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Encyclopedia > Nicholas II of Russia
Tsar Nicholas II
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Photo by A. A. Pasetti, of Tsar Nicholas II. St. Petersburg: 1898.
Reign 1 November 189415 March 1917
Coronation 26 May [O.S. 14 May] 1896
Born 19 May 1868(1868-05-19)
Tsarskoe Selo, Russia
Died 17 July 1918 (aged 50)
Yekaterinburg, Russia
Predecessor Alexander III of Russia
Successor Grand Duke Mikhail (did not accept the throne), Georgy Lvov (President of the Russian Provisional Government)
Consort Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
Issue Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna
Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich
Royal House House of Romanov
Father Alexander III of Russia
Mother Dagmar of Denmark

Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov) (19 May [O.S. 6 May] 186817 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: Никола́й II, Nikolay II) was the last Tsar of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. He ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in World War I. His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Nicholas and his family were imprisoned firstly in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo. The family were later moved to the Governor's Mansion in Tobolsk and finally to the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg. On the night of 16/17 July 1918, Nicholas and his family were shot by Bolsheviks. Nicholas's full name was Nikolay Aleksandrovich Romanov (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Рома́нов). His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias.[2] He is sometimes referred to as Nicholas the Martyr due to his execution and as Bloody Nicholas because of the tragic events during his coronation, Bloody Sunday and his government's subsequent suppression of dissent. As a result of his canonization, he has been regarded as Saint Nicholas The Passion Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church. Nicholas II (died July 27, 1061), born Gérard de Bourgogne, Pope from 1059 to July 1061, was at the time of his election the Bishop of Florence. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1890x2604, 714 KB) Photo taken by A. A. Pasetti of Tsar Nicholas II, St. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаил Александрович Романов), sometimes called mistakenly calledTsar Michael IV (November 22, 1878 (O.S.) - about June 12, 1918) was the son of Tsar Alexander III of Russia, and brother of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. ... Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov Knyaz (Prince) Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov (Russian: Георгий Евгеньевич Львов; November 2, 1861 – March 7, 1925) was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, from March 23 to July 7, 1917. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... ... Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (Olga Nikolaevna Romanova) (in Russian Великая Княжна Ольга Николаевна; November 15 [O.S. November 3] 1895 – July 17, 1918) was the eldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of the Russian Empire, and of Empress Alexandra of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaievna of Russia (Tatiana Nikolaievna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Татьяна Николаевна), (May 29 (O.S.)/June 10 (N.S.), 1897 - July 17, 1918), was the second daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of Russia, and of Tsarina Alexandra. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (Maria Nikolaevna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Мария Николаевна), (June 14 (O.S.)/June 26 (N.S.), 1899 – July 17, 1918) was the third daughter of Nicholas II of Russia and Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, (Russian: (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 — July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke (Russian: ) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Russia, being the youngest child and the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Maria Feodorovna, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark (November 26, 1847–October 13, 1928) was Empress Consort of Russia. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... The Khodynka Tragedy was a mass panic that occurred on May 18, 1896 on Khodynka Field during the festivities of the crowning of Russian Tsar Nicholas II and resulted in the deaths of 1389 people. ... Demonstrators march to the Winter Palace. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...

Contents

Family background

Nicholas was born in Tsarskoye Selo, the eldest son of Emperor Alexander III and Maria Fyodorovna of Denmark. His paternal grandparents were Alexander II of Russia and his first consort Maria Alexandrovna of Hesse-Darmstadt. His maternal grandparents were Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. A sensitive child, Nicholas felt intimidated by the strength of his father, Alexander III, though Nicholas adored him and would often speak of him nostalgically in letters and diaries after Alexander's death. Nicholas and his mother, Maria Fyodorovna, were very close, as can be seen in their letters to one another, which have been published. Nicholas had three brothers: Alexander (1869-1870), George (1871-1899) and Michael (1878-1918) and two sisters: Xenia (1875-1960) and Olga (1882-1960). Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 versts (km) south from the center of St. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Maria Feodorovna, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark (November 26, 1847–October 13, 1928) was Empress Consort of Russia. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (8 August 1824 - 8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Louise of Hesse-Cassel, Luise Wilhelmine Friederike Caroline Auguste Julie von Hessen-Kassel (in Danish, Louise Wilhelmine Frederikke Caroline Auguste Julie), b Kassel 7 Sep 1817, d Bernstorff 29 Sep 1898, was a daughter of ancient German princely family, the Landgraves of Hesse, and became Queen of Denmark, being the... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Maria Feodorovna, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark (November 26, 1847–October 13, 1928) was Empress Consort of Russia. ...

Nicholas Alexandrovich was the first cousin once removed of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich. To distinguish both of them, the Grand Duke was often known within the Imperial family as Nicholasha. The Grand Duke also towered over the Tsar, so they were nicknamed "Nicholas the Tall" and "Nicholas the Short", respectively. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. ...


Tsesarevich

Nicholas became Tsesarevich unexpectedly on 1 March 1881 on the assassination of his grandfather, Alexander II and accession of his father, Alexander III. Nicholas, aged thirteen, wearing a blue sailor suit, came into the room in the Winter Palace where his grandfather lay dying, deathly pale and watched from the end of the bed. His mother, who had been ice-skating, arrived still clutching his skates. At the window looking out stood his father the Heir Apparent, his broad shoulders hunched and shaking, his fists clenching and unclenching. "The Emperor is dead," announced the surgeon, letting go of the blood-covered wrist. [3] Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ...


Much has been written about the luxury and opulence of the life led by the Romanovs. Certainly the court was brilliant, but the splendour did not reach the imperial nurseries. At the Winter Palace in St.Petersburg, at Tsarskoe Selo, Gatchina and Peterhof, it was possible as late as 1922, to see the children's quarters. They slept on camp-beds, with one hard flat pillow and a very thin mattress. A modest carpet covered the floor. There were no armchairs or sofas. Bentwood chairs with very straight backs and cane seats, most ordinary tables and whatnots for books and toys, made up the furniture. The only rich detail could be noticed in the so-called 'icon' corner where the face of the Virgin and Child would be surrounded by pearls and other gems. Their food was of the plainest, and since the days of Maria Alexandrovna, wife of Alexander II, English customs had been introduced; porridge for breakfast, cold baths, and plenty of fresh air. [4] At lunch, Nicholas and his siblings joined their parents. There was plenty of food, but as they were served last after all the guests and still had to leave the table when their father rose, they often went hungry. Ravenous, Nicholas once attacked the hollow gold cross filled with beeswax which he had been given at baptism; embedded in the wax was a tiny fragment of the true cross. "Nicky was so hungry that he opened the cross and ate the contents - relic and all", recalled his sister Olga. [5]


Nicholas spent most of his childhood at Gatchina Palace, about forty miles west of St.Petersburg and at no great distance from Tsarskoe Selo. Gatchina had 900 rooms. Alexander III had to keep up Gatchina, Peterhof, two large palaces at Tsarskoe Selo, the Anitchkov and Winter Palace, the Kremlin Palace in Moscow and Livadia in the Crimea.

Nicholas was educated by tutors. There were language tutors, geography tutors and a whiskered dancing tutor who wore white gloves and insisted that a huge pot of fresh flowers always be placed on his accompanist's piano. Of all the tutors the most important was Constantine Petrovich Pobedonostsev, a brilliant philosopher. Pobesdonostsev has been called 'The High Priest of Social Stagnation' and 'the dominant and most baleful influence of the last reign'. [6] Pobesdonostsev had been tutor to the children of Alexander II. Alexander III was his faithful student. When Alexander III mounted the throne, Pobesdonostsev already held the position of Procurator of the Holy Synod, or lay head of the Russian Orthodox Church. In addition he assumed the position of tutor of the future Nicholas II.

The Russia described to Nicholas by Pobesdonostsev had nothing to do with the restless giant stirring outside the palace windows. Instead, it was an ancient, stagnant, coercive land made up of the classical triumvirate of Tsar, Church and People. It was God, the tutor explained, who had chosen the Tsar. There was no place in God's design for representatives of the people to share in the ruling of the nation. Turning Pobesdonostsev's argument around, a tsar who did not rule as an autocrat was failing in his duty to God. Heard as a school lesson, the old man's teaching may have lacked a basis in reality, but it had the compelling purity of logic, and Nicholas eagerly accepted it. [7]


In many respects, the education of Nicholas was excellent. He had an unusual memory and had done well in history. He spoke French and German, and his English was so good that he could have fooled an Oxford professor into mistaking him for an Englishman. He rode beautifully, danced gracefully and was an excellent shot. He had been taught to keep a diary and, in the style of innumerable princes and gentlemen of that era, he faithfully recorded, day after day, the state of the weather, the number of birds he shot and the names of those with whom he walked and dined. [8]


In May 1890, a few days before his twenty-second birthday, Nicholas wrote in his diary, "Today I finished definitely and forever my education." [9] Most of the time, Nicholas was required to do absolutely nothing. The essential function of a tsarevich, once he had finished his schooling and reached manhood, was to wait as discreetly as possible until it came his turn to become tsar. In 1890, Alexander III was only forty-five years old. Expecting that he would continue to occupy the throne for another twenty or thirty years, he dawdled about giving his son the experience to succeed him. Nicholas happily accepted the playboy role to which he had been tacitly assigned. He appeared at meetings of the Imperial Council, but his eyes were fixed on the clock. At the first reasonable opportunity, he bolted. [10]


Known as "Nicky" to his close family and friends, Tsesarevitch Nicholas fell in love with Princess Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt, the fourth daughter of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by the Rhine and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, in 1884. He was sixteen; she was just twelve. His parents, however, did not approve of this match, hoping to cement Russia's new alliance with France. They had hoped that Nicholas would marry Princess Hélène, the daughter of Count Philippe of the House of Orléans. Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (German: ) or Saint Alexandra, 6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918, under the title Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (Russian: ), was Empress consort of the Russian Empire and the wife of Nicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar. ... Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Princess Alice (Alice Maud Mary), (25 April 1843 – 14 December 1878), was a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in full Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel), later The Prince Consort, (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Princess Hélène of Orléans, Duchess of Aosta (13 June 1871,York House, Twickenham-21 January 1951, Naples, Italy). ... Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris (August 24, 1838 – September 8, 1894) was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ...


As Tsesarevich, Nicholas did a considerable amount of travelling. During a notable trip to the Empire of Japan, a failed assassination attempt by a sword-wielding man left him with a scar on his forehead. The quick action of his cousin, Prince George of Greece, who parried the second blow with his cane, saved his life. The motivation for this attack was that the assailant was offended by a foreigner visiting a very holy temple which had never before admitted a non-believer. The incident had an unfortunate historical effect in that Nicholas detested Japan ever after and supported war with that country all the more readily in 1904-5, resulting in the disastrous naval Battle of Tsushima. Tsesarevich was the title of the Heir Apparent to the tsars of Russia, (see Tsar). ... The eastern journey of Nicholas II in 1890–1891 was a notable round-the-world voyage of Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich of Russia. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Nicholas II The ÅŒtsu Scandal can be described as a failed assassination attempt on Tsarevich Nicholas (later Emperor Nicholas II of Russia) by a Japanese police officer named Tsuda Sanzō. The event occurred on May 11, 1891 in ÅŒtsu, Shiga Prefecture, Japan, while Nicholas was visiting Japan. ... Prince George of Greece and Denmark, known as Uncle Goggy to his family, (Greek: Πρινκιπας Γεωργιος) (24 June 1869–25 November 1957) was the second child and of course the second son of King George I of Greece and Grand Duchess Olga. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6...

Portrait by L. Tuxen of the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra Fyorodovna, which took place on 26 May [O.S. 14 May] 1896 at the Uspensky Sobor Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin amongst extraordinary opulence and splendor. Seated upon the dais, from left to right, the Dowager Empress Maria Fyodorovna, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, and Tsar Nicholas II
Portrait by Valentin Serov of the anointing of Tsar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna at their coronation. 1897
Portrait by Valentin Serov of the anointing of Tsar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna at their coronation. 1897

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1880x1400, 820 KB) Portrait by Baketti of the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1880x1400, 820 KB) Portrait by Baketti of the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow, in winter The Cathedral of the Dormition or Cathedral of the Assumption (in Russian, Uspensky Sobor (Успенский Собор)) is the name of several cathedrals in the world. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... Maria Feodorovna, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark (November 26, 1847–October 13, 1928) was Empress Consort of Russia. ... Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna of Russia (Russian: ), born Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (German: ) 6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918, was Empress consort of Nicholas II, the last Tsar of the Russian Empire. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (2113 × 1400 pixel, file size: 978 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Миропомазание императора Николая Александровича. Холст, масло. Coronation of Emperor en:Nicholas II of Russia +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (2113 × 1400 pixel, file size: 978 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Миропомазание императора Николая Александровича. Холст, масло. Coronation of Emperor en:Nicholas II of Russia +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Self-portrait, 1880ies Valentin Alexandrovich Serov (Russian: Валентин Александрович Серов) (1865 - 1911) was a Russian painter. ... To anoint is to grease with perfumed oil, animal fat, or melted butter, a process employed ritually by many religions and races. ...

Accession

Deemed overly soft by his hard and demanding father, Nicholas received little grooming for his imperial role. Nicholas was a polite and charming child but lacking in any interest or curiosity in his tutors' lessons. Even when the Tsar did decide to initiate Nicholas into State business, Nicholas lost interest after only about twenty minutes in State Council sessions and left to see friends at cafes. When Alexander died at the age of 49 in 1894 of kidney disease after an unexpectedly rapid deterioration of health, Nicholas felt so unprepared for the duties of the crown that he tearfully asked his cousin, "What is going to happen to me and all of Russia?"[11] He nevertheless decided to maintain the conservative policies favored by his father. While Alexander had concentrated on the formulation of general policy, Nicholas devoted much more attention to the details of administration.


Despite a visit to the United Kingdom before his accession, where he observed the House of Commons in debate and seemed impressed by the machinery of democracy, Nicholas turned his back on any notion of giving away any power to elected representatives in Russia. Shortly after he came to the Throne, a deputation of peasants and workers from various towns' local assemblies (zemstvos) came to the Winter Palace to ask for some constitutional reforms. Although the addresses they had sent in beforehand were couched in mild and loyal terms, Nicholas was angry and ignored advice from an Imperial Family Council by saying to them: "...it has come to my knowledge that during the last months there have been heard in some assemblies of the zemstvos the voices of those who have indulged in a senseless dream that the zemstvos be called upon to participate in the government of the country. I want everyone to know that I will devote all my strength to maintain, for the good of the whole nation, the principle of absolute autocracy, as firmly and as strongly as did my late lamented father."[12]These words astonished and horrified all who listened and began the destruction of the new Tsar's popularity and hopes for peaceful change in Russia.


Despite these imposing words, Nicholas was timid in the presence of senior members of his family. His brother-in-law Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich later wrote, "Nicholas II spent the first ten years of his reign sitting behind a massive desk in the Palace and listening with near-awe to the well-rehearsed bellowing of his towering uncles. He dreaded to be left alone with them...They always wanted something."[13] Alexander Mihailovich of Russia (13 April 1866 - 26 February 1933) was Grand Duke and bother-in-law of Emperor Nicholas II, influential in the soon-to-be-doomed Russian monarchy. ...


Reign

The Russo-Japanese War and the 1905 Revolution

A clash between Russia and Japan was almost inevitable by the turn of the twentieth century. Russia had expanded in the East, and the growth of her settlement and her territorial ambitions, as her southward path to the Balkans was frustrated, conflicted with Japan's own territorial ambitions on the Chinese and Asian mainland. War began in 1904 with a surprise attack on the Russian fleet in Port Arthur, which incapacitated the Russian navy in the East. An epic voyage was begun by the Russian Baltic fleet to traverse the world and equalise the balance of power in the East. The effort was in vain, as the fleet, after many misadventures en route, was annihilated by the Japanese in the Battle of the Tsushima Strait. On land the Russians fared no better, and the army was crippled both by mismanagement and by the problem of conducting a war, with only the Trans-Siberian Railway as a carrier of supplies from the West. The war ended in total defeat for Russia with the fall of Port Arthur in 1905, and the settlement of both countries' quarrels by the Treaty of Portsmouth.


As a result of the disastrous war, Russia's self-esteem received a severe blow and the Imperial government collapsed, with the ensuing revolutionary outbreaks of 1905-1906. Many demonstrators were shot in front of the Winter Palace in St.Petersburg; the Emperor's Uncle, Grand Duke Sergei, was blown up by a revolutionary's bomb in Moscow as he left the Kremlin.

The Black Sea fleet mutinied, and a railway strike developed into a general strike which paralysed the country. Nicholas, who was taken by surprise by the events, mixed his anger with bewilderment. He wrote to his mother after months of disorder,


"It makes me sick to read the news! Nothing but strikes in schools and factories, murdered policemen, Cossacks and soldiers, riots, disorder, mutinies. But the ministers, instead of acting with quick decision, only assemble in council like a lot of frightened hens and cackle about providing united ministerial action ... ominous quiet days began, quiet indeed because there was complete order in the streets, but at the same time everybody knew that something was going to happen - the troops were waiting for the signal, but the other side would not begin. One had the same feeling, as before a thunderstorm in summer! Everybody was on edge and extremely nervousm and of course, that sort of strain could not go on for long .... We are in the midst of a revolution with an administrative apparatus entirely disorganised, and in this lies the main danger." [14]


Bloody Sunday

On Epiphany Day, Thursday, 19 January 1905, the traditional Blessing of the Waters was held on the Neva River just in front of the Winter Palace. As usual, a dais had been built on the ice for the Tsar, his retinue, and the clergy. Members of the imperial family watched the ceremony from the windows of the palace. A cannon employed in the ceremonial salute fired a live charge which landed near the Tsar and wounded a policeman. [15] Another charge hit the Admiralty, A third smashed a window in the palace - a bare few yards away fromt the Dowager Empress and the Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna - and glass splinters went all over their shoes and skirts. Through the broken window they could hear shouts from below. The Emperor stood at the erect just as he had at the beginning of the ceremony. Once inside the palace he told his sister Olga, "I knew that somebody was trying to kill me. I just crossed myself. What else could I do?" [16] The Grand Duchess commented, "Ur was typical of Nicky. He did not know what fear meant. On the other hand, it seemed as if he was resigned to losing his life." [17]

On Saturday, 21 January 1905, a priest named George Gapon informed the government that a march would take place the following day and asked that the Tsar be present to receive a petition. The ministers met hurriedly to consider the problem. There was never any thought that the Tsar, who was at Tsarskoe Selo and had been told of neither the march nor the petition, would actually be asked to meet Gapon. The suggestion that some other member of the Imperial family receive the petition was rejected. Finally informed by the Prefect of Police that he lacked the men to pluck Gapon from among his followers and place him under arrest, the newly appointed Minster of the Interior, Prince Sviatopolk-Mirsky, and his colleagues could think of nothing to do except bring additional troops into the city and hope that matters would not get out of hand. That evening Nicholas learned for the first time from Mirsky what the next day might bring. He wrote in his diary, "Troops have been brought from the outskirts to reinforce the garrison. Up to now the workers have been calm. Their number is estimated at 120,000. At the head of their union is a kind of socialist priest named Gapon. Mirsky came this evening to present his report on the measures taken." [18] At Tsarskoe Selo, Nicholas was stunned when he heard what had happened. He wrote in his diary, "A painful day. Serious disorders took place in Petersburg when the workers tried to come to the Winter Palace. The troops have been forced to fire in several parts of the city and there are many killed and wounded. Lord, how painful and sad this is." [19] On Sunday, 22nd January 1905, Father Gapon began his march. Locking arms, the workers marched peacefully through the streets in rivers of cheerful, expectant humanity. Some carried crosses, icons and religious banners, others carried national flags and portraits of the Tsar. As they walked they sang religious hymns and the Imperial anthem, 'God Save The Tsar'. At 2PM all of the converging processions were scheduled to arrive at the Winter Palace. There was no single confrontation with the troops. Throughout the city, at bridges on strategic boulevards, the marchers found their way blocked by lines of infantry, backed by Cossacks and Hussars. Uncertain what this meant, still not expecting violence, anxious not to be late to see the Tsar, the processions moved forward. In the moment of horror, the soldiers opened fire. Bullets smacked into the bodies of men, women and children. Crimson blotches stained the snow. The official number of victims was ninety-two dead and several hundred wounded; the actual number was probably several times higher. Gapon vanished and the other leaders of the march were seized. Expelled from the capital, they circulated through the empire, exaggerating the casualties into thousands. That day, which became known as 'Bloody Sunday', was a turning point in Russian history. It shattered the ancient, legendary belief that the Tsar and the people were one. As bullets riddled their icons, their banners and their portraits of Nicholas, the people shreiked, "The Tsar will not help us!" [20] Outside Russia, the future British Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald attacked the Tsar calling him a "blood-stained creature and a common murderer". [21] James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna wrote, "Nicky had the police report a few days before. That Saturday he telephoned my mother at the Anitchkov and said that she and I were to leave for Gatchina at once. He and Alicky went to Tsarskoe Selo. In so far as I remember, my Uncles Vladimir and Nicholas were the only members of the family left in St.Petersburg, but there may have been others. I felt at the time that all those arrangements were hideously wrong. Nicky's ministers and the Chief of Police had it all their way. My mother and I wanted him to stay in St.Petersburg and to face the crowd. I am positive that, for all the ugly mood of some of the workmen, Nicky's appearance would have calmed them. They would have presented their petition and gone back to their homes. But that wretched Epiphany incident had left all the senior officials in a state of panic. They kept on telling Nicky that he had no right to run such a risk, that he owed it to the country to leave the capital, that even with the utmost precautions taken there might always be some loophole left. My mother and I did all we could to persuade him that the ministers' advice was wrong, but Nicky preferred to follow it and he was the first to repent when he heard of the tragic outcome." [22]


From his hiding place, Father Gapon issued a letter. He stated, "Nicholas Romanov, formerly Tsar and at present soul-murderer of the Russian empire. The innocent blood of workers, their wives and children lies forever between you and the Russian people ... May all the blood which must be spilled fall upon you, you Hangman. I call upon all the socialist parties of Russia to come to an immediate agreement among themselves and bring an armed uprising against Tsarism." [23] Gapon's body was found hanging in an abandoned cottage in Finland in April 1906.


Relationship with the Duma

Silver Coin of Tsar Nicholas II, dated 1898, with the Romanov coat-of-arms on the reverse. The Russian inscription reads: B[ozheyu] M[ilostyu] Nikolay II Imperator i Samoderzhets Vseross[iyskiy]; English: By the grace of God, Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Silver Coin of Tsar Nicholas II, dated 1898, with the Romanov coat-of-arms on the reverse. The Russian inscription reads: B[ozheyu] M[ilostyu] Nikolay II Imperator i Samoderzhets Vseross[iyskiy]; English: By the grace of God, Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

Under pressure from the attempted Russian Revolution of 1905, on August 5, 1905 Tsar Nicholas II issued a manifesto about the convocation of the State Duma, initially thought to be an advisory organ. Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna, younger sister of Nicholas II wrote, "There was such gloom at Tsarskoe Selo. I did not understand anything about politics. I just felt everything was going wrong with the country and all of us. The October Constitution did not seem to satisfy anyone. I went with my mother to the first Duma. I remember the large group of deputies from among peasants and factory people. The peasants looked sullen. But the workmen were worse: they looked as though they hated us. I remember the distress in Alicky's eyes." [24] Minister of the Court Count Fredericks commented, "The Deputies, they give one the impression of a gang of criminals who are only waiting for the signal to throw themselves upon the ministers and cut their throats. What wicked faces! I will never again set foot among those people." [25] The Dowager Empress noticed, "incomrehensible hatred". [26] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (935x470, 190 KB) Silver coin of Czar Nicholas II, dated 1898, with the crest of the Romanovs on the reverse. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (935x470, 190 KB) Silver coin of Czar Nicholas II, dated 1898, with the crest of the Romanovs on the reverse. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire. ...


In the October Manifesto, the tsar pledged to introduce basic civil liberties, provide for broad participation in the State Duma, and endow the Duma with legislative and oversight powers. However, determined to preserve "autocracy" even in the context of reform, he restricted the Duma's authority in many ways—not least of which was an absence of parliamentary control over the appointment or dismissal of cabinet ministers. Nicholas's relations with the Duma were not good. The First Duma, with a majority of Kadets, almost immediately came into conflict with him. Scarcely had the 524 members sat down at the Tauride Palace when they formulated an 'Address to the Throne'. It demanded universal suffrage, radical land reform, the release of all political prisoners and the dismissal of ministers appointed by the Tsar in favour of ministers acceptable to the Duma. [27] Although Nicholas initially had a good relationship with his relatively liberal prime minister, Sergei Witte, Alexandra distrusted him (because he instigated an investigation of Rasputin), and as the political situation deteriorated, Nicholas dissolved the Duma. The Duma was populated with radicals, many of whom wished to push through legislation that would abolish private property ownership, among other things. Witte, unable to grasp the seemingly insurmountable problems of reforming Russia and the monarchy, wrote to Nicholas on 14 April 1906 resigning his office (however, other accounts have said that Witte was forced to resign by the Emperor). Nicholas was not ungracious to Witte and an Imperial Rescript was published on 22 April creating Witte a Knight of the Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky, with diamonds (The last two words were written in the Emperor's own hand, followed by "I remain unalterably well-disposed to you and sincerely grateful,for ever more Nicholas"). Wikisource has original text related to this article: October Manifesto (in English) Ilya Repin 17 October 1905 The October Manifesto (Russian: ) was issued on October 17, 1905; October 30 in the Gregorian calendar) by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire. ... The Constitutional Democratic Party (Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of Popular Freedom, informally Cadets) was a liberal political party in Tsarist Russia. ... Count Sergei Yulyevitch Witte (Russian: , Sergej Julevič Vitte) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. ... Rasputin redirects here. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet version of the order Order of Alexander Nevsky (Russian: Орден Александра Невского) was first instituted in 1725 by Catherine I of Russia. ...

A second Duma met for the first time in February 1907. The leftist parties including the Social Democrats and the Social Revolutionaries which had boycotted the First Duma, had won two hundred seats in the Second, more than a third of the membership. Again Nicholas waited impatiently to rid himself of the Duma. In two letters to his mother he let his bitterness flow, "A grotesque deputation is coming from England to see liberal members of the Duma. Uncle Bertie informed us that they were very sorry but were unable to take action to stop their coming. Their famous "liberty", of course. How angry they would be if a deputation went from us to the Irish to wish them success in their struggle against their government." [28] A little while later Nicholas wrote, "All would be well if everything said in the Duma remained within its walls. Every word spoken, however, comes out in the next day's papers which are avidly read by everyone. In many places the populace is getting restive again. They begin to talk about land once more and are waiting to see what the Duma is going to say on the question. I am getting telgrams from everywhere, petitioning me to order a dissolution, but it is too early for that. One has to let them do something manifestly stupid or mean and then - slap! And they are gone!" [29]


After the Second Duma resulted in similar problems, the new prime minister Pyotr Stolypin (whom Witte described as 'reactionary') unilaterally dissolved it, and changed the electoral laws to allow for future Dumas to have a more conservative content, and to be dominated by the liberal-conservative Octobrist Party of Alexander Guchkov. Stolypin, a skillful politician, had ambitious plans for reform. These included making loans available to the lower classes to enable them to buy land, with the intent of forming a farming class loyal to the crown. Nevertheless, when the Duma remained hostile, Stolypin gad bi qualms about invoking Article 87 of the Fundemental Laws, which empowered the Tsar to issue 'urgent and extraordinary' emergency decrees 'during the recess of the State Duma'. Stolypin's most famous legislative act, the change in peasant land tenure, was promulgated under Article 87. [30] State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire. ... Pyotr Stolypin Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (Russian: Пётр Арка́дьевич Столы́пин) (April 14 [O.S. April 2] 1862—September 18 [O.S. September 5] 1911) served as Nicholas IIs Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) from 1906 to 1911. ... The Octobrist Party (Russian Октябристы) was a non-revolutionary [[Centrism |centrist]] Russian political party formally called Union of October 17 (Союз 17 Октября). The partys program of moderate constitutionalism called for the fulfillment of Emperor Nicholas IIs October Manifesto granted at the peak of the Russian Revolution of 1905. ... Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov (October 14, 1862 - February 14, 1936) was a Russian politician, Chairman of the Duma and Minister of War in the Russian Provisional Government. ...


The third Duma remained an independent body. This time the memebers proceeded cautiously. Instead of hurling themselves at the government, opposing parties within the Duma worked to develop the body as a whole. In the classic manner of the British Parliament, the Duma reached for power grasping for the national purse strings. The Duma had the right to question ministers behind closed doors as to their proposed expenditures. These sessions, endorsed by Stolypin, were educational for both sides, and, in time, mutual antagonism was replaced by mutual respect. Even the sensitive area of military expenditure, where the October Manifesto clearly had reserved decisions to the throne, a Duma commission began to operate. Composed of aggressive patriots no less anxious than Nicholas to restore the fallen honour of Russian arms, the Duma commission frequently recommended expenditures even larger than those proposed.


With the passage of time, Nicholas also began to have confidence in the Duma. "This Duma cannot be reproached with an attempt to seize power and there is no need at all to quarrel with it" he said to Stolypin in 1909. [31] Unfortunately Stolypin's plans were undercut by conservatives at court. Reactionaries such as Prince Vladimir Orlov never tired of telling the Tsar that the very existence of the Duma was a blot on the autocracy. Stolypin, they whispered, was a traitor and secret revolutionary who was conniving with the Duma to steal the prerogatives assigned the Tsar by God. Witte also engaged in constant intrigue against Stolypin. Although Stolypin had had nothing to do with Witte's fall, Witte blamed him. Stolypin had unwittingly angered the Empress. He had ordered an investigation into Rasputin and presented it to the Tsar. Stolypin, on his own authority, ordered Rasputin to leave St.Petersburg. Alexandra protested vehemently but Nicholas refused to overrule his Prime Minister. [32] who had more influence with the Emperor. By the time of Stolypin's assassination by Dmitry Bogrov, a student (and police informant) in a theatre in Kiev on 18 September 1911, Stolypin had grown weary of the burdens of office. For a man who preferred clear decisive action, working with a sovereign who believed in fatalism and mysticism was frustrating. As an example, Nicholas once returned a document unsigned with the note: "Despite most convincing arguments in favour of adopting a positive decision in this matter, an inner voice keeps on insisting more and more that I do not accept responsibility for it. So far my conscience has not deceived me. Therefore I intend in this case to follow its dictates. I know that you, too, believe that "a Tsar's heart is in God's hands". Let it be so. For all laws established by me I bear a great responsibility before God, and I am ready to answer for my decision at any time." [33] Alexandra believing that Stolypin had severed the bonds that her son depended on for life hated the Prime Minister. [34] In March 1911, in a fit of anger stating that he no longer commanded the imperial confidence, Stolypin asked to be relived of his office. Two years earlier when Stolypin had casually mentioned resigning to Nicholas he was informed, "This is not a question of confidence or lack of it. It is my will. Remember that we live in Russia, not abroad ... and therefore I shall not consider the possibility of any resignation." [35] Dmitry Grigoriyevich Bogrov (Russian: ) (1887 – 1911) (Hebrew:דמיטרי בורגרוב ) was the assassin of the Russian Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1912, a fourth Duma was elected with almost the same membership as the third. "The Duma started too fast. Now it is slower, but better, and more lasting." stated Nicholas to Sir Bernard Pares. [36]


The first world war was a complete and utter disaster for Russia. By the autumn of 1916, among the Romanov family desperation reached the point of which Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich, younger brother of Alexander III and the Tsar's only surviving uncle was deputed to beg Nicholas to grant a constitution and a government responsible to the Duma. Nicholas sternly refused, reproaching his uncle for asking him to break his coronation oath to maintain autocratic power intact for his successors. In the Duma on 2 December 1916, Purishkevich, a fervent patriot, monarchist and war worker denounced the dark forces which surrounded the throne in a thunderous two hour speech which was tumultuously applauded. 'Revolution' he warned 'and an obscure peasant shall govern Russia no longer'. [37]

Tsarevich Alexei's illness

Official photograph of Nicholas II taken in honor of the tercentenary celebrations of the rule of the Romanov Family in Russia. St Petersburg, 1913

Further complicating domestic matters was the matter of the succession. Alexandra bore him four daughters, Olga in 1895, Tatiana in 1897, Maria in 1899 and Anastasia in 1901, before their son Alexei was born on August 12, 1904. The young heir proved to be afflicted with hemophilia, a hereditary disease that prevents blood clotting properly, which at that time was untreatable and usually led to an untimely death. As a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, Alexandra carried the same gene mutation that afflicted several of the major European royal houses such as Spain and Prussia. Hemophilia therefore became known as "the royal disease". Alexandra had passed it on to her son. As all of Nicholas and Alexandra's daughters perished with their parents and brother in Ekaterinburg in 1918, it is not known whether any of them inherited the gene as carriers. Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke (Russian: ) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Russia, being the youngest child and the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... In biology, mutations are permanent, sometimes transmissible (if the change is to a germ cell) changes to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA). ... Haemophilia figured prominently in the history of European royalty. ...


Because of the fragility of the autocracy at this time, Nicholas and Alexandra chose not to divulge Alexei's condition to anyone outside the royal household. In fact, there were many in the Imperial household who were unaware of the exact nature of the Tsarevich's illness. They knew that he suffered from some serious malady; however, the exact nature of his suffering was not revealed to all.


At first Alexandra turned to Russian doctors and medics to treat Alexei; however, their treatments generally failed, and Alexandra increasingly turned to mystics and holy men. One of these, Grigori Rasputin, appeared to have some success. Rasputin redirects here. ...


As an absolute ruler (and father of four daughters until the birth of the Tsarevich in 1904) until 1905, Nicholas had the complete power to alter the Pauline Laws of Succession for the Russian Empire in order that his daughters could succeed to the throne. The Pauline Laws had been introduced by Tsar Paul I on the death of his mother, Empress Catherine II. Paul had introduced the laws more as a revenge on his mother than to regulate the succession. These laws prevented a woman becoming ruler of Russia unless all male line dynasts were no more. For reasons that remain unclear, Nicholas chose not to change or abolish the Pauline Laws. Paul I was the name of a number of rulers: Paul I of Constantinople Paul of Greece Paul I of Russia Pope Paul I Paul I, patriarch of Antioch Category: ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from...


World War I

House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Paul I
Children
   Alexander I
   Grand Duke Constantine
   Grand Duchess Alexandra
   Grand Duchess Elena
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Catherine
   Grand Duchess Olga
   Grand Duchess Anna
   Nicholas I
   Grand Duke Mikhail
Alexander I
Children
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Elizabeth
Nicholas I
Children
   Alexander II
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Olga
   Grand Duchess Alexandra
   Grand Duke Konstantine
   Grand Duke Nicholas
   Grand Duke Michael
Alexander II
Children
   Grand Duchess Alexandra
   Tsarevich Nicholas
   Alexander III
   Grand Duke Vladimir
   Grand Duke Alexei
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duke Sergei
   Grand Duke Paul
Alexander III
Children
   Nicholas II
   Grand Duke Alexander
   Grand Duke George
   Grand Duchess Xenia
   Grand Duke Michael
   Grand Duchess Olga
Nicholas II
Children
   Grand Duchess Olga
   Grand Duchess Tatiana
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Anastasia
   Tsarevich Alexei

Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serb nationalist association known as the Black Hand, in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, Nicholas vacillated as to Russia's course. The rising ideas of Pan-Slavism had led Russia to issue treaties of protection to Serbia. Nicholas wanted neither to abandon Serbia to the ultimatum of Austria-Hungary, nor to provoke a general war. In a series of letters exchanged with the German Kaiser (the so-called "Willy and Nicky correspondence") the two proclaimed their desire for peace, and each attempted to get the other to back down. Nicholas took stern measures in this regard, demanding that Russia's mobilization be only against the Austrian border, in the hopes of preventing war with the German Empire. The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia, (Russian: Великая княжна Александра Павловна) (St. ... This article is about the daughter of Paul I of Russia. ... Portrait of Maria Pavlovna, by Vladimir Borovikovsky. ... Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna of Russia (Tsarskoe Selo, 10 May 1788 – Stuttgart, 9 January 1819) was the fourth daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. ... Portrait of Jan Baptist van der Hulst, 1837. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia (Russian:Михаи́л Па́влович; Mikhail Pavlovich) (born St. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Olga of Russia (September 11, 1822 – October 30, 1892), later Queen Olga of Württemberg, was a member of the Russian Imperial Family who became the Queen consort of Württemberg. ... Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia. ... Grand Duke Konstantine Nikolaievich of Russia Grand Duke Konstantine Nikolaievich of Russia (September 9, 1827 – January 13, 1892) was the second son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. ... Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich of Russia Do not confuse with his son, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856-1929). ... Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia (October 13, 1832 - December 18, 1909) was the fourth son and seventh child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexandra Alexandrovna Romanov, Grand Duchess of Russia (August 30, 1842 - July 10, 1849) was born at Tsarskoe Selo to Alexander II of Russia and Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke of Russia (Russian: ) (20 September [O.S. 8 September] 1843 — 24 April [O.S. 12 April] 1865) was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Imperial Russia, from March 2, 1855 until his death in 1865. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Velikiy Knjaz Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, in Russian Владимир Александрович / Влади́мирович (22 April 1847 - 17 February 1909). ... The Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovitch Romanov of Russia (14 January 1850- 14 November 1908) was the sixth child and the fourth son of Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse). ... Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (later Duchess of Edinburgh and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; 17 October 1853 – 24 October 1920) was a daughter of Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress consort Marie of Hesse. ... Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov (April 29, 1857 - February 4, 1905, Old Style) was the seventh child and fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress-consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia (Павел Александрович) (October 3, 1860 N.S.–January 24, 1919 N.S.) was the eighth child of Tsar Alexander II of Russia by his first wife Maria Alexandrovna of Hesse. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch as a young man in the early 1890s Grand Duke George Alexandrovich Romanov, (In Russian Великий Князь Георгий Александрович Романов), (May 6, 1871 in Tsarskoe Selo - August 9, 1899 in Abbas Tuman, Caucasus) was the third son of Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Xenia of Russia (April 6, 1875 – April 20, 1960) was a member of the Russian Imperial Family. ... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (St. ... The flag of the House of Romanov Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (Russian: ; Olga Alexandrovna Romanova) (June 13, 1882–November 24, 1960) was the last Grand Duchess of Imperial Russia under the reign of her elder brother, Czar Nicholas II. Her father was the reformer of 19th century Russia... Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (Olga Nikolaevna Romanova) (in Russian Великая Княжна Ольга Николаевна; November 15 [O.S. November 3] 1895 – July 17, 1918) was the eldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of the Russian Empire, and of Empress Alexandra of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaievna of Russia (Tatiana Nikolaievna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Татьяна Николаевна), (May 29 (O.S.)/June 10 (N.S.), 1897 - July 17, 1918), was the second daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of Russia, and of Tsarina Alexandra. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (Maria Nikolaevna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Мария Николаевна), (June 14 (O.S.)/June 26 (N.S.), 1899 – July 17, 1918) was the third daughter of Nicholas II of Russia and Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, (Russian: (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 — July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke (Russian: ) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Russia, being the youngest child and the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and... For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ... Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, IPA: ) (July 25, 1894) – April 28, 1918) was an ethnic Serb, but later proclaimed to be a Yugoslav Nationalist[1], with links to a group known as the Mlada Bosna, who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. ... For other uses, see Black Hand (disambiguation). ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Willy and Nicky correspondence was the telegraphic communication between Kaiser Wilhelm II and Czar Nicholas II which took place on 29 July 1914, starting from 1:00 am. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...

The Russians had no contingency plans for a partial mobilization, and on 31 July 1914 Nicholas took the fateful step of confirming the order for a general mobilization. Nicholas was strongly counselled against mobilization of the Russian forces but chose to ignore such advice. As Germany and Austria-Hungary had mutual defense treaties in place, this led almost immediately to a German mobilization and declaration of war, and the outbreak of World War I. War was a great danger to the stability of the Romanov dynasty. Count Witte told the French Ambassador Paleologue that from Russia's point of view the war was madness, Slav solidarity was simply nonsense and Russia could hope for nothing from the war. [38] is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The outbreak of war on 1 August 1914 found Russia grossly unprepared. Russia and her allies placed their faith in her army, the famous 'Russian steamroller'. [39] Its pre-war regular strength was 1,400,000; mobilisation added 3,100,000 resevers and millions more stood ready behind them. In every other respect, however, Russia was unprepared for war. Germany had ten times as much railway track per square mile and whereas Russian soldiers travelled an average of 800 miles to reach the front, German soldiers travelled less than a quarter of that distance. Russian heavy industry was still too small to equip the massive armies the Tsar could raise and her reserves of munitions were pitifully small. With the Baltic Sea barred by German U-boats and the Dardenelles by the guns of her former ally Turkey, Russia could receive help only via Archangel wgucg was frozen solid in winter, or Vladivostock, which was over 4,000 miles from the front line. The Russian High Command was moreover greatly weakened by the mutual contempt between Sukhomlinov, the ineffectual Minister of War, and the redoubtable warrior giant Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich who commanded the armies in the field. [40] In spite of all of this, an immediate attack was ordered against the German province of East Prussia. The Germans mobilized there with great efficiency and completely defeated the two Russian armies which had invaded. The Battle of Tannenberg where an entire Russian army was annihilated cast an ominous shadow over the empire's future. The loyal officers lost were the very ones needed to protect the dynasty. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Combatants  Russian Empire  German Empire Commanders Alexander Samsonov, Paul von Rennenkampf Paul von Hindenburg, Erich Ludendorff Strength 190,000 150,000 Casualties 30,000 killed or wounded; 95,000 captured 20,000 The Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 was a decisive engagement between the Russian Empire and the German Empire...


The Russian armies later had considerable success against both the Austro-Hungarian armies and against the forces of the Ottoman Empire. They never succeeded against the might of the German army. Ottoman redirects here. ...


Gradually a war of attrition set in on the vast Eastern Front, where the Russians were facing the combined forces of the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, and they suffered staggering losses. General Deniken, retreating from Galicia wrote, "The German heavy artillery swept away whole lines of trenches, and their defenders with them. We hardly replied. There was nothing with which we could reply. Our regiments, although completely exhausted, were beating off one attack after another by bayonet .... Blood flowed unendingly, the ranks became thinner and thinner and thinner. The number of graves multiplied. [41] Total losses for the spring and summer of 1915 amounted to 1,400,000 killed or wounded, while 976,000 had been taken prisoner. On 5 August with the army in retreat, Warsaw fell. Defeat at the front bred disorder at home. At first the targets were German and for three days in June shops, bakeries, factories, private houses and country estates belonging to people with German names were looted and burned. Then the inflamed mmobs turned on the government declaring the Empress should be shut up in a convent, the Tsar deposed and Rasputin hanged. Nicholas was by no means deaf to these discontents. An emergency session of the Duma was summoned and a Special Defence Council established, its members drawn from the Duma and the Tsar's ministers. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


In July 1915, King Christian X of Denmark, first cousin of the Tsar, sent Hans Niels Andersen to Tsarskoe Selo with an offer to act as a mediator. He made several trips between London, Berlin and Petrograd and in July saw the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. Andersen told her they should conclude peace. Nicholas chose to turn down King Christian's offer of mediation. [42] Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ...

The energetic and efficient General Polivanov replaced Sukhomlinov as Minister of War. The situation did not improve and the retreat however continued and Nicholas urged on by Alexandra and feeling that it was his duty, and that his personal presence would inspire his troops, decided to lead his army directly yet again against advice given. [43] He assumed the role of commander-in-chief after dismissing his cousin from that position, the highly respected and experienced Nikolai Nikolaevich (September 1915) following the loss of the Russian Kingdom of Poland. This was a fatal mistake as he was now directly associated as commander-in-chief with all subsequent losses. He was also away at the remote HQ at Mogilev, far from the direct governance of the empire, and when revolution broke out in St Petersburg he was unable to prevent it being so cut-off from his government. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ...


His efforts to oversee the war left domestic issues essentially in the hands of Alexandra. As a German she was extremely unpopular. The Duma was constantly calling for political reforms. Political unrest continued throughout the war. Cut off from public opinion, Nicholas refused to see how tired the people were of his dynasty and how much the common people hated his wife. He had been repeatedly warned about the destructive influence of Grigori Rasputin but had failed to remove him. Nicholas had refused to censor the press and wild rumours and accusations about Alexandra and Rasputin appeared almost daily. Alexandra was even brought under allegations of treason due to her German roots. Anger at Nicholas's failure to act and the extreme damage that Rasputin's influence was doing to Russia's war effort and to the monarchy led to his (Rasputin's) murder by a group of nobles, led by Prince Felix Yusupov and Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, a cousin of the Tsar, on 16 December 1916. Rasputin redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

End of reign

There was mounting hardship as the government failed to produce supplies, creating massive riots and rebellions. With Nicholas away at the front in 1915, authority appeared to collapse (Empress Alexandra ran the government from Saint Petersburg from 1915 - initially with Rasputin, who was later assassinated), and St. Petersburg was left in the hands of strikers and mutineering conscript soldiers. Despite efforts by the British Ambassador Sir George Buchanan to warn the Tsar that he should grant constitutional reforms to fend-off revolution, Nicholas continued to bury himself away at the Staff HQ (Stavka) 400 miles (600 km) away at Moghilev, leaving his capital and court open to intrigues and insurrection. Sir George William Buchanan, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, PC was born in Copenhagen in 1854. ...


By the spring of 1917, Russia was on the verge of total collapse. The army had taken 15 million men from the farms and food prices had soared. An egg cost four times what it had in 1914, butter five times as much. The severe winter dealt with railways, overburdened by emergency shipments of coal and supplies, the final blow. Russia began the war with 20,000 locomotives; by 1917 9,000 were in service, while the number of serviceable railway wagons had dwindled from half a million to 170,000. In February 1917, 1,200 locomotives burst their boilers and nearly 60,000 wagons were immobilised. In Petrograd supplies of flour and fuel all but disappeared. [44]

The last known photograph of Nicholas II, taken after his abdication in March 1917
The last known photograph of Nicholas II, taken after his abdication in March 1917

In February 1917 in Petrograd (as the capital had been renamed) a combination of very severe cold weather allied with acute food shortages caused people to start to break shop windows to get bread and other necessaries. In the streets red banners appeared and the crowds chanted 'Down with the German woman!' Down with Protopopov! Down with the war!' [45] Police started to shoot at the populace from rooftops which incited riots. The troops in the capital were poorly-motivated and their officers had no reason to be loyal to the regime. They were angry and full of revolutionary fervor and sided with the populace. The Tsar's Cabinet begged Nicholas to return to the capital and offered to resign completely. Five hundred miles away the Tsar, misinformed by Protopopov that the situation was under control, ordered that firm steps be taken against the demonstrators. For this task the Petrograd garrison was quite unsuitable. The cream of the old regular army lay in their graves in Poland and Galicia. In Petrograd 170,000 recruits, country boys or older men from the working-class suburbs of the capital itself, remained to keep control under the command of wounded officers invalided from the front, and cadets from the miliary academies. Many units, lacking both officers and rifles, had never undergone formal training. General Khabalov attempted to put the Tsar's instructions into effect on the morning of Sunday, 11 March 1917. Despite huge posters ordering people to keep off the streets, vast crowds gathered and were only dispersed after some 200 had been shot dead, though a company of the Volinsky Regiment fired into the air rather than into the mob, and a company of the Pavlovsky Life Guards shot the officer who gave the command to open fire. Nicholas informed of the situation by Rodzianko ordered reinforcements to the capital and suspended the Duma. [46] It was all too late. On 12 March the Volinsky regiment mutinied and was quickly followed by the Semonovsky, the Ismailovsky, the Litovsky and even the legendary Preobrajensky Guard, the oldest and staunchest regiment founded by Peter the Great. The arsenal was pillaged, the Ministry of the Interior, Military Government building, police headquarters, the Law Courts and a score of police buildings were put to the torch. By noon the fortress of Peter and Paul with its heavy artillery was in the hands of the insurgents. By nightfall 60,000 soldiers had joined the revolution. [47] Order broke down and members of the Parliament (Duma) formed a Provisional Government to try to restore order but it was impossible to turn the tide of revolutionary change. Already the Duma and the Soviet had formed the nucleus of a Provisional Government and decided that Nicholas must abdicate. Faced with this demand, which was echoed by his generals, deprived of loyal troops, with his family firmly in the hands of the Provisional Government and fearful of unleashing civil war and opening the way for German conquest, Nicholas had no choice but to submit. At the end of the "February Revolution" of 1917 (February in the Old Russian Calendar), on 2 March (Julian Calendar)/ 15 March (Gregorian Calendar), 1917, Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. He firstly abdicated in favour of Tsarevich Alexis, but swiftly changed his mind after advice from doctors that the heir would not live long apart from his parents who would be forced into exile. Nicholas drew up a new manifesto naming his brother, Grand Duke Michael, as the next Emperor of all the Russias. He issued the following statement (which was suppressed by the Provisional Government): Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for nearly three years have tried to enslave our fatherland, the Lord God has been pleased to send down on Russia a new heavy trial. Internal popular disturbances threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war. The destiny of Russia, the honor of our heroic army, the welfare of the people and the whole future of our dear fatherland demand that the war should be brought to a victorious conclusion whatever the cost. The cruel enemy is making his last efforts, and already the hour approaches when our glorious army together with our gallant allies will crush him. In these decisive days in the life of Russia, We thought it Our duty of conscience to facilitate for Our people the closest union possible and a consolidation of all national forces for the speedy attainment of victory. In agreement with the Imperial Duma We have thought it well to renounce the Throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the supreme power. As We do not wish to part from Our beloved son, We transmit the succession to Our brother, the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, and give Him Our blessing to mount the Throne of the Russian Empire. We direct Our brother to conduct the affairs of state in full and inviolable union with the representatives of the people in the legislative bodies on those principles which will be established by them, and on which He will take an inviolable oath.

In the name of Our dearly beloved homeland, We call on Our faithful sons of the fatherland to fulfill their sacred duty to the fatherland, to obey the tsar in the heavy moment of national trials, and to help Him, together with the representatives of the people, to guide the Russian Empire on the road to victory, welfare, and glory. May the Lord God help Russia!

Grand Duke Mikhail declined to accept the throne until the people were allowed to vote through a Constituent Assembly for the continuance of the monarchy or a republic. Contrary to popular belief, Mikhail never abdicated, he deferred taking up power.The abdication of Nicholas II and the subsequent bolshevik revolution brought three centuries of the Romanov dynasty's rule to an end. It also paved the way for massive destruction of Russian culture with the closure and demolition of many churches and monasteries, the theft of valuables and estates from the former aristocracy and monied classes and the suppression of religious and folk art forms. Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаил Александрович Романов), sometimes called mistakenly calledTsar Michael IV (November 22, 1878 (O.S.) - about June 12, 1918) was the son of Tsar Alexander III of Russia, and brother of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. ...


The fall of autocratic Tsardom brought joy to Liberals and Socialists in England and France and made it possible for the United States of America, the first foreign government to recognise the Provisional government, to enter the war early in April fighting in an alliance of democracies against an alliance of empires. In Russia the announcement of the Tsar's abdication was greeted with many emotions. These included delight, relief, fear, anger and confusion. [48]


Exile and execution

Photograph by the Levitsky Company of the last Russian Imperial Family. Clockwise from top: the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, the Grand Duchess Anastasia, the Tsarevich Alexei, the Grand Duchess Tatiana, Tsar Nicholas II, the Grand Duchess Olga, and the Grand Duchess Maria. Livadia, 1913

On 22 March 1917,Nicholas, Tsar no longer, referred to contemptuously by the sentries as 'Nicholas Romanov' was reunited with his family at the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo. [49] He was placed under house arrest with his family by the Provisional Government. Surrounded by his guards, confined to their quarters, the Imperial family was rudely inspected on Nicholas's first night back at home. [50] The same night a band of soldiers broke into Rasputin's tomb and, lifting the putrefying corpse with sticks, flung it onto a pyre of logs and drenched it with petrol. The body burned for six hours as Rasputin's ashes were scattered by the icy winds. [51] The ex-Tsar remained calm and dignified and even insisted on the children resuming their lesson with himself as tutor in history and geography. Through the newspapers he took a keen interest in the progress of the war, but he could not help reading also how the press now gleefully printed lurid stories about Rasputin and the Empress, the 'confessions' of former servants and the private lives of the self-styled 'lovers' of the Tsar's four daughters. [52] View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ...

In August 1917 the Kerensky government evacuated the Romanovs to Tobolsk in the Urals, allegedly to protect them from the rising tide of revolution. There they lived in the former Governor's Mansion in considerable comfort. Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... View of Tobolsk in the 1910s Tobolsk (Russian: ; Tatar: Tubıl) is a historic capital of Siberia, now an ordinary town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia. ... Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood. ...


After the Bolsheviks came to power in October 1917, the conditions of their imprisonment grew stricter and talk of putting Nicholas on trial grew more frequent. Nicholas followed the events in October with interest but as yet no alarm. He continued to underestimate Lenin's importance but already began to feel that his abdication had done Russia more harm than good. In the meantime he and his family occuppied themselves with keeping warm. The temperature in December dropped to 68oF below zero. Soviet domination now meant more spiteful restrictions. The Tsar was forbidden to wear epaulettes and the sentries scrawled lewd drawings on the fence to offend his daughters. On 1 March 1918, the family was placed on soldier's rations, which meant parting with ten devoted servants and giving up butter and coffee as luxuries. What kept the family going was the belief that help was at hand. [53] As the counterrevolutionary White movement gathered strength, leading to full-scale civil war by the summer, Nicholas, Alexandra and their daughter Maria were moved in April to Yekaterinburg. Alexis was too ill to accompany his parents and remained with his sisters Olga, Tatiana and Anastasia, not leaving Tobolsk until May 1918. The family was imprisoned with a few remaining retainers in the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, a militant Bolshevik stronghold. Nicholas, Alexandra, their children, their physician, and three servants were woken and taken into a basement room and shot at 2:33 A.M. on July 17. An official announcement appeared in the national press two days after the killing of the tsar and his family. It informed that the monarch had been executed on the order of the Presidium of the Ural Regional Soviet under pressure posed by the approach of the Czechoslovaks. [54] Whether this was on direct orders from Vladimir Lenin in Moscow (as many believe, though scholarly research has found no hard evidence), or an option approved in Moscow should White troops approach Yekaterinburg, or at the initiative of local Bolsheviks, remains in dispute, as does whether the order (if there was an order) was for the execution of Nicholas alone or the entire family and the others. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... White Army redirects here. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lenin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ...

In 1989, the report of Yakov Yurovsky, the chief executioner, was published. According to the report, the execution took place as units of the Czechoslovak Legion, making their retreat out of Russia, approached Yekaterinburg. Fearing that the Legion would take the town and free him, the Emperor's Bolshevik jailers liquidated the Imperial Family, arguing that there was "no turning back".[55] The telegram giving the order on behalf of the Supreme Soviet in Moscow was signed by Yakov Sverdlov, after whom the town was subsequently renamed, Sverdlovsk. Nicholas was the first to die. He was shot with multiple bullets to the head and chest. The last ones to die were Anastasia, Tatiana, Olga, and Maria, who were wearing several pounds (over 1.3 kilogrammes) of diamonds within their clothing, thus rendering them bullet-resistant to an extent.[56] They were speared with bayonets. [57] Yakov Yurovsky Yakov (Yankel) Mikhailovich Yurovsky (June 19 [O.S. June 7] 1878 in Tomsk, Siberia, Russia – before 2 August 1938 in Moscow) is best known as the chief executioner of Russias last emperor Tsar Nicholas and his family after the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Yakov Sverdlov Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov (Russian: Я́ков Миха́йлович Свердло́в), born Yankel Movshevich Eiman (Russian: Я́нкель Мовшевич Эйман); known under pseudonyms Andrey, Mikhalych, Max, Smirnov, Permyakov (June 3 [O.S. May 22] 1885 – March 16, 1919) was a Bolshevik party leader and an official of pre-Soviet Union Soviet Russia. ...

Yekaterinburg's "Church on the Blood", built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood. The lare sculpture in front of the church depicts the royal family
Yekaterinburg's "Church on the Blood", built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood. The lare sculpture in front of the church depicts the royal family

Ivan Plotnikov, History Professor at the Ural State University "M.Gorky", has established that the execution squad comprised the following members: Y.M.Yurovsky, G.P.Nikulin, M.A.Medvedev (Kudrin), P.Z.Yermakov, S.P.Vaganov, A.G.Kabanov, P.S.Medvedev, V.N.Netrebin, and Y.M.Tselms. All were Russians with the exception of Tselms, who was Latvian. Three other Latvians refused at the last minute to take part in the execution.[58] Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 429 KB)Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood File links The following pages link to this file: Yekaterinburg Categories: Images with unknown source ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 429 KB)Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood File links The following pages link to this file: Yekaterinburg Categories: Images with unknown source ... Church on Blood in Honor of All Saints Resplendent in the Russian Land in Yekaterinburg. ...


The bodies of Nicholas and his family, after being soaked in acid and burned, were long believed to have been disposed of down a mineshaft at a site called the Four Brothers. Initially, this was true — they had indeed been disposed of there on the night of July 17. The following morning — when rumours spread in Yekaterinburg regarding the disposal site — Yurovsky removed the bodies and concealed them elsewhere. When the vehicle carrying the bodies broke down on the way to the next chosen site, Yurovsky made new arrangements, and buried most of the bodies in a sealed and concealed pit on Koptyaki Road, a cart track (now abandoned) 12 miles (19 km) north of Yekaterinburg. The remains of all the family and their retainers with the exception of two of the children were later found in 1991 and reburied by the Russian government following a state funeral. The process to identify the remains was exhaustive. Samples were sent to Britain and the United States for DNA testing. The tests concluded that five of the skeletons were members of one family and four were unrelated. Three of the five were determined to be the children of two parents. The mother was linked to the British royal family, as was Alexandra. (Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, grandson of Alexandra's oldest sister Victoria, Marchioness of Milford-Haven, gave a DNA sample which matched with that of the remains) The father was determined to be related to Grand Duke George Alexandrovich, younger brother of Nicholas II. British scientists said they were more than 98.5% sure that the remains were those of the Emperor, his family and their attendants. Relics from the Ōtsu Scandal (a failed assassination attempt on Tsarevich Nicholas (future Nicholas II) in Japan) failed to provide sufficient evidence due to contamination. is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch as a young man in the early 1890s Grand Duke George Alexandrovich Romanov, (In Russian Великий Князь Георгий Александрович Романов), (May 6, 1871 in Tsarskoe Selo - August 9, 1899 in Abbas Tuman, Caucasus) was the third son of Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. ... Nicholas II The ÅŒtsu Scandal ) was a failed assassination attempt on Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich of Russia (later Tsar Nicholas II, now Saint Nicholas The Passion Bearer ) on 11 May 1891, while Nicholas was visiting Japan during his eastern journey. ...

A ceremony of Christian burial was held 80 years to the day of their death in 1998. The bodies were laid to rest with state honors in the St. Catherine Chapel in the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral in Fortress of St. Peter and St. Paul in St. Petersburg, where all other Russian Emperors since Peter the Great lie. President and Mrs. Yeltsin attended the funeral along with Romanov relations including Prince Michael of Kent. The last Imperial Family of Russia have been made saints not only by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad but also by Patriarch Alexis II of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow.

Missing Tsarevich and Grand Duchess

Two skeletons were not found — Alexei, his teenage son and heir to the throne; and one of his daughters, either Maria, Tatiana, or Anastasia (the three principal investigators of the remains — Alexander Avdonin, Sergei Abramov, and William Maples — are not in agreement concerning the identity of this daughter of Tsar Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra). In an article in The Sunday Telegraph, 19 April 1998, Avdonin, who found the bones of the rest of the family, stated that the missing bodies were at another site near the main grave. He claimed that the Bolsheviks experimented with the two bodies (Alexei and his sister) to completely destroy the corpses after burning by crushing the bones to powder. Despite these assertions, the remains of Alexei and his sister are alleged to have been discovered by a search party in August 2007, although conclusive DNA testing has not yet been performed on the remains.[1] William Ross Maples, Ph. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ...


The Bolshevik executioners did not have enough time to treat the rest of the bodies in the same way, hence the survival of their remains. Avdonin believes that, as the remains are so fragmentary, "probably only a few bones - possibly only some dust and ash" - they should be left in peace. Anna Anderson received worldwide notoriety before the bodies were even found when rumours spread that she was claiming to be Grand Duchess Anastasia, the alleged sole survivor of the execution. Hollywood has made films based on this. Anna Anderson helped to fuel these rumours and gained a high degree of notoriety through her claims to be Anastasia. Her supporters alleged she knew information about the Romanovs that only an intimate member of the family would know. However, DNA testing on Anna Anderson's remains proved she was an imposter. According to that DNA testing, she was most likely a missing Polish factory worker, Franziska Schanzkowska. Anastasia Manahan, usually known as Anna Anderson [1] (c. ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, (Russian: (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 — July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here Anna Anderson Anastasia Manahan (her official name in later life), usually known as...


During the interment of the bones in 1998, the remains were referred to by the Russian Orthodox Church as 'Christian victims of the Revolution' rather than as the royal family. One reason for this dispute was the absence of any mark from the Ōtsu Scandal, an assassination attempt which resulted in a 9 centimeter cut from a saber to Nicholas's forehead during a visit to Japan as the tsarevich. Tests done by Japanese scientists showed that the blood of Nicholas's nephew Tikhon did not match with the published profile of Nicholas obtained by Dr Gill. A Stanford study done in 2003 suggested contamination.[59] The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Nicholas II The ÅŒtsu Scandal ) was a failed assassination attempt on Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich of Russia (later Tsar Nicholas II, now Saint Nicholas The Passion Bearer ) on 11 May 1891, while Nicholas was visiting Japan during his eastern journey. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...


On August 23, 2007, prosecutors acting on standard procedures have reopened the investigation surrounding the deaths of the Imperial Family. Yekaterinburg researcher Sergei Pogorelov said that "bones found in a burned area of ground near Yekaterinburg belong to a boy and a young woman roughly the ages of Nicholas’ 13-year-old hemophiliac son, Alexei, and a daughter whose remains also never have been found." A regional forensics scientist, Nikolai Nevolin explained that testing will be conducted on the newly discovered remains.[60] On 28 September it was announced by the regional authorities that it was "highly probable" the remains belonged to Alexei and one of his sisters.[61] {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ancestors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Paul I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Nicholas I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Sophie Dorothea of Württemburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Alexander II of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Frederick William III of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Charlotte of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Alexander III of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Charles Louis of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Wilhelmine of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Nicholas II of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Friederike von Schlieben
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Christian IX of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Charles of Hesse-Kassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Princess Louise of Denmark and Norway
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Dagmar of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Prince Frederick of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Prince William of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Princess Caroline Polyxene of Nassau-Usingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Louise of Hesse-Kassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and Norway
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 

Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Roslins portrait of Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, with the Pavlovsk Palace in the background. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Palace of Peterhoff Alexandra Feodorovna, born Charlotte, Princess of Prusia, July 13, 1798 - November 1, 1860) was Empress consort of Russia . ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse (14 June 1753, Prenzlau – 6 April 1830, Darmstadt) was Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (as Louis X) and later the first Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Louis II (26 December 1777, Darmstadt – 16 June 1848, Darmstadt) was Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 1830 until his death. ... Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (8 August 1824 - 8 June 1880) was a princess of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and, as Maria Alexandrovna (in Russian Мария Александровна), Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden (February 14, 1755 in Karlsruhe--December 16, 1801 in Arboga, Sweden) was heir-apparent of the Margraviate of Baden. ... Princess Wilhelmina of Baden Wilhelmine of Baden (September 21, 1788 – January 27, 1836) was Grand Duchess of Hesse and the Rhine. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (August 20, 1757 - April 24, 1816) , was the son of Karl Anton August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, and Friederike von Dohna-Schlobitten. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Charles of Hesse-Kassel (German: ) (19 December 1744 – 17 August 1836) was not ruling Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. ... Luise Caroline, Princess of Hesse-Kassel (28 September 1789 – 13 March 1867) was the consort of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and the matriarch of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. ... Louise, Princess of Denmark and Norway (January 30, 1750 - January 12, 1831) was the daughter of King Frederik V and Princess Louise, daughter of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach. ... Maria Feodorovna, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark (November 26, 1847–October 13, 1928) was Empress Consort of Russia. ... Prince Frederick of Hesse (11 September 1747 – 20 May 1837) was a younger member of the dynasty that ruled the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel and a Danish general. ... Prince William of Hesse-Kassel Prince William of Hesse-Kassel (24 December 1787 – 5 September 1867), son of Friedrich, Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel and Karoline of Nassau-Usingen. ... Louise of Hesse-Cassel, Luise Wilhelmine Friederike Caroline Auguste Julie von Hessen-Kassel (in Danish, Louise Wilhelmine Frederikke Caroline Auguste Julie), b Kassel 7 Sep 1817, d Bernstorff 29 Sep 1898, was a daughter of ancient German princely family, the Landgraves of Hesse, and became Queen of Denmark, being the... Frederick (Danish: Frederik) (October 11, 1753, Copenhagen - December 7, 1805 Copenhagen), was a Hereditary Prince of Denmark and Norway. ... Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark (30 October 1789 — 28 March 1864) was a princess of Denmark. ... Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (24 August 1758 — 29 November 1794), in Danish Sophie Frederikke of Mecklenburg, was a Princess and Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. ...

Patrilineal descent

Nicholas's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.


Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if Nicholas II were to have chosen an historically accurate house name it would have been Oldenburg, as all his male-line ancestors were of that house. Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ...


House of Oldenburg

  1. Egilmar I of Lerigau, dates unknown
  2. Egilmar II of Lerigau, d. 1142
  3. Christian I of Oldenburg, d. 1167
  4. Moritz of Oldenburg, d. 1209
  5. Christian II of Oldenburg, d. 1233
  6. John I, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1275
  7. Christian III, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1285
  8. John II, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1314
  9. Conrad I, Count of Oldenburg, 1300 - 1347
  10. Christian V, Count of Oldenburg, 1340 - 1423
  11. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg, 1398 - 1440
  12. Christian I of Denmark, 1426 - 1481
  13. Frederick I of Denmark, 1471 - 1533
  14. Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1526 - 1586
  15. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1575 - 1616
  16. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1597 - 1659
  17. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1641 - 1695
  18. Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1671 - 1702
  19. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1700 - 1739
  20. Peter III of Russia, 1728 - 1762
  21. Paul I of Russia, 1754 - 1801, putative father of
  22. Nicholas I of Russia, 1796 - 1855
  23. Alexander II of Russia, 1818 - 1881
  24. Alexander III of Russia, 1845 - 1894
  25. Nicholas II of Russia, 1868 - 1918

Count Christian V of Oldenburg, (d. ... Derrick or Dietrich of Oldenburg, latin-based anglicization also Theoderic of Oldenburg (c. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... Duke Adolf in the cuirass, paimting by a unknown author, 1586 Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (25 January 1526 – 1 October 1586) was the first Duke of Holstein-Gottorp from the line of Holstein-Gottorp of the House of Oldenburg. ... Johann Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (27 February 1575 – 31 March 1616) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (22 December 1597 – 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Duke Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp (3 February 1641, Gottorp – 6 January 1695, Gottorp) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and bishop of Lübeck. ... Duke Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp (18 October 1671 – 19 July 1702) was Duke of Schleswig. ... Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (German: ), (1700-1739) was the son of Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Hedvig Sophia of Sweden. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ...

Issue

The children of Nicholas II and empress Alexandra as follows:

Name Birth Death Notes
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna November 15 [O.S. November 3] 1895 July 17, 1918 shot at Yekaterinberg by the Bolsheviks
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna June 10 [O.S. May 29] 1897 July 17, 1918 shot at Yekaterinberg by the Bolsheviks
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna June 26 [O.S. June 14] 1899 July 17, 1918 shot at Yekaterinberg by the Bolsheviks
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 July 17, 1918 shot at Yekaterinberg by the Bolsheviks
Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexei August 12 [O.S. July 30] 1904 July 17, 1918 shot at Yekaterinberg by the Bolsheviks

Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (Olga Nikolaevna Romanova) (in Russian Великая Княжна Ольга Николаевна; November 15 [O.S. November 3] 1895 – July 17, 1918) was the eldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of the Russian Empire, and of Empress Alexandra of Russia. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaievna of Russia (Tatiana Nikolaievna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Татьяна Николаевна), (May 29 (O.S.)/June 10 (N.S.), 1897 - July 17, 1918), was the second daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of Russia, and of Tsarina Alexandra. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (Maria Nikolaevna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Мария Николаевна), (June 14 (O.S.)/June 26 (N.S.), 1899 – July 17, 1918) was the third daughter of Nicholas II of Russia and Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, (Russian: (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 — July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke (Russian: ) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Russia, being the youngest child and the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Sainthood

The saints of the Romanov family
Main article: Romanov sainthood

In 1981 Nicholas and his immediate family were canonized as saints by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia as martyrs. On 14 August 2000 they were canonized by the synod of the Russian Orthodox Church. They were not named martyrs, since their death did not result immediately from their Christian faith; instead they were canonized as passion bearers. According to a statement by the Moscow synod, they were glorified as saints for the following reasons: Image File history File links Romanovsaints. ... Image File history File links Romanovsaints. ... Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, his wife Tsarina Alexandra, and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei are saints of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and passion bearers of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian: , ), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... A passion-bearer is one who faces his death in a Christ-like manner. ...

In the last Orthodox Russian monarch and members of his family we see people who sincerely strove to incarnate in their lives the commands of the Gospel. In the suffering borne by the Royal Family in prison with humility, patience, and meekness, and in their martyrs deaths in Ekaterinburg in the night of 4/17 July 1918 was revealed the light of the faith of Christ that conquers evil.

is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ In 1831 the Russian tsars were deposed from the Polish throne, but they soon took control of the country as part of Russia and abolished the separate monarchy. However, they continued to use the title. See November Uprising.
  2. ^ Nicholas's full title was We, Nicholas the Second, by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, King of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Tauric Chersonesos, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, of Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria, and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhny Novgorod, Chernigov; Sovereign of Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all the northern territories; and Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories; Hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Cherkass and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.
  3. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.38
  4. ^ Vorres, I, The Last Grand Duchess p.23-24
  5. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.36
  6. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.36
  7. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.37-38
  8. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.39
  9. ^ <Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.39
  10. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.40
  11. ^ Feinstein, Elaine (2006). Excerpt from Anna of All the Russias. Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-3378-2.
  12. ^ Princess Catherine Radziwill - Nicholas II, The Last of the Tsars, p.100.
  13. ^ Greg King - The Court of The Last Tsar, p.76.
  14. ^ Lyons, M, Nicholas II, The Last Tsar, p.116
  15. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.123
  16. ^ Vorres, I, The Last Grand Duchess, p.120
  17. ^ Vorres, I, Nicholas and Alexandra, p. 120
  18. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.124
  19. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.125
  20. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.124-125
  21. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.125
  22. ^ Vorres, I, The Last Grand Duchess, p.121
  23. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.125
  24. ^ Vorres, I, The Last Grand Duchess, p.121
  25. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.242
  26. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.242
  27. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.243
  28. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.244
  29. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.245
  30. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.245
  31. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.246
  32. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.247
  33. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.247
  34. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.247
  35. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.248
  36. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.246
  37. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.49
  38. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.43
  39. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.42
  40. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.42
  41. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.46
  42. ^ Hall, C, Little Mother of Russia, p.264
  43. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.46
  44. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.52
  45. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.52
  46. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.53
  47. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.53
  48. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.55
  49. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.56
  50. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.56
  51. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.56
  52. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.57
  53. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.62
  54. ^ The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution By Mark D. Steinberg, Vladimir M. Khrustal̀eev, Vladimir M. Chrustaľov
  55. ^ Leon Trotsky diary, April 1935 as quoted by Daniels, Peter (2003-12-27). An exchange on Bolshevism and revolutionary violence. World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  56. ^ Massie, R, The Romanovs The Final Chapter, p.8
  57. ^ Massie, R, The Romanovs The Final Chapter, p.6
  58. ^ http//magazines.russ.ru/ural/2003/9/plotnik.html
  59. ^ Stanford University.
  60. ^ Probe reopened into death of last Russian czar.
  61. ^ "Lost Romanov bones 'identified'", BBC News, 2007-09-28. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 

Mieszko I. BolesÅ‚aw I Chrobry. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... 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Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Zemgale (also historically known as Semigallia or Semigalia) forms an historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including a part of Lithuania. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a territory formerly known as Yugra Yugra (Russian: ) was the name of the lands between the Pechora River and Northern Urals in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th centuries, as well as the name of the Khanty and partly Mansi tribes inhabiting these territories. ... Location Position of Perm in Russia Government Country Federal district Federal subject Russia Volga Federal District Perm Krai Mayor Igor Nikolayevich Shubin Geographical characteristics Area  - City    - Land    - Water 799. ... 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Books, letters and articles

  • The Sokolov Report, in Victor Alexandrov, "The End of The Romanovs", London: 1966
  • Boris Antonov, Russian Tsars, St.Petersburg, Ivan Fiodorov Art Publishers (ISBN 5-93893-109-6)
  • Paul Grabbe, "The Private World of the Last Tsar" New York: 1985
  • Ferro, Marc, Nicholas II: Last of the Tsars. New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 1993 (hardcover, ISBN 0-19-508192-7); 1995 (paperback, ISBN 0-19-509382-8)
  • Genrikh Ioffe, Revoliutsiia i sud'ba Romanovykh Moscow: Respublika, 1992 (Russian)
  • Coryne Hall & John Van der Kiste, Once A Grand Duchess : Xenia, Sister of Nicholas II, Phoenix Mill, Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2002 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7509-2749-6)
  • Greg King, The Court of the Last Tsar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II 2006
  • Greg King and Penny Wilson, "The Fate of the Romanovs" 2003
  • Dominic Lieven, Nicholas II: Emperor of All the Russias. 1993.
  • Andrei Maylunas and Sergei Mironenko, A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas & Alexandra 1999
  • Marvin Lyons, Nicholas II The Last Tsar, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974 (hardcover, ISBN 0 7100 7802 1)
  • Shay McNeal, "The Secret Plot to Save the Tsar" 2001
  • Robert K. Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra 1967
  • Robert K. Massie, The Romanovs. The Final Chapter 1995, ISBN-10 0394580486
  • Bernard Pares, "The Fall of the Russian Monarchy" London: 1939, reprint London: 1988
  • John Perry and Konstantin Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs. 1999.
  • Edvard Radzinsky, The Last Tsar: The Life and Death of Nicholas II (1992) ISBN 0-385-42371-3
  • Mark D. Steinberg and Vladimir M. Khrustalev, The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
  • Anthony Summers and Tom Mangold, The File on the Tsar. 1976.
  • Richard Tames, Last of the Tsars, London, Pan Books Ltd, 1972
  • Andrew M. Verner, The Crisis of the Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution 1990
  • Ian Vorres, The Last Grand Duchess, London, Finedawn Publishers, 1985 (hardcover)
  • Richard Wortman, Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy, vol. 2 2000
  • Prince Felix Yusupov, Lost Splendour
  • Elisabeth Heresch, "Nikolaus II. Feigheit, Lüge und Verrat". F.A.Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung, München, 1992
  • The Complete Wartime Correspondence of Tsar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra, April 1914 – March 1917. Edited by Joseph T. Furhmann Fuhrmann. Westport, Conn. and London: 1999
  • Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie Ed. Edward J. Bing. London: 1937
  • Letters of the Tsar to the Tsaritsa, 1914–1917 Trans. from Russian translations from the original English. E. L. Hynes. London and New York: 1929.
  • Nicky-Sunny Letters: correspondence of the Tsar and Tsaritsa, 1914–1917. Hattiesburg, Miss: 1970.
  • The Secret Letters of the Last Tsar: Being the Confidential Correspondence between Nicholas II and his Mother, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. Ed. Edward J. Bing. New York and Toronto: 1938
  • Willy-Nicky Correspondence: Being the Secret and Intimate Telegrams Exchanged Between the Kaiser and the Tsar. Ed. Herman Bernstein. New York: 1917.
  • Paul Benckendorff, Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo. London: 1927
  • Sophie Buxhoeveden, The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress of Russia: A Biography London: 1928
  • Pierre Gilliard, Thirteen Years at the Russian Court New York: 1921
  • A. A. Mossolov (Mosolov), At the Court of the Last Tsar London: 1935
  • Anna Vyrubova, Memories of the Russian Court London: 1923
  • A.Yarmolinsky, editor, "The Memoirs of Count Witte" New York & Toronto: 1921
  • Sir George Buchanan (British Ambassador) My Mission to Russia & Other Diplomatic Memories (2 vols, Cassell, 1923)
  • Meriel Buchanan, Dissolution of an Empire, Cassell, 1932

Gleb Botkin, The Real Romanovs, Fleming H. Revell Co, 1931 John Van der Kiste, author, was born in Wendover, Buckinghamshire, in 1954, son of Wing Commander Guy Van der Kiste (1912-99). ... Greg King (b. ... Greg King (b. ... ... ... The barcode of an ISBN . ... See also John Perry (musician). ... Edvard Radzinsky (Russian: ) (b. ... Anthony Summers was born in 1942. ... Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden, also known as Sophia Karlovna Buxhoeveden (Russian: София Карловна Буксгевден, September 6, 1883 - November 26, 1956), was a lady in waiting to Tsarina Alexandra of Russia. ... Pierre Gilliard (1879 - May 30, 1962), a Swiss citizen, was the French tutor for the five children of Tsar Nicholas II from 1905 to 1918. ... Anna Alexandrovna Vyrubova, neé Taneyeva (Russian: Анна Александровна Вырубова, Танеева) (16 July 1884 — 20 July 1964, Helsinki), was a lady-in-waiting, best friend and confidante to Tsaritsa Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... George Buchanan (1506 - 1582) was a Sixteenth Century Scottish, Humanist theorist, see George Buchanan (humanist) Sir George Buchanan (1854 - 1924) was a United Kingdom, Diplomat who was British ambassador to Russia during the Russian Revolution in 1917, see George Buchanan (diplomat) Sir George Buchanan was a British civil engineer active... Gleb Evgenievich Botkin, (1900 - December 1969), was the son of Dr. Eugene Botkin, the court physician who was murdered at Ekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks with Tsar Nicholas II and his family on July 17, 1918. ...

  • Mark D. Steinberg and Vladimir M. Khrustalev, The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995

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At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Mieszko I. Bolesław I Chrobry. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Prince Frederick of Hesse (May 1, 1868 – May 28, 1940), officially Friedrich Karl Ludwig Konstantin, Prinz und Landgraf von Hessen und Brabant (in German), (Frederick Charles Louis Constantin, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse and Brabant), (Fredrik Kaarle or Fredrik Kaarlo in Finnish), (Fredrik Carl in Swedish), (Frederik Carl in Danish... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovitch of Russia, (Kirill Vladimirovitch Romanov) (October 12 (N.S.), 1876—October 12, 1938) was a member of the Russian Royal Family. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia, (Kirill Vladimirovich Romanov) (October 12, 1876 (N.S.)–October 12, 1938) was a member of the Russian Imperial Family. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich of Russia (Vladimir Kirillovich Romanov, cyrillic: Влад́имир Кир́иллович Ром́анов; August 30 (N.S.), 1917 - April 21, 1992) claimed to be the Head of the Imperial Family of Russia and Titular Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias from 1938 to his death. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... H.I.H. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, Titular Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Maria Vladimirovna of Russia, Mariya Vladimirovna Romanova (Мари́я Влади́мировна Рома́нова) (born December 23, 1953) is regarded by some Nobiliary Genealogists and Russian Monarchists as the Head of the Imperial Family of Russia and Titular Empress and Autocrat of... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Nicholas Romanovich Romanov or Nikolai Romanovich Romanov (Николай Романович Романов), (born September 13, 1922) is the President of the Romanov Family Association. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also House of Romanov
Persondata
NAME Nicholas II of Russia
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Romanov, Nikolay Aleksandrovich (full name); Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Рома́нов (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Tsar of Russia
DATE OF BIRTH May 18, 1868
PLACE OF BIRTH Saint Petersburg, Russia
DATE OF DEATH July 17, 1918
PLACE OF DEATH Yekaterinburg, Russia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexander II of Russia - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
(1818-1881), emperor of Russia, eldest son of Nicholas I., was born on the 29th of April 18 i 8.
Fortunately for Russia the autocratic power was now in the hands of a man who was impressionable enough to be deeply influenced by the spirit of the time, and who had sufficient prudence and practical common-sense to prevent his being carried away by the prevailing excitement into the dangerous region of Utopian dreaming.
Russia required, it was said, not classical scholars, but practical, scientific men, capable of developing her natural resources.
Nicholas II (308 words)
Nicholas II however did not want to allow workers to unite and form unions as they were elsewhere in the world.
Nicholas II went to the lines to lead his armies but this proved to be a poor move.
Nicholas II and his family were put under house arrest and in July of 1918 were murdered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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