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Encyclopedia > Niagara Falls
'Niagara Falls'

The Canadian Falls (Horseshoe Falls).
Location Niagara Falls
(Ontario Flag of Canada & New York Flag of the United States)
Coordinates 43°04′48″N 79°04′16″W / 43.080, -79.071 (Niagara Falls)Coordinates: 43°04′48″N 79°04′16″W / 43.080, -79.071 (Niagara Falls)
Type Segmented Block
Total height 167 ft (52 m)
Number of drops 3; Horseshoe Falls, American Falls & Bridal Veil Falls
Average flow rate 202,000 cu ft/s (5,720 m³/s)
Watercourse Niagara River

Niagara Falls (French: les Chutes du Niagara) are massive waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of New York. The falls are 17 miles (27 km) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York, 75 miles (120 km) south-southeast of Toronto, Ontario, between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York. Niagara Falls (disambiguation) Locations Niagara Falls, New York is the City of Niagara Falls in the USA. Niagara Falls, Ontario is a city in Ontario, Canada. ... United States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... The Peace Arch border between Surrey, British Columbia and Blaine, Washington Canada and the United States of America share the longest common border in the world. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the state. ... ESE also stands for Extensible Storage Engine. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... ESE also stands for Extensible Storage Engine. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Skyline of Niagara Falls, Canada, as seen from Niagara Falls State Park across the river. ... Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County, New York, United States. ...


Niagara Falls is composed of two major sections separated by Goat Island: Horseshoe Falls, on the Canadian side of the border and American Falls on the United States side. The smaller Bridal Veil Falls also is located on the American side, separated from the main falls by Luna Island. Niagara Falls were formed when glaciers receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation (the last ice age), and water from the newly-formed Great Lakes carved a path through the Niagara Escarpment en route to the Atlantic Ocean. While not exceptionally high, the Niagara Falls are very wide. More than six million cubic feet (168,000 ) of water fall over the crest line every minute in high flow,[1] and almost 4 million cubic feet (110,000 m³) on average. It is the most powerful waterfall in North America.[2] , American Falls and Goat Island in winter from Skylon Tower View from Goat Island towards American Falls Goat Island is a small uninhabited island in the Niagara River, located in the middle of Niagara Falls between the Bridal Veil Falls and Horseshoe Falls. ... Horseshoe Falls, viewed from 16th floor of a hotel on Fallsview Blvd Horseshoe Falls, viewed from the pathway running along side the falls in Niagara Falls, Canada The Horseshoe Falls, also known as the Canadian Falls, is a waterfall on the Niagara River, located mostly on the Canadian side of... The American Falls of Niagara, as seen from the Canadian side in September 2002. ... Bridal Veil Falls from below For other places with the same name, see Bridal Veil Falls. ... Spectators on Luna Island (right) as seen from Goat Island (bottom) looking towards Bridal Veil Falls (lower right) and American Falls (Upper right). ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...


The Niagara Falls are renowned both for their beauty and as a valuable source of hydroelectric power. Managing the balance between recreational, commercial, and industrial uses has been a challenge for the stewards of the falls since the 1800s. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...

Contents

Characteristics and formation

Aerial view of Niagara Falls, with American Falls on the left and the Horseshoe Falls on the right
Aerial view of Niagara Falls, with American Falls on the left and the Horseshoe Falls on the right

Niagara Falls is divided into the Horseshoe Falls and the American Falls. The Horseshoe Falls drop about 173 feet (53 m). The American Falls drop about 70 feet (21 m) before reaching a jumble of fallen rocks that were deposited by a massive rock slide in 1954. The larger Horseshoe Falls are about 2,600 feet (792 m) wide, while the American Falls are 1,060 feet (323 m) wide. The volume of water approaching the falls during peak flow season is 202,000 cubic feet per second (5,720 m³/s).[3] By comparison Africa's spectacular Victoria Falls has over 15 million cubic feet (424,750 ) of water falling over its crest line each minute during the peak of the wet season (250,000 cu ft/7,079 m³ per second).[4] Since the flow is a direct function of the Lake Erie water elevation, it typically peaks in late spring or early summer. During the summer months, 100,000 cubic feet per second (2,832 m³/s) of water actually traverses the Falls, some 90% of which goes over the Horseshoe Falls, while the balance is diverted to hydroelectric facilities. This is accomplished by employing a weir with movable gates upstream from the Horseshoe Falls. The Falls flow is further halved at night, and during the low tourist season in the winter, remains a flat 50,000 cubic feet per second (1,416 m³/s). Water diversion is regulated by the 1950 Niagara Treaty and is administered by the International Niagara Board of Control (IJC).[5] Viewpoints on the American shore generally are astride or behind the falls. The falls face directly toward the Canadian shore. Thus, the most complete views of Niagara Falls are available from the Canadian shoreline. It is about a two hour drive from Toronto. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x750, 321 KB) Summary An aerial overview of Niagara Falls taken from 3,500 ft. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x750, 321 KB) Summary An aerial overview of Niagara Falls taken from 3,500 ft. ... Horseshoe Falls, viewed from 16th floor of a hotel on Fallsview Blvd Horseshoe Falls, viewed from the pathway running along side the falls in Niagara Falls, Canada The Horseshoe Falls, also known as the Canadian Falls, is a waterfall on the Niagara River, located mostly on the Canadian side of... The American Falls of Niagara, as seen from the Canadian side in September 2002. ... The Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (the Smoke that thunders) is a waterfall situated in southern Africa between the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... The bridge and weir mechanism at Sturminster Newton on the River Stour, Dorset. ...

Panoramic American view of the Horse Shoe Falls.
Panoramic American view of the Horse Shoe Falls.

The features that became the Niagara Falls were created by the Wisconsin glaciation, about 10,000 years ago. The same forces also created the North American Great Lakes and the Niagara River. All were dug by a continental ice sheet that drove through the area like a giant bulldozer, deepening some river channels to make lakes and damming others with debris.[6] Scientists believe that there is an old valley, buried by glacial drift, at the approximate location of the present Welland Canal. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 149 pixelsFull resolution‎ (7,168 × 1,336 pixels, file size: 2. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... In geology, drift is transported rock debris overlying the solid bedrock. ... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ...


When the ice melted, the upper Great Lakes emptied into the Niagara River, which followed the rearranged topography across the Niagara Escarpment. In time, the river cut a gorge through the north facing cliff or cuesta. Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The unusual rock formations did not erode evenly because of the interactions of three major rock formations.[citation needed] One rock formation was composed of erosion-resistant limestone and Lockport dolostone. That hard layer of stone eroded more slowly than underlying materials. The aerial photo clearly shows the hard caprock, the Lockport Formation (Middle Silurian), which underlies the rapids above the falls and approximately the upper third of the high gorge wall. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ...


Immediately below the hard-rock formation, comprising about two thirds of the cliff, lay a weaker, softer, sloping Rochester Formation (Lower Silurian). The formation was composed mainly of shale, though it has some thin limestone layers. It also contains ancient fossils. In time, the river eroded the soft layer that supported the hard layers, undercutting the hard cap rock. Eventually the process carved out the falls. Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...


Submerged in the river in the lower valley, hidden from view, is the Queenston Formation (Upper Ordovician), which is composed of shales and fine sandstones. All three formations were laid down in an ancient sea, and their differences of character derive from changing conditions within that sea. Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... This article is about the body of water. ...

View of Niagara Falls, showing parts of Canada and the United States
View of Niagara Falls, showing parts of Canada and the United States

The original Niagara Falls were near the sites of present-day Queenston, Ontario, and Lewiston, New York, but erosion of their crest has caused the waterfalls to retreat several miles southward. Just upstream from the Falls' current location, Goat Island splits the course of the Niagara River, resulting in the separation of the Canadian Horseshoe Falls to the west from the American and Bridal Veil Falls to the east. Although engineering has slowed erosion and recession in this century, the falls will eventually recede far enough to drain most of Lake Erie, the bottom of which is higher than the bottom of the falls. Engineers are working to reduce the rate of erosion to postpone this event as long as possible. Niagara Falls, Canada and USA - April 2001 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Niagara Falls Categories: NASA images ... Niagara Falls, Canada and USA - April 2001 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Niagara Falls Categories: NASA images ... The Village of Queenston (Latitude 43°10N Longitude 79°03W) is located 5km north of Niagara Falls, Ontario in the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. ... Lewiston is a village in Niagara County, New York, USA. The population was 2,781 at the 2000 census. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... , American Falls and Goat Island in winter from Skylon Tower View from Goat Island towards American Falls Goat Island is a small uninhabited island in the Niagara River, located in the middle of Niagara Falls between the Bridal Veil Falls and Horseshoe Falls. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ...


History

1837 woodcut of Falls, from Etats Unis d'Amerique by Roux de Rochelle.
1837 woodcut of Falls, from Etats Unis d'Amerique by Roux de Rochelle.

The name "Niagara" (Iroquois Nation pronunciation IPA: /niːɑːˈɡɑːrɑː/[7][8][9]) is said to originate from an Iroquois word "Onguiaahra" meaning "Thunder of Waters".[10] The region's original inhabitants were the Ongiara, an Iroquois tribe named the Neutrals by French settlers, who found them helpful in mediating disputes with other tribes.[11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x1088, 687 KB) Summary Woodcut of Niagara Falls from Etats-Unis dAmerique by Roux de Rochelle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x1088, 687 KB) Summary Woodcut of Niagara Falls from Etats-Unis dAmerique by Roux de Rochelle. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Neutrals were a tribe of American Indians who lived in what is now upstate New York and southern Ontario. ...


A number of figures have been suggested as first circulating an eyewitness description of Niagara Falls. Frenchman Samuel de Champlain visited the area as early as 1604 during his exploration of Canada, and members of his party reported to him the spectacular waterfalls, which he described in his journals. Finnish-Swedish naturalist Pehr Kalm explored the area in the early 1700s and wrote of the experience. The consensus honoree is Belgian Father Louis Hennepin, who observed and described the Falls in 1677, earlier than Kalm, after traveling with explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, thus bringing the Falls to the attention of Europeans. Further complicating matters, there is credible evidence that French Jesuit Reverend Paul Ragueneau visited the Falls some 35 years prior to Hennepin's visit, while working among the Huron First Nation in Canada. Jean de Brebeuf also may have visited the Falls, while spending time with the Neutral Nation.[12] Samuel de Champlain, (c. ... Pehr Kalm (March 6, 1716–November 16, 1779) (He is referred to in the Finnish language as Pietari Kalm) was an explorer, a botanist, a naturalist, and an agricultural economist from what is now Finland. ... A painting of Father Louis Hennepin discovering Saint Anthony Falls. ... Engraving of La Salle René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French cleric and explorer. ... Paul Ragueneau, (18 March 1608 – 3 September 1680), is known most notable as a Catholic Jesuit missionary. ... The Wyandot and Huron are indigenous peoples of North America known in their native language as the Wendat. ... St. ... The Neutrals were a tribe of American Indians who lived in what is now upstate New York and southern Ontario. ...

Man and woman on Canadian side of Niagara Falls, circa 1858
Man and woman on Canadian side of Niagara Falls, circa 1858

During the 18th century tourism became popular, and by mid-century, it was the area's main industry. Napoleon Bonaparte's brother Jérôme visited with his bride in the early 19th century.[13] In 1837 during the Caroline affair a rebel suppply ship, the "Caroline" was burned and sent over the Falls. Demand for passage over the Niagara River led in 1848 to the building of a footbridge and then Charles Ellet's Niagara Suspension Bridge. This was supplanted by German-born John Augustus Roebling's Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge in 1855. After the American Civil War, the New York Central railroad publicized Niagara Falls as a focus of pleasure and honeymoon visits. With increased railroad traffic, in 1886, Leffert Buck replaced Roebling's wood and stone bridge with the predominantly steel bridge that still carries trains over the Niagara River today. The first steel archway bridge near the Falls was completed in 1897. Known today as the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, it carries vehicles, trains, and pedestrians between Canada (through Canadian Customs Border Control) and the U.S.A. just below the Falls. In 1941 the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission completed the third current crossing in the immediate area of Niagara Falls with the Rainbow Bridge, carrying both pedestrian and vehicular traffic between the two countries and Canadian and U.S. customs for each country. Young man and girl seated on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, circa 1858. ... Young man and girl seated on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, circa 1858. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Jérôme Bonaparte (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Emperor Napoleon I of France. ... The Caroline Affair refers to a series of events beginning in 1837 that strained relations between the United States and Canada (and thus Britain). ... Categories: Stub | 1806 births | 1869 deaths | Engineers ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity and with the AAR reporting mark of NYC, was a railroad operating in the North-Eastern United States. ... Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, photo by Alan Teichman / and structurae The Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, commonly called the Whirlpool Bridge or Lower Bridge, is a spandrel braced, riveted, two-hinged arch bridge. ... Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls The Rainbow Bridge at Niagara Falls is a world-famous tourist site. ...


After the First World War, tourism boomed again as automobiles made getting to the Falls much easier. The story of Niagara Falls in the 20th century is largely that of efforts to harness the energy of the Falls for hydroelectric power, and to control the development on both sides that threaten the area's natural beauty. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...


Impact on industry and commerce

American Falls (large waterfall on the left) and Bridal Veil Falls (smaller waterfall on the right)
American Falls (large waterfall on the left) and Bridal Veil Falls (smaller waterfall on the right)

The enormous energy of Niagara Falls has long been recognized as a potential source of power. The first known effort to harness the waters was in 1759, when Daniel Joncaire built a small canal above the Falls to power his sawmill. Augustus and Peter Porter purchased this area and all of American Falls in 1805 from the New York state government, and enlarged the original canal to provide hydraulic power for their gristmill and tannery. In 1853, the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Mining Company was chartered, which eventually constructed the canals which would be used to generate electricity. In 1881, under the leadership of Jacob Schoellkopf, enough power was produced to send direct current to illuminate both the Falls themselves and nearby Niagara Falls village. Download high resolution version (878x578, 214 KB)The two waterfalls on the US side of Niagara Falls. ... Download high resolution version (878x578, 214 KB)The two waterfalls on the US side of Niagara Falls. ... The American Falls of Niagara, as seen from the Canadian side in September 2002. ... Bridal Veil Falls from below For other places with the same name, see Bridal Veil Falls. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ...


When Nikola Tesla, for whom a memorial was later built at Niagara Falls, NY (USA), invented the three-phase system of alternating current power transmission, distant transfer of electricity became possible. In 1883, the Niagara Falls Power Company, a descendant of Schoellkopf's firm, hired George Westinghouse to design a system to generate alternating current. The world's first AC power generating and transmission plant was built at Ames, below Telluride, Colorado, by Westinghouse, Tesla and L.L. Nunn and proved effective by transmitting AC two miles at a loss of less than 5%. Four years later, by 1896, with financing from moguls like J.P. Morgan, John Jacob Astor IV, and the Vanderbilts, they had constructed giant underground conduits leading to turbines generating upwards of 100,000 horsepower (75 MW), and were sending power as far as Buffalo, twenty miles (32 km) away. Private companies on the Canadian side also began to harness the energy of the Falls. The Government of the province of Ontario, Canada eventually brought power transmission operations under public control in 1906, distributing Niagara's energy to various parts of the Canadian province. Currently between 50% and 75% of the Niagara River's flow is diverted via four huge tunnels that arise far upstream from the waterfalls. The water then passes through hydroelectric turbines that supply power to nearby areas of the Canada and the USA before returning to the river well past the Falls. Nikola Tesla (Nih koh la TESS lah) [2](Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. ... Three phase systems have 3 waveforms (usually carrying power) that are 2/3π radians (120 degrees,1/3 of a cycle) offset in time. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... John Jacob Astor IV (July 13, 1864 – April 15, 1912) was an American millionaire businessman, inventor, writer, a member of the prominent Astor family, and a lieutenant colonel in the Spanish-American War. ... The Vanderbilts are a prominent family in the history of the United States. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...

Panoramic view of American and Horseshoe Falls from Canada.

The most powerful hydroelectric stations on the Niagara River are Sir Adam Beck 1 and 2 on the Canadian side, and the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant and the Lewiston Pump Generating Plant on the American side. All together, Niagara's generating stations can produce about 4.4 GW of power. The engineer credited with design of the system is Edward Dean Adams.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 183 pixelsFull resolution (5654 × 1296 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 183 pixelsFull resolution (5654 × 1296 pixel, file size: 4. ... This article is about the artistic term Panorama. ... Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Power Stations are two hydro station in Niagara Falls, Ontario. ... Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant is a hydroelectric power plant in Niagara Falls, New York. ... The gigawatt (symbol: GW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one billion (109) watts. ...


In August 2005 Ontario Power Generation, which is responsible for the Sir Adam Beck stations, announced plans to build a new 6½ mile (10.4 km) tunnel to tap water from farther up the Niagara river than is possible with the existing arrangement. The project is expected to be completed in 2009, and will increase Sir Adam Beck's output by about 182 MW (4.2%). Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is a public company whose shares are wholly owned by the Government of Ontario. ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ...

Niagara Falls at night
Niagara Falls at night

Ships can bypass Niagara Falls by means of the Welland Canal, which was improved and incorporated into the Saint Lawrence Seaway in the 1960s. While the seaway diverted water traffic from nearby Buffalo and led to the demise of its steel and grain mills, other industries in the Niagara River valley flourished with the help of the electric power produced by the river until the 1970s. Since then the region has declined economically. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2382 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2382 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...


The cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada and Niagara Falls, New York, USA are connected by three bridges: the Rainbow Bridge, just downriver from the Falls, which affords the closest view of the Falls and is open to non-commercial vehicle traffic and pedestrians; the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, one mile (1.5 km) down from the Rainbow bridge and the oldest bridge over the Niagara river. The newest bridge, the Lewiston-Queenston Bridge, is located near the escarpment. Nearby Niagara Falls International Airport and Buffalo Niagara International Airport were named after the waterfall, as were Niagara University, countless local businesses, and even an asteroid.[15] This article is about the Canadian province. ... Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls The Rainbow Bridge at Niagara Falls is a world-famous tourist site. ... Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, photo by Alan Teichman / and structurae The Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, commonly called the Whirlpool Bridge or Lower Bridge, is a spandrel braced, riveted, two-hinged arch bridge. ... FAA diagram of Buffalo Niagara International Airport (BUF) Buffalo Niagara International Airport (IATA: BUF, ICAO: KBUF) is an airport located in the town of Cheektowaga in Erie County, New York. ... Niagara University is a Roman Catholic university in the Vincentian tradition, located in the Town of Lewiston in Niagara County, New York. ...

A view of the Niagara Falls, Ontario skyline
A view of the Niagara Falls, Ontario skyline

Skyline of Niagara Falls, Canada, as seen from Niagara Falls State Park across the river. ...

Preservation efforts

Niagara Falls has long been a source of inspiration for explorers, travelers, artists, authors, filmmakers, residents and visitors, few of whom realize that the falls nearly were devoted exclusively to industrial and commercial use. In the 1870s, sightseers had limited access to Niagara Falls and often had to pay merely for a glimpse, and industrialization threatened to carve up Goat Island to power expanding commercial development. Other industrial encroachments and lack of public access led to a conservation movement in the U.S. known as Free Niagara, led by such notables as Hudson River school artist Frederic Edwin Church, landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted, and architect Henry Hobson Richardson. Church approached Lord Dufferin, governor-general of Canada, with a proposal for international discussions on establishment of a public park. Frederic Edwin Church (May 4, 1826 - April 7, 1900) was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. ... {{Infobox Person | name = | image = FLOlmstead. ... Henry Hobson Richardson, portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer Trinity Church in Boston is one of Richardsons most famous works. ... Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, (June 21, 1826 – February 12, 1902) was a prominent member of Victorian society. ...


Goat Island was one of the inspirations for the American side of the effort. William Dorsheimer, moved by the scene from the island, brought Olmsted to Buffalo in 1868 to design a city park system and helped promote Olmstead's career. Later, in 1879, the New York state legislature commissioned Olmsted and James T. Gardner to survey the falls and to create the single most important document in the Niagara preservation movement, a Special Report on the preservation of Niagara Falls. The report advocated for State purchase, restoration and preservation through public ownership of the scenic lands surrounding Niagara Falls. Restoring the former beauty of the falls was described in the report as a "sacred obligation to mankind."[16] In 1883, Governor Grover Cleveland drafted legislation authorizing acquisition of lands for a state reservation at Niagara and The Niagara Falls Association, a private citizens group founded in 1882, mounted a massive letter writing campaign and petition drive in support of the park. Professor Charles Eliot Norton and Olmsted were among the leaders of the public campaign, while New York Governor Alonzo Cornell opposed. William Dorsheimer was an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1875 to 1880. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... The brothers Charles Benjamin Norton, Frank Henry Norton, and Charles Eliot Norton, between 1853-1855. ... Alonzo Barton Cornell (January 22, 1832 – October 15, 1904) was a New York politician and businessman who served as Governor of New York from 1880 to 1882. ...

A closer view of the Horseshoe (Canadian) Falls in the early morning.
A closer view of the Horseshoe (Canadian) Falls in the early morning.

Preservationists' efforts were rewarded on April 30, 1885, when Governor David B. Hill signed legislation creating the Niagara Reservation, New York’s first state park. New York state began to purchase land from developers, under the charter of the Niagara Reservation State Park. In the same year, the province of Ontario established the Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park for the same purpose. On the Canadian side, the Niagara Parks Commission governs land usage along the entire course of the Niagara River, from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 1084 KB) Summary View of Horseshoe Niagara Falls from the Canadian side. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 1084 KB) Summary View of Horseshoe Niagara Falls from the Canadian side. ... Horseshoe Falls, viewed from Goat Island, showing a portion of the mist generated by the falls. ... David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ... American Falls is located in the park. ... The Niagara Parks Commission, or Niagara Parks for short, is an agency of government of Ontario (Canada) which maintains the Canadian shoreline of the Niagara River. ...


In 1887, Olmsted and Calvert Vaux issued a supplemental report detailing plans to restore the falls. Their intent was "to restore and conserve the natural surroundings of the Falls of Niagara, rather than to attempt to add anything thereto," and the report anticipated fundamental questions. How would preservationists provide access without destroying the beauty of the falls? How would they restore natural landscapes damaged by man? They planned a park with scenic roadways, paths and a few shelters designed to protect the landscape while allowing large numbers of visitors to enjoy the falls.[17] Commemorative statues, shops, restaurants, and a 1959 glass and metal observation tower were added later. Preservationists continue to strive to strike a balance between Olmsted’s idyllic vision, and the realities of administering a popular scenic attraction.[18] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Preservation efforts continued well into the 20th century. J. Horace McFarland, the Sierra Club, and the Appalachian Mountain Club persuaded the United States Congress in 1906 to enact legislation to preserve the Falls by regulating the waters of Niagara River.[19] The act sought, in cooperation with the Canadian government, to restrict diversion of water, and a treaty resulted in 1909 that limited the total amount of water diverted from the Falls by both nations to approximately 56,000 cubic feet (1,600 m³) per second. That limitation remained in effect until 1950.[20] The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail AMC Headquarters, 5 Joy Street, Boston, Massachusetts. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...

American Falls "shut off" during erosion control efforts in 1969 (see text)
American Falls "shut off" during erosion control efforts in 1969 (see text)

Erosion control efforts also have been important. Underwater weirs redirect the most damaging currents, and top of the falls has been strengthened. In June 1969, for example, the Niagara River was entirely diverted from the American Falls for several months through construction of a temporary rock and earth dam (clearly visible in the photo at right).[21] While the Horseshoe Falls absorbed the extra flow, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers studied the riverbed and mechanically bolted faults which would otherwise have hastened the retreat of the American Falls. A plan to remove the huge mound of talus deposited in 1954 was abandoned owing to cost, and in November 1969, the temporary dam was dynamited, restoring flow to the American Falls. Even after these undertakings, Luna Island, the small piece of land between the main waterfall and the Bridal Veil, remained off limits to the public for years owing to fears that it was unstable and could collapse into the gorge at any time. This photo shows the American Falls in Niagara Falls during the preservation work carried out in 1969. ... This photo shows the American Falls in Niagara Falls during the preservation work carried out in 1969. ... The bridge and weir mechanism at Sturminster Newton on the River Stour, Dorset. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... Spectators on Luna Island (right) as seen from Goat Island (bottom) looking towards Bridal Veil Falls (lower right) and American Falls (Upper right). ...


Not far away from the falls, commercial interests have prevailed. Recent construction of several tall buildings (most of them hotels) on the Canadian side resulted in a remarkable alteration and urbanisation of the landscape. It has also caused the airflow over the Falls to change direction.[22] The result is that the viewing areas on the Canadian side are now often obscured by a layer of mist.


In entertainment and popular culture

Over The Falls

Bobby Leach and his barrel after his trip over Niagara Falls, 1911
Bobby Leach and his barrel after his trip over Niagara Falls, 1911
Blondin carrying his manager, Harry Colcord, on a tightrope

In October 1829, Sam Patch, who called himself "a total idiot" jumped from a high tower into the gorge below the falls and survived; this began a long tradition of daredevils trying to go over the Falls. In 1901, 63-year-old school teacher Annie Edson Taylor was the first person to go over the Falls in a barrel as a publicity stunt; she survived, bleeding, but virtually unharmed. Soon after exiting the barrel, she said, "No one should ever try that again." Unfortunately, the fortune she hoped to make from a later lecture tour was never realized, as her manager was a con-man who took everything she owned. (Legend says that a small kitten rode in the barrel with her, but this seems to have been a whimsical myth. She in fact sent the cat over the falls in a barrel first. Although the cat did not survive, Taylor went on with the stunt. Still, when she posed with the barrel afterwards, a kitten sat placidly on top of it.) Since Taylor's historic ride, 14 other people have intentionally gone over the Falls in or on a device, despite her advice. Some have survived unharmed, but others have drowned or been severely injured. Survivors of such stunts face charges and stiff fines, as it is illegal, on both sides of the border, to attempt to go over the Falls. Bobby Leach and his barrel after his trip over Niagara Falls, July 25, 1911 Credit: Library and Archives Canada: C-014062 Retrieved from: http://www. ... Bobby Leach and his barrel after his trip over Niagara Falls, July 25, 1911 Credit: Library and Archives Canada: C-014062 Retrieved from: http://www. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Charles. ... Image File history File links Charles. ... Sam Patch (1799 – 1829), known as The Yankee Leaper, was the first famous US daredevil. ... Stunt man and stunt woman redirect here. ... Annie Edson Taylor (October 24? 1838 – April 29, 1921) became the first person to survive a trip over Niagara Falls in a barrel on 24 October 1901. ... Traditional wooden barrels in Cutchogue Modern aluminium beer barrels - also called casks - outside the Castle Rock microbrewery in Nottingham, England A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves and bound with iron hoops. ...


In 1918, there was a near disaster when a barge working up-river broke its tow, and almost plunged over the falls. Fortunately, the vessel grounded on rocks just short of the falls.[23]


Other daredevils have made crossing the Falls their goal, starting with the successful passage by Jean François "Blondin" Gravelet in 1859. These tightrope walkers drew huge crowds to witness their exploits. Their wires ran across the gorge, near the current Rainbow Bridge, not over the waterfall itself. Among the many was Ontario's William Hunt, who billed himself as "Signor Fanini" and competed with Blondin in performing outrageous stunts over the gorge. Englishman Captain Matthew Webb, the first man to swim the English Channel, drowned in 1883 after unsuccessfully trying to swim across the whirlpools and rapids downriver from the Falls with nine other people. Two others drowned with him, and the other seven gave up before finishing their course. Blondin (28 February 1824 - 19 February 1897), French tight-rope walker and acrobat, was born at St Omer, France. ... Tightrope walking is a spectacle activity usually performed for the amusement of an audience. ... Captain Matthew Webb (19 January 1848 – 24 July 1883) was the first person to swim the English Channel without the use of artificial aids. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... This article is about the water movement. ...

 .l 

In what some called the "Miracle at Niagara", Roger Woodward, a seven-year-old American boy, was swept over the Horseshoe Falls protected only by a life vest on July 9, 1960, as two tourists pulled his 17-year-old sister Deanne from the river only 20 feet (6 m) from the lip of the Horseshoe Falls at Goat Island.[24] Minutes later, Roger was plucked from the roiling plunge pool beneath the Horseshoe Falls after grabbing a life ring thrown to him by the crew of the Maid of the Mist boat. His survival, which no one thought possible, made news throughout the world. is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maid of the Mist The Maid of the Mist is a boat tour of Niagara Falls. ...


On July 2, 1984, Canadian Karel Soucek from Hamilton, Ontario successfully plunged over the Horseshoe Falls in a barrel with only minor injuries. Soucek was fined $500 for performing the stunt without a license. In 1985, he was fatally injured while attempting to re-create the Niagara drop at the Houston Astrodome. His aim was to climb into a barrel hoisted to the rafters of the Astrodome and to drop 180 feet (55 m) into a water tank on the floor. After his barrel released prematurely, it hit the side of the tank and he died the next day from his injuries.[25] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Karel Soucek, born in Czechoslovakia, died January 20, 1985 in Houston, Texas, was a Canadian professional stuntperson. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... The Reliant Astrodome, formerly just the Astrodome, is a domed sports stadium in Houston, Texas, and is part of the Reliant Park complex. ...


In August 1985, Steve Trotter, an aspiring stunt man from Rhode Island, became the youngest person ever (age 22) and the first American in 25 years to go over the Falls in a barrel. Ten years later, Trotter went over the Falls again, becoming the second person to go over the Falls twice and survive. It was also the second-ever "duo"; Lori Martin joined Trotter for the barrel ride over the Falls. They survived the fall but their barrel became stuck at the bottom of the falls, requiring a rescue. They became the first individuals to serve jail time for going over Niagara Falls. The first two-person trip over the brink goes to Jeffrey Petkovich (25) and Peter Debernardi (42) on September 27, 1989.[26] Steve Trotter at Niagara Falls, 1985 Steve Trotter is a daredevil (born 1963 in Rhode Island) who has twice gone over Niagara Falls in a barrel, and performed other illegal stunts. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


On September 27, 1993 John "David" Munday, of Caistor Centre, Ontario, became the first person to survive going over the falls twice.[27] is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Kirk Jones of Canton, Michigan became the first known person to survive a plunge over the Horseshoe Falls without a flotation device on October 20, 2003. While it is still not known whether Jones was determined to commit suicide, he survived the 16-story fall with only battered ribs, scrapes, and bruises.[28] The Charter Township of Canton is a charter township in Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A newspaper account in the late 19th century does cite a bulldog believed to have successfully, though accidentally, endured the passage. All "over the Falls" survivors have passed over the Horseshoe Falls, where there are fewer boulders, and the current can "throw" a person farther away from the brink to avoid them.


A museum houses most of the crafts that were used to go over the falls.


Movies and television

Already a huge tourist attraction and favorite spot for honeymooners, Niagara Falls visits rose sharply in 1953 after the release of Niagara, a movie starring Marilyn Monroe. Later in the 20th century, the Falls was a featured location in 1980s movie Superman II, and was itself the subject of a popular IMAX movie. Much of the episode Return of the Technodrome in the 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon series take place near the Niagara Falls and its hydroelectric plant. Illusionist David Copperfield performed a trick in which he appeared to travel over the Horseshoe Falls in 1990. The Falls, or more particularly, the tourist-supported complex near the Falls, was the setting of the short-lived Canadian television show Wonderfalls in early 2004. With the recent influx of more international tourists, annual visits exceeded 14 million in 2003. More recently, location footage of the Falls was shot in October 2006 to portray "World's End" of the movie Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End.[29] The movie Canadian Bacon takes place in the Niagara area.[citation needed] In 2007,Chuck & Larry have several scenes showing the falls. Released in 1953, Niagara is a dramatic thriller with film noir elements. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson;[1] baptised Norma Jeane Baker June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe-winning,[2] critically-acclaimed[3][4][5] American actress, singer, model, Hollywood icon,[6] cultural icon, fashion icon,[7] pop icon,[8] film executive[9] and sex symbol. ... Superman II is the 1980 sequel to the 1978 superhero film Superman. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film display systems. ... Return of the Technodrome is episode number 18 of the 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon series. ... Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (known as Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Germany and Sweden) is an American animated television series, produced by Fred Wolf Films and Murakami-Wolf-Swenson, Inc. ... David Copperfield (born David Seth Kotkin on September 16, 1956) is an American magician and illusionist best known for his combination of illusions and storytelling. ... Wonderfalls is a television series whose plot centers on Jaye Tyler (Caroline Dhavernas), a recent Brown University graduate with a philosophy degree who holds a dead-end job as a sales clerk at a Niagara Falls gift shop. ... For the film see Canadian Bacon (movie). ...


Tourism

Peak numbers of visitors occur in the summertime, when Niagara Falls are both a daytime and evening attraction. From the Canadian side, floodlights illuminate both sides of the Falls for several hours after dark (until midnight). The number of visitors in 2008 is expected to total 20 million and by 2009, the annual rate is expected to top 28 million tourists a year.[30] The oldest and best known tourist attraction at Niagara Falls is the Maid of the Mist boat cruise, named for an ancient Ongiara Indian mythical character, which has carried passengers into the whirlpools beneath the Falls since 1846. Cruise boats operate from boat docks on both sides of the falls.[31][32] Maid of the Mist The Maid of the Mist is a boat tour of Niagara Falls. ...


American side

From the U.S. side, the American Falls can be viewed from walkways along Prospect Point Park, which also features the Prospect Point Observation Tower and a boat dock for the Maid of the Mist. Goat Island offers more views of the falls and is accessible by foot and automobile traffic by bridge above the American Falls. From Goat Island, the Cave of the Winds is accessible by elevator and leads hikers to a point beneath Bridal Veil Falls. Also on Goat Island are the Three Sisters Islands, the Power Portal where a huge statue of Nikola Tesla can be seen, and a walking path which enables views of the rapids, the Niagara River, the gorge, and all of the Falls. Most of these attractions lie within the Niagara Falls State Park.[33] , American Falls and Goat Island in winter from Skylon Tower View from Goat Island towards American Falls Goat Island is a small uninhabited island in the Niagara River, located in the middle of Niagara Falls between the Bridal Veil Falls and Horseshoe Falls. ... Cave of the Winds tour in Niagara Falls, New York, USA Cave of the Winds elevator building The Cave of the Winds was discovered in 1834. ... For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... Bridal Veil Falls from below For other places with the same name, see Bridal Veil Falls. ... American Falls is located in the park. ...


The Niagara Scenic Trolley offers guided trips along the American Falls and around Goat Island. Panoramic and aerial views of the falls can also be viewed from the Flight of Angels helium balloon ride, or by helicopter. The Niagara Gorge Discovery Center showcases the natural and local history of Niagara Falls and the Niagara Gorge.[33][34]


Canadian side

On the Canadian side, Queen Victoria Park features manicured gardens, platforms offering spectacular views of both the American and Horseshoe Falls, and underground walkways leading into observation rooms which yield the illusion of being within the falling waters. The observation deck of the nearby Skylon Tower offers the highest overhead view of the Falls, and in the opposite direction gives views as far as distant Toronto. Along with the Minolta Tower (formerly the Seagrams Tower, currently the Konica Minolta Tower), it is one of two towers in Canada with a view of the Falls.[35] The Skylon Tower, in Niagara Falls, Ontario is a building that overlooks the Horseshoe Falls from the Canadian side of the Niagara River. ... Konica Minolta Tower (aerial view), before construction of surronding hotels and Fallsview Casino (which was built on the footprint of the building in the lower-right) The first tower built in Niagara Falls, the Minolta Tower features an indoor observation deck, restaurant, wedding chapel, and hotel. ...


Along the Niagara River, the Niagara River Recreational Trail runs the 35 miles (56 km) from Fort Erie to Fort George, and includes many historical sites from the War of 1812.[36] This article is about the fort and historic site. ... Fort George is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...


The Whirlpool Aero Car, built in 1916 from a design by Spanish engineer Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, is a cable car which takes passengers over the whirlpool on the Canadian side. The Journey Behind the Falls - accessible by elevators from the street level entrance - consists of an observation platform and series of tunnels near the bottom of the Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side.[37][38] Whirlpool Aero Car The Whirlpool Aero Car or Spanish Aero Car is a cable car on the Canadian side of the Niagara River. ... Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (28 December 1852 – 18 December 1936), usually Leonardo Torres Quevedo in Spanish-speaking countries, was a Spanish engineer and mathematician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... An Aerial tramway in Italy. ... The observation platform of the Journey Behind the Falls. ...


There are two casinos on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, the Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort and Casino Niagara. The former is situated in the Fallsview Tourist Area, alongside many of the area's hotels, whilst the latter is adjacent to Clifton Hill, a major tourist promenade.[39] This article is about casinos for gaming. ... The Fallsview Casino The Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort in Niagara Falls, Ontario Canada opened publicly on June 10, 2004. ... Casino Niagara logo Casino Niagara is a commercial casino located in Niagara Falls, Ontario Canada. ... The Fallsview Tourist Area in Niagara Falls, Ontario is the main tourist attraction surrounding the Falls. ... Clifton Hill is the major tourist attraction in Niagara Falls, Ontario. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Skyline of Niagara Falls, Canada, as seen from Niagara Falls State Park across the river. ... Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County, New York, United States. ... Although technically unnamed, the Niagara Scow is the unofficial name of a small scow that brought two men perilously close to plunging over the Horseshoe Falls, the largest of the Niagara Falls. ... There have been several different funicular railways, locally called incline railways, built at the Niagara Falls, on the border between Canada and the United States. ... The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario was established in 1906 by the provincial Power Commission Act to build transmission lines to supply municipal utilities with electricity generated by private companies already operating at Niagara Falls. ... Table Rock is named for the site on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls. ... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ... Whirlpool Aero Car The Whirlpool Aero Car or Spanish Aero Car is a cable car on the Canadian side of the Niagara River. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Falls Facts (Trivia) - Niagara Parks, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  2. ^ The World's Best Waterfalls. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  3. ^ Niagara Falls History of Power. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  4. ^ Victoria Falls - World Waterfall Database: World's Tallest Waterfalls. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  5. ^ IJC – International Niagara Board of Control. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  6. ^ InfoNiagara.com, Niagara Falls Geological History. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  7. ^ The Sacrifice at Niagara Falls. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  8. ^ oshumare niji — Poet Seers. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  9. ^ Iroquois Indian Mythology and Spirituality - American Indian Dream Ceremonies and Interpretation. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  10. ^ Niagara Falls - Frequently Asked Questions
  11. ^ ABACA Flows Over Niagara Falls: An Illustrated History. Amoeba Books. Retrieved on May 23, 2007.
  12. ^ The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents Volume 33
  13. ^ Niagara Falls is such a cool honeymoon destination even Napoleon's Brother chose it. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  14. ^ Honor For E.D. Adams : Engineers to Award the John Fritz Medal for Niagara Development.. (1926, March 17). New York Times (1857-Current file), 6. ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2004) database. (Document ID: 119063396).
  15. ^ Asteroid 12382 Niagara Falls was named for the Falls.
  16. ^ Laura Wood Roper, FLO: A Biography of Frederick Law Olmsted [Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973], pp. 378-81.)
  17. ^ New York (State). Commissioners of state reservation at Niagara, Albany, The Argus company, printers, 1887
  18. ^ The New York State Preservationist, Vol. 6/No. 1, Fall/Winter 2002, “Falling for Niagara”, page 14+15
  19. ^ Burton Act.
  20. ^ U.S. Statutes at Large, Vol. 34, Part 1, Chap. 3621, pp. 626-28. "An Act For the control and regulation of the waters of Niagara River, for the preservation of Niagara Falls, and for other purposes." H.R. 18024; Public Act No. 367
  21. ^ This effect also obtained once as a result of natural forces, as an upstream ice jam stopped almost all water flow over Niagara Falls on March 29, 1848.
  22. ^ Students at the University of Guelph demonstrated, using scale models, that the air passes over the top of the new hotels, causing a breeze to roll down the south sides of the buildings and spill into the gorge below the Falls, where it feeds into a whirlpool of moisture and air. Discovery Channel Video Player. The Discovery Channel.
  23. ^ STRANDED ON BRINK OF NIAGARA FALLS; Scow with Two Workmen Aboard It Fa... - Article Preview - The New York Times
  24. ^ Over the Falls. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  25. ^ Info Niagara Karel Soucek. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  26. ^ Info Niagara Steve Trotter. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  27. ^ Info Niagara Dave Munday. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  28. ^ Niagara Falls survivor: Stunt was 'impulsive' (Wednesday, October 22, 2003). Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  29. ^ Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (2007) - Filming locations
  30. ^ Niagara Falls. Travelooce.com. Retrieved on August, 2007.
  31. ^ Maid Of The Mist. Maid of the Mist Steamboat Company, Ltd. Retrieved on March 27, 2007.
  32. ^ American Indian Legends - Legend Of The Maid Of The Mist. www.firstpeople.us. Retrieved on March 27, 2007.
  33. ^ a b Niagara Falls State Park. Niagara Falls State Park. Retrieved on March 27, 2007.
  34. ^ The Flight of Angels. The Great American Balloon Company. Retrieved on March 27, 2007.
  35. ^ Let's Go Travel Guide, 2004
  36. ^ Niagara River Recreation Trail. Niagara Parks Commission. Retrieved on March 27, 2007.
  37. ^ Journey Behind the Falls. Niagara Parks Commission. Retrieved on March 27, 2007.
  38. ^ Whirlpool Aero Car. Niagara Parks Commission. Retrieved on March 27, 2007.
  39. ^ Niagara Falls Casinos. Niagara Falls Tourism. Retrieved on March 30, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The University of Guelph is a medium-sized university located in Guelph, Ontario, established in 1964. ... Discovery Channel is an American cable TV network, based in Silver Spring, MD, that has a variety of science programming, particularly documentaries and nature shows. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

  • Niagara Falls travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Niagara Falls - History of Power Historical and engineering data on the U.S. and Canadian power stations
  • Geology of Niagara Falls
  • Panorama Niagara Falls Panorama found at Queen's Park Toronto.
  • Niagara Falls Guidebooks from the 19th Century Digitally-recreated 19th century guidebooks
  • Historic Niagara Digital Collections
  • US Army Corps of Engineers The US Army Corps of Engineers completely blocked the flow of water over the American Falls in 1969.

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... There are a number of places called Queens Park or Queens Park. ...


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Three summer concert series are set to launch this week in Niagara Falls, offering shows by local rock, jazz and pop groups at free open-air venues around the city.
For the period of June 29 to July 5, the Niagara Falls Fire Department responded to 123 calls.
Niagara Falls BURGLARY: Police are investigating a burglary in the 2500 block of Jerauld Avenue.
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