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Encyclopedia > Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem
First President of the Republic of Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem
In office
26 October 1955 – 2 November 1963
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Duong Van Minh

Born 3 January 1901
Hue
Died 2 November 1963
Saigon
Spouse none

Ngô Đình Diệm Jean Baptiste  «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... An image with the hues cyclically shifted The hues in the image of this Painted Bunting are cyclically rotated with time. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Image File history File links NgoDinhDiem. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... {| border=1 align=right cellpadding=4 cellspacing=0 width=300 style=margin: 0 0 1em 1em; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; |+Quốc gia Việt Nam (1949–1955) Việt Nam Cá»™ng Hòa (1955–1975) Cá»™ng Hòa Mi...

Contents

Family and childhood

Ngô Đình Diệm was born in Huế, the original capital of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. His Ngô family was Roman Catholic and aristocratic,[1] dating back to the seventeenth Century, when Portuguese missionaries had converted his family .[2] Diem's family originated from the village of Phu Cam in central Vietnam. His family had served as mandarins in the imperial court in Hue, and his father Ngo Dinh Kha was a counsellor to Emperor Thanh Thai during the French colonisation. When the French deposed the emperor on the pretext of insanity, Kha retired in protest and became a farmer. The third of six sons, Diem was christened Jean-Baptiste in the cathedral in Hue. He laboured in the family’s rice fields while studying at a French Catholic school, and later entered a private school started by his father. He was offered a scholarship to France but declined to contemplate becoming a priest. He dropped the idea, believing it to be too rigorous. Diem studied law and administration at a French school that trained Vietnamese bureaucrats.[3] Huế (順化 in Chinese characters) is a city in Vietnam. ... The Nguyễn Dynasty (阮朝) was a line of rulers of Vietnam in the 19th century to mid-20th century. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Emperor Thành Thái Emperor Thành Thái of the Vietnamese Nguyá»…n Dynasty was born Prince Nguyá»…n Phúc Bá»­u Lân, son of Emperor Dục Đức. ...


Early career

Diem followed in the footsteps of his eldest brother Ngo Dinh Khoi, joining the civil service. Diem rose to be a provincial governor at the age of 25, and first encountered communists distributing propaganda while riding horseback through the region. Diem involved himself in anti-communist activities from the first, time printing his own pamphlets. In 1933, with the return of Bao Dai to ascend the throne, Diem was appointed by the French to be his interior minister. After calling for the French to introduce a Vietnamese legislature, he resigned after three months when this was rejected. He was stripped of his decorations and titles and threatened with arrest.[3] Ngô Ðình Khôi was a brother of Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty. ...


For the next decade, Diem lived as a private citizen with his family, although he was kept under surveillance. His attempts to persuade the invading Japanese forces to declare independence for Vietnam in 1942 were ignored, and in 1945, the Japanese overlooked him for an administration under Bao Dai which they organised upon leaving the country. In September 1945 when Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and his Vietminh began fighting the French, Diem attempted to travel to Hue to dissuade Bao Dai from joining Ho, but was arrested by the Vietminh along the way and exiled to a highland village near the border. He might have died of malaria had the local tribesmen not nursed him back to health. Six months later, he was taken to meet Ho in Hanoi, but refused to join the Vietminh, assailing Ho for the death of his brother Khoi. Diem continued to gather support for himself in the late 1940s, without success. The Vietminh sentenced him to death in absentia, and tried to kill him while he was travelling to visit his elder brother Ngo Dinh Thuc in the Mekong Delta, where he was the bishop of the Vinh Long diocese. Diem then left Vietnam in 1950.[3] For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Archbishop Peter Martin Ngo Dinh Thuc (October 6, 1897 - December 13, 1984), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Hué, Vietnam, was born in Hué, on October 6, 1897, of Catholic parents. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ...


He spent the years from 1951-53 in the Maryknoll Junior Seminary in Lakewood, N.J.. He spent this period lobbying the U.S. government to not support the French, noting that the French were "fighting the people"[4]. He returned to be appointed Prime Minister of South Vietnam by former Emperor and then-current Chief of State Bảo Đại in 1954, on the condition that he be given total control over all civilian and military matters.[5]


Rise to power

Diệm's appointment came after the French had been defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and were ready to withdraw from Indochina. At the start of 1955, French Indochina was dissolved, leaving Diem in temporary control of the south.[6] A referendum was scheduled for October 23, 1955 to determine the future direction of the south. It was contested by Bao Dai, the Emperor, advocating the restoration of the monarchy, while Diem ran on a republican platform. The elections were held, with Diem's brother and confidant Ngo Dinh Nhu, the leader of the family's Can Lao Party, which supplied Diem's electoral base, organising and supervising the elections.[7][8] Campaigning for Bao Dai was prohibited, and the result was rigged, with Bao Dai supporters attacked by Nhu's workers. Diem recorded 98.2% of the vote, including 605,025 votes in Saigon, where only 450 thousand voters were registered. Diem's tally also exceeded the registration numbers in other districts.[9][7] Three days later, Diem proclaimed the formation of the Republic of Vietnam, with him as President. The 1955 South Vietnamese election was a referendum held to determine the future leadership of the nation that was to become Republic of Vietnam. ... Combatants France, Vietnam (loyalist), Hmong mercenaries Vietnam (Viet Minh), Chinese consultants Commanders Christian de Castries, Pierre Langlais # Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195 wounded, 11... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... French Indochina (French: LIndochine française, Vietnamese: Đông DÆ°Æ¡ng thuá»™c Pháp) was the part of the French colonial empire in Indochina in southeast Asia, consisting of a federation of protectorates (Tonkin and Annam, which now form Vietnam, as well as Cambodia and Laos) and one directly... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu, born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ...


Under the 1954 Geneva Accords, Vietnam was to undergo elections in 1956 to reunify the country. Diem, noting that South Vietnam was not a party to the convention, canceled these. He noted said that free and fair elections were not possible under the Communists, despite his numerically impossible tally in the 1955 poll. The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ...


Rule

Diệm's rule was authoritarian and nepotistic. His most trusted official was his brother, Ngô Đình Nhu, leader of the primary pro-Diệm political party. Ngô Đình Cẩn, his younger brother, was put in charge of the former Imperial City of Huế. Although neither Cẩn or Nhu held any official role in the government, they ruled their regions of South Vietnam, commanding private armies and secret police. Another brother, Ngô Đình Luyện, was appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom and also put in charge of the Cham people minorities in the Central Plains of Vietnam. His elder brother, Ngô Đình Thục, was the archbishop of Huế. Despite this, Thuc lived in the Presidential Palace, along with Nhu, Nhu's wife and Diem. Diem was nationalistic, devout Catholic, anti-Communist, and preferred the philosophies of personalism and Confucianism.[10] The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Nepotism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu, born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... Ngo Dinh Can was the brother of South Vietnams first president Ngo Dinh Diem. ... Ngo Dinh Luyen was appointed as ambassador to the United Kingdom by his brother Ngo Dinh Diem and ruled the province of the Cham people minorities. ... This article is about the Cham people of Asia. ... Archbishop Ngô Đình Thuc Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (chữ nôm: 吴廷俶) (approximately pronounced Ngoh Din Took ) (October 6, 1897–December 13, 1984), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Huế, Vietnam, was born in Huế, on October 6, 1897, of Catholic parents. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles: Only persons are real (in the ontological sense), Only persons have value, and Only persons have free will. ... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ...


Madame Nhu, the wife of his brother Nhu, was South Vietnam's First Lady and she led the way in Diệm's programs to reform Saigon society in accordance with their Catholic values. Brothels and opium dens were closed, divorce and abortion made illegal, and adultery laws were strengthened. Diệm also won a street war with the private army of the Binh Xuyen organised crime syndicate of the Cholon brothels and gambling houses who had enjoyed special favors under the French and Bảo Đại. he further dismantled the private armies of the Cao Dai and Hoa Hao religious sects, which controlled parts of the Mekong Delta. Diệm was also passionately anti-Communist. Tortures and killings of "communist suspects" were committed on a daily basis.[citation needed] Madame Nhu Madame Nhu (born 1924 in Hanoi, Vietnam), also known as Madame Ngô Ðình Nhu and born Trần Lệ Xuân (Chu Nom: 陳麗春), was First Lady of South Vietnam from 1955 to 1963. ... This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Depiction of opium smokers in an opium den in the East End of London, 1874. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Binh Xuyen was a powerful Vietnamese criminal organization. ... Tay Ninh Holy See Cao Dai   (Cao Đài) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ...


As opposition to Diem's rule in South Vietnam grew, a low-level insurgency began to take shape there in 1957. Finally, in January 1959, under pressure from southern cadres who were being successfully targeted by Diem's secret police, Hanoi's Central Committee issued a secret resolution authorizing the use of armed struggle in the South. On 20 December 1960, under instruction from Hanoi, southern communists established the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam in order to overthrow the government of the south. The NLF was made up of two distinct groups: South Vietnamese intellectuals who opposed the government and were nationalists; and communists who had remained in the south after the partition and regrouping of 1954 as well as those who had since come from the north, together with local peasants. While there were many non-communist members of the NLF, they were subject to the control of the party cadres and increasingly side-lined as the conflict continued; they did, however, enable the NLF to portray itself as a primarily nationalist, rather than communist, movement. December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... NLF flag The National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. ...


The cornerstone of Diem's counterinsurgency effort was the Strategic Hamlet Program, which called for the consolidation of 14,000 villages of South Vietnam into 11,000 secure hamlets, each with its own houses, schools, wells, and watchtowers. The hamlets were intended to isolate the NLF from the villages, their source of recruiting soldiers, supplies and information. The Strategic Hamlet Program was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the nationalist insurgency by means of population transfer. ... NLF flag The National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. ...


Diem was the subject of two failed coups. The first occurred in 1960, and the second occurred in 1962 after two air force officers revolted and bombed his palace.


Land policy

During the 1946-54 war against the French colonial forces, the Vietminh, having gained control of parts of southern Vietnam, embarked on land reform. During the period of war, rent collection, which hovered at around 50-70% was impossible in some parts of the country or the Vietminh had compelled landlords to seek safety in the city, and confiscated their lands, distributing it to the peasants. When Diem came to powere, he reversed these, with upper class landowners being his ideological support base. In the Mekong Delta, 0.025% of landowners owned 40% of the land. Most of the land was owned by absentee landlords and worked by tenant farmers. This generated resentment among the populace, as land ownership was highly valued in the society. Diem declared that landlords could collect no more than 25%, but this was not enforced and in some cases the rent levels were higher than those under French colonisation. Under US pressure, in 1956, he limited individual land holdings to 115 hectares, and reimbursed the landlords for the excess, which he sold to peasants. Many landlords evaded the redistribution by transferring the property to the name of family members. In addition, the ceiling limit was more than 30 times that allowed in South Korea and Taiwan, and the 370,000 acres of Catholic Church land was exempted. As a result, only 13% of the South Vietnam's land was redistributed, and by the end of his regime, only 10% of the tenants had received any land, at a high cost. It generated anger, and in turn sympathy to the Vietminh who had given them free land. At the end of his rule, 10% of the poulation owned 55% of the land.[11] The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ...


Government policy towards Buddhists

In a country where estimates of the religious composition of South Vietnam overwhelming estimate a Buddhist majority of between 70 and 90%.[12][13][14], Diem's policies generated claims of a religious bias. As a member of the Catholic Vietnamese minority, he is widely regarded by historians as having pursued pro-Catholic policies that antagonized many Buddhists. Specifically, the government was regarded as being biased towards Catholics in public servant and military promotions, as well as allocation of land, business favours and tax concessions.[15] Diem also once told a high-ranking officer, forgetting that he was a Buddhist "Put your Catholic officers in sensitive places. They can be trusted." Many officers in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam converted to Catholicism in the belief that their military prospects depended on it.[16] The Catholic church was the largest landowner in the country, and the "private" status that was imposed on Buddhism by the French, which required official permission to conduct public Buddhist activities, were not repealed by Diem.[17] The land owned by the Catholic church was exempt from land reform.[18] Catholics were also de facto exempt from the corvee labor that the government obliged all citizens to perform and distributed US aid disproportionately to Catholic majority villages. Under Diem, the Catholic church enjoyed special exemptions in property acquisition, and in 1959, Diem dedicated his country to the Virgin Mary.[19] The Roman Catholic Church in Vietnam is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...


Buddhist crisis

The regime's relations with the U.S. worsened during 1963, as well as heightening discontent among South Vietnam's Buddhist majority. 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


In May, in the central city of Huế, where Diệm's elder brother was the archbishop, Buddhists were prohibited from displaying Buddhist flags during Vesak celebrations commemorating the birth of Gautama Buddha when the government cited a regulation prohibiting the display of non-government flags. A few days, Catholics were allowed to fly religious flags at another celebration where the regulation was not enforced. This led to a protest lead by Thich Tri Quang against the government, which was suppressed by Diệm's forces, killing nine unarmed civilians. Diem and his supporters blamed the Vietcong for the deaths and blamed the protestors for the violence.[20] Although the province chief expressed sorrow for the killings and offered to compensate the victims' families, they resolutely denied that government forces were responsible for the killings and blamed the Vietcong.[21] Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


A turning point came in June when a Buddhist monk, Thích Quảng Đức, set himself on fire in the middle of a busy Saigon intersection in protest at Diem's policies, photos of which were transmitted around the world and for many people came to represent the failure of Diem's government.[22] A further number of monks publicly self-immolated themselves, and the U.S. grew increasingly frustrated with the unpopular leader's public image in both Vietnam and the United States. Diệm used his conventional argument, equating dissenters to communists.   (born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 - June 11, 1963), was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon intersection on June 11, 1963. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


As demonstrations against his government continued throughout the summer, the special forces loyal to Diem's brother Nhu raided the Xa Loi Pagoda in Saigon in August, arresting around 1400 monks, and injuring thirty as well as vandalising the pagoda. The US indicated their disapproval of Diem's administration when their ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge visited the Pagoda in the aftermath.[23] No further mass Buddhist protests occurred during the remainder of his rule.[24] Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ...


During this time, Madame Nhu, who was a defacto first lady due to Diem's bachelor life, inflamed the situation by mockingly applauding the suicides, referring to them as "barbeques" while Nhu stated "if the Buddhists want to have another barbeque, I will be glad to supply the gasoline".[25]


Coup and Assassination

On orders from U.S. President John F. Kennedy, Henry Cabot Lodge, the American ambassador to South Vietnam, refused to meet with Diệm. Upon hearing that a coup d'etat was being designed by ARVN Generals led by General Dương Văn Minh, the United States gave secret assurances to the generals that the U.S. would not interfere. Dương Văn Minh and his fellow plotters overthrew the government on November 2, 1963. The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


The coup was very swift. On November 1, 1963, with only the palace guard remaining to defend President Diệm and his younger brother, Ngô Đình Nhu, the generals called the palace offering Diệm safe exile out of the country if they surrendered. But that evening, they snuck out of the palace through an underground passage to Cholon, where they were captured the following morning, November 2. The brothers were executed in the back of an armored personnel carrier that was taking them to Vietnamese Joint General Staff headquarters.[26] Diem was buried in an unmarked grave in a cemetery next to the house of the US ambassador, Lodge.[27] November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu, born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... Cholon (Vietnamese: quoc ngu ; chu nom ) is the name of the Chinese district of Ho Chi Minh City (the former Saigon), the largest such Chinatown district in Vietnam. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ...


The United States publicly expressed shock and disappointment that Diệm had been killed.


Aftermath

Upon learning of Diem's ouster and death, Ho Chi Minh is reported to have said, "I can scarcely believe the Americans would be so stupid."[28] The North Vietnamese Politburo, was more explicit, predicting: "The consequenses of the 1 November coup d'état will be contrary to the calculations of the U.S. imperialists... Diem was one of the strongest individuals resisting the people and Communism. Everything that could be done in an attempt to crush the revolution was carried out by Diem. Diem was one of the most competent lackeys of the U.S. imperialists... Among the anti-Communists in South Vietnam or exiled in other countries, no one has sufficient political assets and abilities to cause others to obey. Therefore, the lackey administration cannot be stabilized. The coup d'état on 1 November 1963 will not be the last."[29]


After Diem's assassination, South Vietnam was unable to establish a stable government and numerous coups took place during the first several years after his death. While the U.S. continued to influence South Vietnam's government, the assassination bolstered the North Vietnamese attempts to characterize the South Vietnamese as supporters of colonialism.[citation needed]


See also

Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

References

  1. ^ Ngo Dinh Diem - University of Wisconsin
  2. ^ Anthony Trawick Bouscaren, 'The Last of the Mandarins: Diem of Vietnam,' Duquesene University Press, Pittsburgh, Penna, 1965. P13.
  3. ^ a b c Karnow (1997) p.229-233
  4. ^ The Beleaguered Man TIME - Apr. 04, 1955
  5. ^ Moyar (2006) p. 33.
  6. ^ Maclear (1981) pp.65-68
  7. ^ a b Karnow (1997) p239
  8. ^ Langguth (2000) p.99
  9. ^ Jacobs (2006) p95
  10. ^ Karnow (1997) p. 326; Moyar (2006) p. 36.
  11. ^ Jacobs (2006) pp93-96
  12. ^ The 1966 Buddhist Crisis in South Vietnam HistoryNet
  13. ^ Gettleman (1966) pp. 275-276.
  14. ^ Moyar (2006) p. 215-216.
  15. ^ Tucker (2000) p. 291.
  16. ^ Gettleman (1966) pp. 280-282.
  17. ^ Karnow (1997) p. 294.
  18. ^ Buttinger p. 933.
  19. ^ Jacobs p. 91
  20. ^ Karnow (1997) p. 295; Moyar (2006) pp. 212-213.
  21. ^ Gettleman (1966) pp. 64-283.
  22. ^ Gettleman (1966) pp. 264-283.
  23. ^ Gettleman (1966) pp. 278-283.
  24. ^ Moyar (2006) pp. 212-216, 231-234.
  25. ^ Tucker (2000) pp. 292-293.
  26. ^ The Pentagon Papers, Vol. 2 Ch. 4 "The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, May-November, 1963," pp. 201-276,
  27. ^ G. Herring, America's Longest War, 1996, pp116.
  28. ^ Moyar (2006) p. 286.
  29. ^ Moyar (2006) p. 286.

Further reading

See also Frances Fitzgerald (Irish politician) Frances FitzGerald (born 1940) is an American journalist best known for her work Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (1972). ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Little, Brown and Company is a publishing house established by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... David Halberstam (born April 10, 1934), American journalist and author, was born in New York City, his father a surgeon and his mother a teacher. ... Stanley Karnow is a Pulitzer Prize-winning author who covered Asia from 1959 as chief correspondent for Time and Life. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Methuen & Co Limited is a firm of British publishers, which began publishing in London in 1892. ... NY redirects here. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits helped establish the hegemony of Zeus and the Twelve... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... A Bright Shining Lie A Bright Shining Lie is a book by Neil Sheehan, a former New York Times reporter covering the Vietnam War, about U.S. Army retired Lieutenant Colonel John Paul Vann and the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... ABC-CLIO is a publisher of reference works for the study of history in academic, secondary school, and public library settings. ...

External links

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Preceded by
none
President of the Republic of Vietnam
1955–1963
Succeeded by
Dương Văn Minh
Preceded by
Prince Bửu Lộc
Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam
1954-1955
Succeeded by
Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ
Persondata
NAME Ngo Dinh Diem
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ngô Đình Diệm Jean Baptiste (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION First President of the Republic of Vietnam
DATE OF BIRTH 3 January 1901
PLACE OF BIRTH Hue, Vietnam
DATE OF DEATH 2 November 1963
PLACE OF DEATH Saigon, Vietnam

  Results from FactBites:
 
Diem Ngo Dinh - Search Results - MSN Encarta (112 words)
Diem, Ngo Dinh (1901-1963), president of South Vietnam (1955-1963), born in Quang Binh.
On November 1, 1963, the Diem regime was overthrown in a military coup.
Diem and his brother and political adviser, Ngo Dinh Nhu, were executed.
Talk:Ngo Dinh Diem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2023 words)
Ngo Dinh Diem is a person I revere very much, although I was born after(?) the war but through reference documents I feel that he is a person who should be respected.
Other times I changed "the United States" to "U.S. strategists," because during Ngo's regime the population of the U.S.A. was deeply divided among those either for or against the various actions taken by the U.S. government in Vietnam (and it would therefore be improper to ascribe such intentions to the entire nation).
This is due to the fact that the daughter of Diem's brother is called Ngo Dinh Le Thuy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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