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Encyclopedia > Niagara Escarpment
Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario.
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Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario.

The Niagara Escarpment is a long escarpment or cuesta in the United States and Canada that runs westwards from New York State, through Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois. It is composed of the Lockport geological formation of Silurian age, and is similar to the Onondaga geological formation, which runs parallel to it and just to the south, in New York and eastern Ontario. The Escarpment is most famous for the cliff over which the Niagara River forms Niagara Falls, for which it is named. Rattlesnake Point along the Niagara Escarpment This is a picture of Rattlesnake Point along the Niagara Escarpment during a hike of the Bruce Trail. ... Rattlesnake Point along the Niagara Escarpment This is a picture of Rattlesnake Point along the Niagara Escarpment during a hike of the Bruce Trail. ... Milton (2005 population 56,000) is a town in southern Ontario, Canada, about 40 km west of Toronto on Highway 401, and is the western terminus for GO Transits Milton Line commuter train and bus corridor. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ... Cuestas in geology are ridges formed by gently tilted hard rock layers. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English, French (in some areas) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 4th 1,076,395... Official language(s) English de-facto Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 11th 96,889 mi² / 250,941 km² 239 miles / 385 km 491 miles / 790 km 41. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 23rd 169,790 km² 420 km 500 km 17 42°30N to 47°3N 86°49W to 92°54W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 18th 5,453,896 38. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 25th 149,998 km² 340 km 629 km 4. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... The Onondaga Formation is a group of hard limestones and dolostones of Devonian age that form an important geographic feature in the area of outcrop. ... The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. ... The Horseshoe Falls, one of the three Niagara Falls. ...

Niagara Escarpment (in red)
Niagara Escarpment (in red)

The Niagara Escarpment is the most prominent of several escarpments formed in the bedrock of southern Ontario. At its easternnmost point in New York State, it is traceable starting in at the Genesee River Valley near Rochester, westerly from there across the Niagara River (at Niagara Falls) into southern Ontario where it stretches along the Niagara Peninsula and northerly to Georgian Bay near Collingwood, Ontario. It then follows the Georgian Bay shore northwestered toward to form the spine of the Bruce Peninsula, Manitoulin and other islands located in northern Lake Huron where it turns westerly into the Upper Peninsula of northern Michigan. It then extends southward from the area of Sault Ste. Marie into Wisconsin following the Door Peninsula and western coast of Lake Michigan, ending northwest of Chicago. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (931x535, 28 KB) Summary The extent of the Niagara Escarpment in New York, Ontario, Michigan, and Wisconsin (marked in red). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (931x535, 28 KB) Summary The extent of the Niagara Escarpment in New York, Ontario, Michigan, and Wisconsin (marked in red). ... Official language(s) English Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... Upper Genesee near Belmont, New York, a series of pools and riffles The Middle Falls of the Genesee in Letchworth State Park The Genesee Rivers name is derived from the Iroquois meaning good valley or pleasant valley. ... A portion of Rochesters skyline, looking north along the Genesee River from the Ford Street Bridge. ... The Horseshoe Falls, one of the three Niagara Falls. ... Georgian Bay is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. ... The town of Collingwood, population (2000) estimated at 21,500, is located on the southern point of Georgian Bay known as Nottawasaga Bay. ... The Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, Canada lies between Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, and extends northwards from the rest of southern Ontario. ... Manitoulin Island Manitoulin Island is the worlds largest freshwater lake island, with an area of 2,766 square kilometres (1068 square miles). ... The Great Lakes from space; Lake Huron is the third from the left. ... The Upper Peninsula of Michigan, also known as The Upper Peninsula, The U.P. (or The UP), and Above the Bridge by Michiganders, refers to the northern peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Sault Ste. ... The Door Peninsula is a peninsula in northeastern Wisconsin, seperating the Bay of Green Bay from the rest of Lake Michigan. ... Sunset on Lake Michigan Another sunset along the lake. ... Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Official website: http://egov. ...

Contents


Formation

A section of escarpment cliff, seen from the Bruce Trail in Ontario.
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A section of escarpment cliff, seen from the Bruce Trail in Ontario.

Study of rock exposures and drillholes demonstrates that there is no displacement of the rock layers at the Escarpment: this is not a fault line but the result of unequal erosion. The Niagara Escarpment has a caprock of dolomitic limestone ("dolostone") which is more resistant and overlies weaker, more easily eroded shale as a weathering-resistant "cap". In other words, the escarpment formed over millions of years through a process of differential erosion of rocks of different hardnesses. Through time the soft rocks weather away or erode by the action of streams. The gradual removal of the soft rocks undercuts the resistant caprock, leaving a cliff or escarpment. The erosional process is most readily seen at Niagara Falls, where the river has quickened the process. It can also be seen on the three waterfalls of the Genesee River at Rochester, New York. Additional resistant rock layers make more than one escarpment in some places. Also, in some places thick glacial deposits conceal the Niagara Escarpment, such as north of Georgetown, Ontario, where it actually continues under glacial till and reappears farther north. View from the Niagara Escarpment along the Bruce Trail This picture was taken by David Sky on 35mm then scanned to JPG. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... View from the Niagara Escarpment along the Bruce Trail This picture was taken by David Sky on 35mm then scanned to JPG. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ... Dolostone is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. ... The Horseshoe Falls, one of the three Niagara Falls. ... Upper Genesee near Belmont, New York, a series of pools and riffles The Middle Falls of the Genesee in Letchworth State Park The Genesee Rivers name is derived from the Iroquois meaning good valley or pleasant valley. ... A portion of Rochesters skyline, looking north along the Genesee River from the Ford Street Bridge. ... Georgetown is a community in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, located west of Toronto, on the Credit River, in the Town of Halton Hills, Ontario and is part of the municipality of Halton Region. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Glaciology | Sedimentary rocks ...


The dolostone cap was laid down as sediment on the floor of a marine environment. In Michigan, behind the Escarpment, the cuesta capstone slopes gently to form a wide basin, the floor of an Ordovician-Silurian tropical sea. There the constant depositing of minute shells and fragments of biologically-generated calcium carbonate, mixed with sediment washing in by erosion of the virtually lifeless landmasses eventually formed a limestone layer. In the Silurian some magnesium substituted for some of the calcium in the carbonates, slowly forming harder sedimentary strata in the same fashion. Worldwide sea levels were at their all-time maximum in the Ordovician; as the sea retreated, erosion inevitably began. Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ...

Human Geography

The Welland Canal allows ships to traverse the Escarpment between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The escarpment was a major obstacle in the construction of the Erie Canal in New York and was traversed by a series of locks; the community which grew up at the site thus became known as Lockport, New York. Lock 3 of the Welland Canal, with the Garden City Skyway bridge in background. ... Lake Erie, looking southward from a high rural bluff near Leamington, Ontario Lake Erie (ee ree) is is one of the five large freshwater Great Lakes in North America, among the worlds largest such lakes. ... Lake Ontario seen from near Wolcott, New York Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... The Erie Canal (later replaced by part of the New York State Barge Canal system, which was renamed the Erie Canal) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Lockport, New York refers to both a city and a town in Niagara County, New York, near Niagara Falls and Buffalo. ...


Within southern Ontario, The Bruce Trail runs the length of the escarpment from Queenston to Tobermory. The Bruce Trail is a hiking (and multi-use) trail in southern and central Ontario, Canada. ... The Village of Queenston (Latitude 43°10N Longitude 79°03W) is located 5km north of Niagara Falls, Ontario in the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. ... Tobermory is a small town lying at the north tip of the Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, Canada. ...


The City of Hamilton, Ontario is situated on the Escarpment in such a way that the north end of the city is below and the south above. Affectionately refered to as "the mountain" by its residents, the Escarpment is both an attraction and a hindrance to everyday life. Bridging the divide are a number of roads or "mountain accesses" that separate the urban core below from the suburban expansion above. Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Area: 1,117. ...


World Biosphere Reserve

In February 1990, the Niagara Escarpment was designated a World Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, making it one of 12 in Canada. Development and land use adjacent to the escarpment is regulated and the biosphere protected by the Niagara Escarpment Commission, an agency of the Ontario government. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1945. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English, French (in some areas) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 4th 1,076,395...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Niagara Escarpment - definition of Niagara Escarpment in Encyclopedia (549 words)
The Niagara Escarpment, as a feature of geography is a long escarpment or cuesta running through southern and central Ontario, Canada and western New York in the United States.
Development and land use adjacent to the escarpment is regulated and the biosphere protected by the Niagara Escarpment Commission, an agency of the Ontario government.
The escarpment was a major obstacle in the contruction of the Erie Canal in New York and was traversed by a series of locks at a community which thus became known as Lockport.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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