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Encyclopedia > Newton

The Newton (symbol: N) is the SI derived unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. // A newton, the SI unit of force (named in honor of Sir Isaac Newton). ... “SI” redirects here. ... SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units. ... In physics, a net force acting on a body causes that body to accelerate; that is, to change its velocity. ... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ...

Contents

Definition

The Newton is the unit of force derived in the SI system; it is equal to the amount of force required to give a mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second squared . Algebraically: Kg redirects here. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... Metres per second squared is the SI derived unit of acceleration (scalar) and (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds and again divided by time in seconds. ...

{rm 1~N = 1~frac{kgcdot m}{s^2}}.

Examples

  • 1 N is the force of earth's gravity on an object with a mass of about 102 g (19.8 kg) (such as a small apple).
  • On Earth's surface, a mass of 1 kg exerts a force of approximately 9.81 N [down] (or 1 kgf). The approximation of 1 kg corresponding to 10 N is sometimes used as a rule of thumb in everyday life and in engineering.
  • The decaNewton (daN) = 10 N is increasingly used when specifying load bearing capacity of items such as ropes and anti-vibration mounts, being approximately equivalent to the more familiar non-SI unit of force, the kgf.
  • The force of Earth's gravity on a human being with a mass of 70 kg is approximately 687 N.
  • The scalar product of force and distance is energy. Thus, in SI units, a force of 1 N exerted over a distance of 1 m is 1 N·m = 1 joule, the SI unit of energy.
  • Because a Newton is a small force, it is common to see forces expressed in kiloNewtons or kN, where 1 kN = 1 000 N.
  • A metric tonne (1 000 kg) exerts a force of 9.8 kN (or 1 000 kgf) under standard gravity conditions on Earth.

The unit kilogram-force (kgf, often just kg) or kilopond (kp) is defined as the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity. ... The unit kilogram-force (kgf, often just kg) or kilopond (kp) is defined as the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity. ... In mathematics, the dot product (also known as the scalar product and the inner product) is a function (·) : V × V → F, where V is a vector space and F its underlying field. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... g (also gee, g-force or g-load) is a non-SI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ...

Notes

Units of force
newton
(SI unit)
dyne kilogram-force,
kilopond
pound-force poundal
1 N ≡ 1 kg·m/s² = 105 dyn ≈ 0.10197 kp ≈ 0.22481 lbf ≈ 7.2330 pdl
1 dyn = 10−5 N ≡ 1 g·cm/s² ≈ 1.0197×10−6 kp ≈ 2.2481×10−6 lbf ≈ 7.2330×10−5 pdl
1 kp = 9.80665 N = 980665 dyn gn·(1 kg) ≈ 2.2046 lbf ≈ 70.932 pdl
1 lbf ≈ 4.448222 N ≈ 444822 dyn ≈ 0.45359 kp gn·(1 lb) ≈ 32.174 pdl
1 pdl ≈ 0.138255 N ≈ 13825 dyn ≈ 0.014098 kp ≈ 0.031081 lbf ≡ 1 lb·ft/s²
The value of gn as used in the official definition of the kilogram-force is used here for all gravitational units.
Three approaches to mass and force units
System Gravitational Engineering Absolute
Force (F) F = m·a F = m·a/gc = w·a/g F = m·a
Weight (w) w = m·g w = m·g/gc ≈ m w = m·g
Units English Metric English Metric English Metric
Acceleration (a) ft/s2 m/s2 ft/s2 m/s2 ft/s2 m/s2
Mass (m) slug hyl pound-mass kilogram pound kilogram
Force (F) pound kilopond pound-force kilopond poundal newton

Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In physics, the dyne is a unit of force specified in the centimetre-gram-second (cgs) system of units, symbol dyn. One dyne is equal to exactly 10-5 newtons. ... The unit kilogram-force (kgf, often just kg) or kilopond (kp) is defined as the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity. ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... The poundal is a non-SI unit of force. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... g (also gee, g-force or g-load) is a non-SI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... The slug is an English unit of mass. ... For other meanings, see Slug (disambiguation) The slug is an English and U.S. customary unit of mass. ... Officially the pound is the name for at least three different units of mass: The pound (avoirdupois). ... Kg redirects here. ... The deprecated unit kilogram-force (kgf) or kilopond (kp) is the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity (defined as exactly 9. ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... The poundal is a non-SI unit of force. ...

References

  • Halliday, Resnick and Walker Fundamentals of Physics, John Wiley & Sons ISBN 0471470619

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...

See also

  • Joule, the SI unit of energy, equivalent to 1 newton exerted over a distance of 1 meter.
  • Pascal, the SI unit of pressure, equivalent to 1 newton acting on an area of 1 square meter.
  • Kilogram-force, the force exerted by Earth's gravity on one kilogram of mass.
The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... The unit kilogram-force (kgf, often just kg) or kilopond (kp) is defined as the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity. ...

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