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Encyclopedia > Niagara River
Satellite image of the Niagara River. Flowing from Lake Erie in the south to Lake Ontario in the north, the river passes around Grand Island before going over Niagara Falls, after which it narrows in the Niagara Gorge. Two hydropower reservoirs are visible just before the river widens after exiting the gorge. The Welland Canal is visible on the far left side of this image. (Source: NASA Visible Earth)
Satellite image of the Niagara River. Flowing from Lake Erie in the south to Lake Ontario in the north, the river passes around Grand Island before going over Niagara Falls, after which it narrows in the Niagara Gorge. Two hydropower reservoirs are visible just before the river widens after exiting the gorge. The Welland Canal is visible on the far left side of this image. (Source: NASA Visible Earth)

The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It serves as part of the border between the Province of Ontario in Canada and New York State in the United States. There are various theories as to the origin of the name. According to NASA, "Niagara" comes from a Native American word meaning "at the neck".[1] According to George R. Stewart, it comes from the name of an Iroquois town called "Ongniaahra", meaning "point of land cut in two".[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1877, 958 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Niagara River Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1877, 958 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Niagara River Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... NY redirects here. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... George R. Stewarts books about U.S. highways were based on his cross-country drives in 1924, 1949 and 1950. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...

Contents

Description

The river, which is occasionally described as a "strait",[3] is approximately 56 kilometres (35 mi) long and includes Niagara Falls along its course. The falls have moved upstream from the Niagara Escarpment about 11 kilometers (7 mi) in the last 12,000 years, resulting in a gorge below the falls. Today, diversion of the river for electricity generation has significantly reduced the rate of erosion. Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


Power plants on the river are the Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Power Stations, on the Canadian side, and the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant, built in 1961, on the American side. The sites generate 4.4 gigawatts of electricity combined. The river flow is also regulated by the International Control Works built in 1954. Shipping on the Great Lakes bypasses the Niagara River and Niagara Falls using the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, located on the Canadian side. Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Power Stations are two hydro station in Niagara Falls, Ontario. ... Rober Moses Hydro-Electric Dam is a hydro station in Niagara Falls, New York. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ...

The American Falls with Goat Island to its right.
The American Falls with Goat Island to its right.
Niagara Glen features many treacherous rapids downstream of Niagara Falls

The total drop in elevation along the river is 99 meters (326 ft). The Niagara Gorge extends 11.26 km (7 mi) downstream from the Falls and includes the Niagara Whirlpool and another section of rapids. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3011x1145, 856 KB) Taken by Daniel Mayer in late February 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3011x1145, 856 KB) Taken by Daniel Mayer in late February 2006. ... Niagara River at the Niagara Glen This is a picture taken by David Sky of the Niagara River. ... Niagara River at the Niagara Glen This is a picture taken by David Sky of the Niagara River. ...


The Niagara River features two large islands, Grand Island and Goat Island, both in the United States. The western end of the Erie Canal is near Grand Island. Goat Island and the tiny Luna Island split Niagara Falls into its three sections, the Horseshoe, Bridal Veil, and American Falls. Navy Island, on the Canadian side, is near the north end of Grand Island, while Strawberry Island and Motor Island lie southeast of Grand Island. Squaw Island lies further upstream, alongside the city of Buffalo. Grand Island is a town and an island located in Erie County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 18,621. ... American Falls and Goat Island in winter from Skylon Tower View from Goat Island towards American Falls Goat Island is a small uninhabited island in western New York in the United States. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Navy Island. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown Area  - City 52. ...


The Niagara River and its tributaries, Tonawanda Creek and the Welland River, formed part of the last section of the Erie Canal and Welland Canal. After leaving Lockport, New York, the Erie Canal proceeds southwest until it enters Tonawanda Creek. After entering the Niagara River, watercraft then proceed southward to the final lock, where a short section of the canal allows boats to avoid the turbulent shoal water at the river intake and enter Lake Erie. Welland Canals used the Welland River as a connection back to the Niagara River south of the falls, allowing water traffic to safely re-enter the Niagara River and proceed to Lake Erie. Tonawanda Creek is a small river in Western New York, in the United States. ... The Welland River is a river in the Niagara Region of southern Ontario which flows from its headwaters south of Hamilton, Ontario to empty into the Niagara River near the city of Niagara Falls, Ontario. ... Lockport, New York refers to both a city and a town in Niagara County, New York, near Niagara Falls and Buffalo. ... Tonawanda Creek is a small river in Western New York, in the United States. ...


History

Several battles occurred along the Niagara River, which was historically defended by Fort George (Canadian side) and Fort Niagara (American side) at the mouth of the river and Fort Erie (Canadian side) at the head of the river. These forts were important during the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. The Battle of Queenston Heights took place near the river in the War of 1812. Fort George is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ... Fort Erie National Historic Site, on a stamp issued in 1985. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries French Monarchy Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Sir... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which... Combatants United States Great Britain Canada Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other...


The river was an important route to liberation before the American Civil War, when many African-Americans escaping slavery on the Underground Railroad crossed it to find freedom in Canada. This article is becoming very long. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


On the Canadian side of the river the Niagara Parks Commission maintains all of the shoreline property, except the sites of Fort George and Fort Erie, as a public greenspace and environmental heritage. The Niagara Parks Commission, or Niagara Parks for short, is an agency of government of Ontario (Canada) which maintains the Canadian shoreline of the Niagara River. ... Fort George is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. ... Fort Erie National Historic Site, on a stamp issued in 1985. ...


Today, the river is the namesake of Niagara Herald Extraordinary at the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The badge of office of Niagara Herald Extraordinary Niagara Herald of Arms Extraordinary (Héraut Niagara extraordinaire in French) is the title of one of the officers of arms at the Canadian Heraldic Authority in Ottawa. ... Badge of the Canadian Heraldic Authority The Canadian Heraldic Authority is an agency of the Government of Canada responsible for heraldry in Canada. ...


Cities and settlements

Population centers along the Niagara River include:

Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown Area  - City 52. ... Location of Fort Erie in the Niagara Region Fort Erie (2001 population 28,143) is a town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Lewiston is a village in Niagara County, New York, USA. The population was 2,781 at the 2000 census. ... Grand Island is a town and an island located in Erie County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 18,621. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Skyline of Niagara Falls, Canada, as seen from the Embassy Suites hotel. ... Niagara-on-the-Lake in the Niagara Region Niagara-on-the-Lake Niagara-on-the-Lake (2001 population 13,839) is a town where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Location within Niagara County. ... Porter is a town in Niagara County, New York, USA. The population was 6,920 at the 2000 census. ... The Village of Queenston (Latitude 43°10N Longitude 79°03W) is located 5km north of Niagara Falls, Ontario in the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. ... The name Tonawanda as a location confuses even the people who live in other and even nearby Western New York communities. ... The name Tonawanda as a location confuses even the people who live in other and even nearby Western New York communities. ... Location within Niagara County. ... For other places with this name, see Youngstown. ...

Crossings

The Niagara River has a long history of both road and rail bridges spanning the river, both upstream and downstream of the Falls. This history includes numerous bridges that have fallen victim to the harsh conditions of the Niagara Gorge, such as landslides and icepacks. This is a list of bridges and other crossings of the Niagara River from Lake Ontario upstream to Lake Erie. ... Niagara Falls (43° 4′ 54. ...


Islands

Several islands are located on the upper river before the falls:

  • Navy Island - the only island within Canada and designated as a national historic park
  • Grand Island, New York - the largest island on the river; some parks, but mostly residential and industrial
  • Strawberry Island - a small park
  • Motor Island - a small park
  • Squaw Island - located in the city of Buffalo, New York and home to Broderick Park and a waste treatment facility
  • Tonawanda Island - occupied by marina and some industries
  • Buckhorn Island - park located on the north end of Grand Island
  • Goat Island - park located at the brink of the American Falls
  • Three Sisters Island - park located next to Goat Island
  • Green Island - park located near Goat Island
  • Luna Island - park located next to Goat Island
  • Cayuga Island - located on the Tonawanda side of the river and mainly residential

Navy Island. ... Grand Island is a town and an island located in Erie County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 18,621. ...

Notes

  1. ^ NASA Visible Earth, Niagara Falls
  2. ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) Names on the Land. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company; pg. 83.
  3. ^ Mobot.org

George R. Stewarts books about U.S. highways were based on his cross-country drives in 1924, 1949 and 1950. ...

References

  • Tiplin, Albert H.; Seibel, George A. and Seibel, Olive M. (1988) Our romantic Niagara: a geological history of the river and the falls Niagara Falls Heritage Foundation, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, ISBN 0969045727

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Niagara River

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of rivers in the state of New York in the United States. ... See also: Rivers in Canada Tributaries of Hudson Bay Rivers in Canada alphabetically Rivers of the Americas This is the list of rivers situated which flow through Ontario. ... Whirlpool Aero Car The Whirlpool Aero Car or Spanish Aero Car is a cable car on the Canadian side of the Niagara River. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Niagara River - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (764 words)
The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.
The Niagara River and its tributaries, Tonawanda Creek and the Welland River, formed part of the last section of the Erie Canal and Welland Canal.
Several battles occurred along the Niagara River which was historically defended by Fort George (Canadian side) and Fort Niagara (American side) at the mouth of the river and Fort Erie (Canadian side) at the head of the river.
Niagara River - definition of Niagara River in Encyclopedia (634 words)
The Niagara River and its tributary, Tonawanda Creek, form part of the last section of the Erie Canal.
After entering the Niagara River, watercraft then proceed southward to the final lock, where a short section of the canal allows boats to avoid the turbulent shoal water at the river mouth and enter Lake Erie.
On the Canadian side of the river the Niagara Parks Commission maintains all of the shoreline property, except the sites of Fort George and Fort Erie, as a public greenspace and environmantal heritage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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