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Encyclopedia > Nez Perce
Nez Perce
Tribal flag
Total population

2,700 Image File history File links Bandera_Nez_Percé.PNG‎ [edit] Sumari Bandera dels Nez Percé, elaboració pròpia. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the United States United States (Idaho)
Language(s)
English, Nez Perce
Religion(s)
Christianity, other
Related ethnic groups
other Penutian peoples

The Nez Perce (IPA: /ˌnɛzˈpɝs/) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. It is estimated that at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition the native people had been in the area for over 10,000 years.[1] The tribe currently govern and inhabit a reservation in Idaho. The Nez Perce's name for themselves is Nimi'ipuu (IPA: [nimiʔipuː]), which means simply "the people", or "we the people".[2] The name "Nez Percé" (meaning "pierced nose") is derived from the French, who named them this for the nose pendants some of them wore.[3] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Nez Perce (also spelled Nez Percé; pronounced as in French, or ) is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin (note the spellings, -ian vs. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Penutian is a phylum (or stock) of language families that include many Native American languages of western North America, predominantly spoken at one time in Washington, Oregon, and California. ... http://www. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... The Columbia River Plateau is shown in green on this map. ... “Lewis and Clark” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ...

Contents

Name, language, and culture

Nez Perce baby, 1911.
Nez Perce baby, 1911.

"Nez Perce" is the spelling of the name used by the tribe itself, the United States Government, and by contemporary historians. Older historical and ethnological works use the French spelling "Nez Percé," with the diacritic. Download high resolution version (738x1024, 134 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (738x1024, 134 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...


In the journals of William Clark, the people are referred to as Chopunnish (IPA: ['ʧopənɪʃ]). This term is an adaptation of the term cú·pʼnitpeľu (The Nez Perce people) which is formed from cú·pʼnit (piercing with a pointed object) and peľu (people).[4] Nez Perce oral tradition indicates the name Cuupn'itpel'uu meant “we walked out of the woods or walked out of the mountains" and referred to the time before the Nez Perce had horses. The most common self designation used today by the Nez Perce is Nimi'ipuu.[5] Nez Perce is a misnomer given by the interpreter of the Lewis and Clark expedition at the time they first encountered the tribe in 1805. It is from the French, "pierced nose." This is an inaccurate description of the tribe. They did not practice nose piercing or wearing ornaments. The actual "pierced nose" tribe lived on and around the lower Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest and are commonly called the Chinook tribe by historians and anthropologists. The Chinook were a salmon people as were the Nez Perce and shared fishing and trading sites but were much more hierarchical in their social arrangements. For other persons named William Clark, see William Clark (disambiguation). ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Nez Perce National Historical Park includes a research center which has the park's historical archives and library collection. It is available for on-site use in the study and interpretation of Nez Perce history and culture.[6]
The Nez Perce National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park comprisingf 38 sites located throughout the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington which are the traditional aboriginal lands of the Nez Perce. ...


Traditional lands

The Nez Perce territory at the time of Lewis and Clark was approximately 17,000,000 acres (69,000 km²). It covered parts of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, in an area surrounding the Snake, Salmon and the Clear Water Rivers. The tribal area extended from the Bitterroots in the east to the Blue Mountains in the west between latitude 45°N and 47°N.[7] An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Snake River (disambiguation). ... The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. ... The Clearwater River is a river in northern Idaho, the North Fork of which flows from the Idaho-Montana border westward to join the Snake River at Lewiston. ... The Bitterroot Range is a range of mountains along the Montana and United States. ... The Blue Mountains The Blue Mountains are a mountain range located largely in northeastern Oregon and stretching into southeastern Washington in the United States. ... This article is about the geographical term. ...


In 1800, there were over 70 permanent villages ranging from 30 to 200 individuals, depending on the season and social grouping. About 300 total sites have been identified, including both camps and villages. In 1805 the Nez Perce were the largest tribes on the Columbia River Plateau, with a population of about 6,000. By the beginning of the twentieth century the Nez Perce had declined to about 1,800 due to epidemics, conflicts with non-Indians, and other factors.[8] // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Columbia River Plateau is shown in green on this map. ...


The Nez Perce, as many western Native American tribes, were migratory and would travel with the seasons, according to where the most abundant food was to be found at a given time of year. This migration followed a predictable pattern from permanent winter villages through several temporary camps, nearly always returning to the same locations year after year. They were known to go as far east as the Great Plains, hunting American Bison and fishing for salmon at Celilo Falls on the Columbia River. They relied heavily on quamash or camas gathered in the region between the Salmon and Clearwater River drainages as a food source. For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Dipnet Fishing at Celilo Falls Located between the states of Oregon and Washington, Celilo Falls was a unique natural feature formed by the relentless push of the Columbia River through basalt-laden narrows east of the Cascade Mountains, onward towards the Pacific Ocean—the final leg of the river... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... Species Camassia quamash Quamash, also known as Small camas, is a perennial herb of the family Agavaceae. ... Species See text Camassia is a genus that historically used to belong to the lily family (Liliaceae), the Scilloideae family, or the Hyacinthinaceae family. ...

Nez Perce couple (c. 1900)University of Washington Digital Collections
Nez Perce couple (c. 1900)
University of Washington Digital Collections
Nez Perce warrior on horse, 1910.


Nez Perce couple (Spokane, WA abt 1900) Title: Nez Perce man and woman pose in front of tepee, with mountain behind them Photographer: Palmer, Frank, 1864-1920 Studio Location: United States--Washington (State)--Spokane Notes: Woman in full length dress over blouse, with long necklace & beaded belt stands beside man... Nez Perce couple (Spokane, WA abt 1900) Title: Nez Perce man and woman pose in front of tepee, with mountain behind them Photographer: Palmer, Frank, 1864-1920 Studio Location: United States--Washington (State)--Spokane Notes: Woman in full length dress over blouse, with long necklace & beaded belt stands beside man... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1585x2000, 926 KB)TITLE: The old-time warrior--Nez Percé CALL NUMBER: LOT 12325-C <item> [P&P] Check for an online group record (may link to related items) REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-101259 (b&w film copy neg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1585x2000, 926 KB)TITLE: The old-time warrior--Nez Percé CALL NUMBER: LOT 12325-C <item> [P&P] Check for an online group record (may link to related items) REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-101259 (b&w film copy neg. ...

Chief Joseph's surrender

On October 5, 1877, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Nation surrendered to units of the U.S. Cavalry. Before this retreat the Nez Perce fought a cunning strategic retreat toward refuge in Canada from about 2,000 Army soldiers. This surrender, after fighting 13 battles and going about 1,300 miles (2,090 km) toward Canada, marked the last great battle between the U.S. government and an Indian nation.[9] After surrendering, Chief Joseph stated his famous quote "Hear me, my chiefs, I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever." The flight path is reproduced by the Nez Perce National Historic Trail.[10] For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 and 1942. ...


Notable people

  • Probably the best known leader of the Nez Perce was Chief Joseph, who led his people in their struggle to retain their identity in the face of U.S. encroachments on their land.
  • One notable Nez Perce scholar was Archie Phinney (1903–1949). He studied under Franz Boas at Columbia University and produced a published collection of Nez Perce myths and legends from the oral tradition, Nez Perce Texts.
  • Actress Elaine Miles, best known from her role in television's Northern Exposure is Nez Perce.
  • Silent film actors Jack and Al Hoxie are the sons of a half Nez Perce mother.
  • Nez Perce War veteran and rodeo champion Jackson Sundown

Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Elaine Miles (April 7, 1960) is an Cayuse/Nez Perce actress best known for her role as Marilyn Whirlwind in the television series Northern Exposure. ... This article is about the TV series; there is also a mix album of the same name. ... Jack Hoxie Jack Hoxie (January 11, 1885 - March 28, 1965) was a notable rodeo performer and motion picture actor whose career was most prominent in the silent film era of the 1910s through the 1930s. ... Jackson Sundown (1863-December 18, 1923), born Waaya-Tonah-Toesits-Kahn, was a Native American rodeoer who has become a folk-hero for his mythic performance in the 1916 Pendleton Round-Up and largely popularized by Ken Keseys novel The Last Go Round. ...

Nez Perce horse breeding program

The Nez Perce tribe began a breeding program in 1995 based on crossbreeding the Appaloosa and a Central Asian breed called Akhal-Teke to produce the Nez Perce Horse. This is a program to re-establish the horse culture of the Nez Perce, a proud tradition of selective breeding and horsemanship that was destroyed in the 19th century. The breeding program was financed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the Nez Perce tribe and a nonprofit group called the First Nations Development Institute, which promotes such businesses in Indian country. An Appaloosa horse The Appaloosa is a horse breed with a color preference. ... Akhal-Teke The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in the Turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced ) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ... The Nez Perce Horse is a horse breed of the Nez Perce tribe of Idaho. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...


Fishing

Fishing is an important ceremonial, subsistence, and commercial activity for the Nez Perce tribe. Nez Perce fishers participate in tribal fisheries in the mainstem Columbia River between Bonneville Dam and McNary Dam. The Nez Perce also fish for spring/summer Chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River and its tributaries. The Nez Perce tribe runs the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery on the Clearwater River as well as several satellite hatchery programs. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Bonneville Lock and Dam is several dam structures that together complete a span of the Columbia River between the US states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146. ... Categories: Stub | Dams ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rainbow trout. ... For other uses, see Snake River (disambiguation). ...


Nez Perce Indian Reservation

The current tribal lands consist of a reservation comprising parts of four counties in northern Idaho; in descending order of surface area they are Nez Perce County, Lewis County, Idaho County, and Clearwater County. The total land area is 3,095.299 km² (1,195.102 sq mi), and the reservation's population as of the 2000 census was 17,959 residents.[11] Its largest community is the city of Orofino, near its northeast corner. Nez Perce County is a county located in the northern part of the state of Idaho along the border with Washington state. ... Lewis County is a county located in the state of Idaho. ... Idaho County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. ... Clearwater County is a county located in the state of Idaho. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Orofino (fine gold [ore] in Spanish) is a town located in Clearwater County, Idaho, along the Clearwater River. ...


Communities


Craigmont is a city located in Lewis County, Idaho. ... Culdesac is a city located in Nez Perce County, Idaho. ... Ferdinand is a city located in Idaho County, Idaho. ... Kamiah is a city located in Lewis County, Idaho. ... Kooskia is a city located in Idaho County, Idaho. ... Lapwai is a city located in Nez Perce County, Idaho. ... Nezperce is a city located in Lewis County, Idaho. ... Orofino (fine gold [ore] in Spanish) is a town located in Clearwater County, Idaho, along the Clearwater River. ... Peck is a city located in Nez Perce County, Idaho. ... For the painter see Peter Paul Rubens (1577 &#8211; 1640) Reubens is a city located in Lewis County, Idaho on the Camas Prairie. ... Stites is a city located in Idaho County, Idaho. ... Winchester is a city in Lewis County, Idaho, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 308. ...

References

  1. ^ Chatters, James C.; David L. Pokotylo (1998). "Prehistory: Introduction.", Handbook of North American Indians v.12 Plateau. Smithsonian Institution, pp. 73-80. ISBN 0-16-049514-8. 
  2. ^ Nimi'ipuu. Nez Perce History. Nez Perce Tribe Web Site. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  3. ^ Loewen, James W; Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong; Page 101
  4. ^ Walker, Deward (1998). Plateau, Handbook of North American Indians v. 12. Smithsonian Institution, 437-438. ISBN 0-16-049514-8. 
  5. ^ Nimi'ipuu. Nez Perce History. Nez Perce Tribe Web Site. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  6. ^ Nez Perce National Historic Park research center http://www.nps.gov/nepe/historyculture/research-center.htm
  7. ^ Spinden, Herbert Joseph (1908). Nez Percé Indians, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, v.2 pt.3. American Anthropological Association, 172. OCLC 4760170. 
  8. ^ Walker, Jr., Jones, Deward E., Peter N. (1964). The Nez Perce. http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/walker.html:+University of Washington. 
  9. ^ USA Government FAQ on Nez Perce flight path http://www.fs.fed.us/npnht/faq/
  10. ^ USA government historical trail map and brochure http://www.fs.fed.us/npnht/brochure/overall.pdf
  11. ^ Nez Perce Reservation Census of Population. United States Census Bureau (2000). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  • Alvin M. Josephy, Jr.: The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest. Houghton Mifflin, 1965.
  • L.V. McWhorter: Hear Me, My Chiefs! Nez Perce Legend and History. Caxton Printers, 1992.
  • L.V. McWhorter: Yellow Wolf: His Own Story. Caxton Printers, 1940.
  • John R. Swanton: The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, Smithsonian Press, Washington D.C., 1969
  • Deward E. Walker Jr.: Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 12: Plateau. Smithsonian Institution (Hg.). Washington: 1998.
  • Brown, Dee (1970). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. ISBN 0-330-23219-3. 

The Handbook of North American Indians is a multi-volume set of encyclopedias published by the Smithsonian Institution beginning in 1978. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James (Jim) W. Loewen PhD is an author, historian, and professor. ... The Handbook of North American Indians is a multi-volume set of encyclopedias published by the Smithsonian Institution beginning in 1978. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Handbook of North American Indians is a multi-volume set of encyclopedias published by the Smithsonian Institution beginning in 1978. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ...

Further reading

  • Beal, Merrill D. "I Will Fight No More Forever"; Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce War. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1963.
  • Bial, Raymond. The Nez Perce. New York: Benchmark Books, 2002. ISBN 0761412107
  • Boas, Franz (1917). Folk-tales of Salishan and Sahaptin tribes (DJVU), Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection, Published for the American Folk-Lore Society by G.E. Stechert & Co.. OCLC 2322072. 
  • Humphrey, Seth K (1906). The Indian dispossessed (DJVU), Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection, Revised, Little, Brown and Co.. OCLC 4450366. 
  • Josephy, Alvin M. The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest. Yale western Americana series, 10. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.
  • Judson, Katharine Berry (1912). Myths and legends of the Pacific Northwest, especially of Washington and Oregon (DJVU), Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection, 2nd, McClurg. OCLC 10363767.  Oral traditions from the Chinook, Nez Perce, Klickitat and other tribes of the Pacific Northwest.
  • Lavender, David Sievert. Let Me Be Free: The Nez Perce Tragedy. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 0060167076
  • Nerburn, Kent. Chief Joseph & the Flight of the Nez Perce: The Untold Story of an American Tragedy. New York, NY: HarperSanFrancicso, 2005. ISBN 0060513012
  • Stout, Mary. Nez Perce. Native American peoples. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Pub, 2003. ISBN 0836836669
  • Warren, Robert Penn. Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce, Who Called Themselves the Nimipu, "the Real People": A Poem. New York: Random House, 1983. ISBN 0394530195

Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Minden, Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     

Mensa
16th November 2010
Nice article, but copied and pasted from wikipedia.

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