Hyperbolus (in Greek Υπέρβολoς, Hybérbolos) was an Athenian politician active during the first half of the Peloponnesian war, coming to particular prominence after the death of Cleon. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 422 BC 421 BC 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC - 417 BC - 416 BC 415 BC... Ostracism (Greek ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which a prominent citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. ...


The Sicilian Expedition

Some Sicilian cities requested military support to Athens, against Syracuse. Nicias rejected the idea. However, this awoke Alcibiades' desire to conquer the entire island. He dreamed that Sicily might become a giant Athenian garrison, by which Athens would conquer the entire Mediterranean. Soon, the public opinion supported this idea enthusiastically whereas, in Athens, Nicias was the only opposition, to it. Indeed, after Nicias was again appointed Strategos, together with Alcibiades and Lamachus in 416 BC, to command the expedition, Nicias addressed the Athenian assembly critically. He denounced that the infeasible campaign would serve only to Alcibiades' prestige. Then, Demostratus countered that he would end such cry and he proposed that, at Sicily, all expeditionary generals may have unlimited power. The Assembly approved this.[33] The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Clinton Square in Downtown Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... feydey 11:57, 4 November 2005 (UTC) Category: Possible copyright violations ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 421 BC 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC - 416 BC - 415 BC 414 BC...


Nicias and Lamachus had been appointed only to compensate Alcibiades' command. People feared Alcibiades' often irresponsible behavior, which included sacrilegious parties, although the soldiers were fanatic to him. However, Nicias was more powerful than Lamachus, who was disreputable by his extreme poverty.[34]


In 415 BC, the expedition departed. Arriving to Catana, Sicily, the three commanders had different plans. Even worst, Nicias was submerged in melancholia and, so, he inflicted sad feelings on the optimistic expedition. Alcibiades was soon arrested under severe profanation charges and he was brought back to Athens.[35] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC - 415 BC - 414 BC 413 BC... Location within Italy Catania is the second largest city of Sicily and is the capital of the province which bears its name. ...


The uninterested Nicias froze the expedition by not conductive actions, which disheartened the soldiers. By this situation, the Syracusans recovered their optimism. Nicias didn't react until some Syracusan horsemen arrived to the Athenian camp, mocking the troops. Then, he launched an amphibious attack, invading Syracuse temporarily, but he left the city, moving northward again.[36]


Suffering a kidney disease, Nicias decided capturing Syracuse definitively. He began erecting a large wall around and Lamachus was killed defending it. Most Sicilian cities pledged loyalty to Nicias so the optimistic troops were oversupplied. Even, the Syracusans proposed peace but Nicias rejected it.[37]


However, by Alcibiades' vengeful suggestion, --surprisingly-- Sparta sent military reinforcements, which were led by Gylippus. Erroneously, Nicias despised this event and, after shoring in Messina, Gylippus entered into Syracuse, without opposition. Even, the too confident Nicias released 300 Syracusan prisoners, who rushed into their city.[38] Gylippus was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC; he was the son of Cleandridas, who had been expelled from Sparta for accepting Athenian bribes in 446 BC and had settled at Thurii. ... Location within Italy Messina with a population of about 260,000 is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, Italy and the capital of the province of Messina. ...


Though, Gylippus defeated Nicias, capturing much construction material, which was used to build a counter wall, which circumvented the Athenian one. Also, the Athenians became enclosed, by land and sea, whilst Gylippus toured Sicily, turning all cities against Athens. The despaired Nicias requested help to Athens and, also, he demanded his own replacement, by his disease. Demosthenes was about arriving, to aid Nicias, when Gylippus began besieging Plemmyrium fort, by which Nicias received all supplies.[39] Demosthenes (Greek: Δημοσθένης, died 413 BC), son of Alcisthenes, was an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War. ...


The three commanders who were at Sicily, Nicias, Demosthenes and Eurymedon, were appointed Strategos, in 413 BC. Demosthenes arrived with 5,000 soldiers. Nicias suggested to besiege Syracuse until the enemy might give up. Demosthenes disdained the idea and he rushed against the city. During a confusing night, Gylippus overcame the attack, turning the circumstances. 2,000 Athenians were slain whereas few could return to the camp. Nicias blamed the defeat to Demosthenes, who admitted his error. Also, Nicias refused fleeing back to Athens. He explained that he preferred to be killed by the enemy, instead of being killed by the Athenians, who would condemn him by the defeat.[40] For the article on the Eurymedon river in Asia Minor, see Eurymedon river Eurymedon (d. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC - 413 BC - 412 BC 411 BC 410...


However, malaria struck the Athenian camp whereas more Spartan reinforcements arrived. Then, Nicias ordered to embark home. The Athenian fleet was ready to do so when Nicias was terrified by a lunar eclipse, on August 27, 413 BC[41] , so he ordered to wait for an entire moon circuit. Nicias was attending his religious rituals when Gylippus struck, capturing the harbor. With 110 triremes, Nicias launched a hopeless counterattack, to recapture the 200 anchored ships, which were full of Athenian soldiers, but he was utterly defeated. Eurymedon was slain in this battle.[42] Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earths shadow. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC - 413 BC - 412 BC 411 BC 410... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ...


His Fatal Ending

Plains, passes, rivers, and bridges were quickly obstructed by Gylippus. To flee afoot, the Athenians divided in two groups, which were respectively commanded by Nicias and Demosthenes. Being seriously ill, Nicias strove to keep his authority up, with optimistic speeches.[43]


Eight days after, Demosthenes surrendered. Desperately, Nicias offered to Gylippus that he would compensate Sparta economically for the war if the Athenians might be able to return home but Gylippus spurned the offer. The starved Athenians marched for other day whilst the Spartans were shooting their darts continually at them. At Asinarus river, many soldiers were killed while they drank water. Then, Nicias surrendered, supplicating mercy cowardly,[44] to Gylippus:

"Consider that the Athenians have dealt gently with your men when it was our victory hour".

Gylippus reasoned that, gloriously, he could bring such important prisoner to Sparta so he didn't kill Nicias and, also, he ordered that no other captured soldier should be executed. However, at Syracuse, the Spartans organized an assembly and it was decided that Nicias would be executed. After this happened, Nicias' corpse was left publicly exhibited, at Syracuse's gates. It was 413 BC.[45]


How far it is just to attribute to his excessive caution and his blind faith in omens the disastrous failure it is difficult to say. So many chances for Athenian success were lost, but as always, one always views hindsight events in 20/20 vision. He was a man of conventional respectability and mechanical piety, without the originality which was required to meet the crisis which faced him. His popularity with the aristocratic party in Athens is, however, strikingly shown by the lament of Thucydides over his death: "He assuredly, among all Greeks of my time, least deserved to come to so extreme a pitch of ill-fortune, considering his exact performance of established duties to the divinity" (vii. 86, Crete's version). now. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ...


His Personality

Popularly, Nicias' personality was well known whereas, even, this was reflected in many contemporary comedies. Publicly, Nicias acted like being afraid, of other people. Further, Nicias suffered both despair and depression. Consequently, Nicias acted with much caution and deference. Indeed, these somehow courteous attitudes benefited Nicias' initial political image popularly although he was an aristocratic politician, who shared typical unpopular traits.[46]


By his cautiousness, Nicias feared all rival's informers, who told people about his life, so, mormally, he bought them. Also, Nicias cloistered his life, neither eating out nor talking much, even with friends. Accordingly, in the Athenian Assembly, Nicias was both the first arriver and the last leaver. As general, he stayed working in his War Office, until night.[47][48] The Athenian Assembly was created in Athens during Greece’s Golden Age (480-404 BCE). ...


During leisure hours, Nicias secluded home. Friends attended the visitors and they were told that Nicias was attending some important issue so he wouldn't receive anyone.[49]


Also, Nicias was quite superstitious to the Athenian gods. Home, both he did religious sacrifices daily and he maintained a fortuneteller. To him, Nicias asked about political issues and his silver mines.[50] For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ...


Trivia

  • Nicias means "Victory," Nikê.[51]

Notes

  1. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  2. ^ Livius, Nicias by Jona Lendering
  3. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  4. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  5. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  6. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  7. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  8. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  9. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  10. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  11. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  12. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  13. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  14. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  15. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  16. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  17. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  18. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  19. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  20. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  21. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War
  22. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  23. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Alcibiades"
  24. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  25. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  26. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  27. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  28. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  29. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Alcibiades"
  30. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  31. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  32. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Aristides"
  33. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  34. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  35. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  36. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  37. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  38. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  39. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  40. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  41. ^ Livius, Nicias by Jona Lendering
  42. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  43. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  44. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Comparison of Crassus with Nicias"
  45. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  46. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  47. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  48. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Comparison of Crassus with Nicias"
  49. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  50. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Nicias"
  51. ^ Livius, Nicias by Jona Lendering

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Besides Thucydides see Plutarch's Nicias and Diod. xii. 83; also the general authorities on the history of Greece. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Nicias appears as a character in Plato's dialogue Laches, in which Socrates and others discuss the nature of courage without reaching any firm conclusions. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ...


Nicias' silver mines are described by Xenophon, in both "On Revenues" and "The memorable thoughts of Socrates." Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , c. ...


External links

  • Livius, Nicias by Jona Lendering
The Works of Plutarch
The Works Parallel Lives | The Moralia | Pseudo-Plutarch
The Lives

Alcibiades and Coriolanus1Alexander the Great and Julius CaesarAratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2Aristides and Cato the Elder1
Crassus and Nicias1Demetrius and Antony1Demosthenes and Cicero1Dion and Brutus1Fabius and Pericles1Lucullus and Cimon1
Lysander and Sulla1Numa and Lycurgus1Pelopidas and Marcellus1Philopoemen and Flamininus1Phocion and Cato the Younger
Pompey and Agesilaus1Poplicola and Solon1Pyrrhus and Gaius MariusRomulus and Theseus1Sertorius and Eumenes1
Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1Themistocles and Camillus
Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Gaius Marcius Coriolanus is widely believed to be a legendary figure who is said to have lived during the 5th century BC. He was given the agnomen Coriolanus as a result of his action in capturing the Volscian town of Corioli in 493 BC. Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Aratus (271 BC - 213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC. He deposed Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was a supporter of Greek unity and integrated Sicyon into the Achaean League, which was led by him to his maximum extent. ... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in UK English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse. ... Art work over an ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lysander (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... // Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?–630 BC) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Philopoemen (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom. ... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Marcus Porcius Catō UticÄ“nsis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder, was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II (Greek Ἀγησιλάος), king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger step-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing... Publius Valerius Publicola (or Poplicola, his surname meaning friend of the people) was a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... This page describes the ancient heroes that founded the city of Rome. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... Son of Eudamidas II., of the Eurypontid family, commonly called Agis IV. He succeeded his father probably in 245 BC, in his twentieth year. ... Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II. In keeping with the Spartan agoge and the native pederastic tradition he was the hearer (aites) of Xenares and later the inspirer (eispnelos) of Panteus. ... Timoleon (c. ... Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a Roman general and politician. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. ...

The Translators John Dryden | Thomas North | Jacques Amyot | Philemon Holland | Arthur Hugh Clough
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1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...


Athenian statesmen | Ancient Greece
Aeschines - Agyrrhius - Alcibiades - Andocides - Archinus - Aristides - Aristogeiton - Aristophon - Autocles
Callistratus - Chremonides - Cimon - Cleisthenes - Cleophon - Cleon - Critias
- Demades - Demetrius Phalereus - Demochares - Democles - Demosthenes
Ephialtes - Eubulus - Hyperbolus - Hypereides - Laches- Lycurgus - Lysicles
Miltiades - Moerocles - Nicias - Peisistratus - Pericles - Philinus - Phocion - Themistocles
Theramenes - Thrasybulus - Thucydides - Xanthippus

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Internet Classics Archive | Nicias by Plutarch (6837 words)
Nicias was a younger man, yet was in some reputation even whilst Pericles lived; so much so as to have been his colleague in the office of general, and to have held command by himself more than once.
Nicias, because of his experience, was looked upon as the fitter for the employment, and his wariness with the bravery of Alcibiades, and the easy temper of Lamachus, all compounded together, promised such security, that he did but confirm the resolution.
Nicias had no wish for a sea-fight, but said it was mere folly for them, when Demosthenes was coming in all haste with so great a fleet and fresh forces to their succour, to engage the enemy with a less number of ships and ill provided.
Nicias - The Slave of Fear (4564 words)
Nicias thought that this show of force might win some allies, but all it did was dishearten the Athenians still more, and delay changed the attitude of the enemy from dread to contempt.
Nicias argued that Syracuse would soon give in because the Syracusans would be deserted by their allies and the food and water in the city would run out.
Nicias did his share of the labor and tried in all ways he could think of to raise the spirits of his men by showing them a good example of a man undaunted by misfortune.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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