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Encyclopedia > News writing
Topics in the Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, reporting and analyzing information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. Journalism is sometimes called the first draft of history. Even though news articles are often written on deadline, they are usually edited... Journalism . (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:News-trade&action=edit)

Journalistic standards and ethics or, more precisely journalism ethics, include sets of ethical principles tailored to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalisms (non-professional may also benefit from study and application of them as well). Historically and currently these principles are most widely known to journalists as codes... Ethics & News values determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet. In practice such decisions are made informally by editors on the basis of their experience and intuition, however analysis shows that several factors are consistently applied across a range of news organizations. In 1965, Galtung... News values
Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to proper journalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. Definitions According to some, it refers to the prevailing ideology of newsgathering and reporting that emphasizes eyewitness accounts of events, corroboration of facts with... Objectivity & In journalism attribution is the identification of the source of reported information. Journalists ethical codes normally address the issue of attribution, which is sensitive because in the course of their work journalists may receive information from sources who wish to remain anonymous. In investigative journalism important news stories often depend... Attribution
News is the reporting of current events usually by local, regional or mass media in the form of newspapers, television and radio programs, or sites on the World Wide Web. News reporting is a type of journalism, typically written or broadcast in news style. Most news is investigated and presented... News & Investigative journalism is a branch of journalism that usually concentrates on a very specific topic, and typically requires a lot of work to yield results. The classic example is the uncovering of the Watergate Scandal by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, resulting in reports being published in the Washington Post... Investigation
A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. Reporting is usually distinguished from similar work, such as writing in general, by news judgment (determining newsworthiness) and journalism values (such as objectivity). Reporters get their information in a variety of ways... Reporting & Writing
Business journalism includes coverage of companies, the workplace, personal finance, and economics, including unemployment and other economic indicators. Business coverage gained prominence in the 1990s, with wider investment in the stock market. The Wall Street Journal focuses on business and is one of the USAs top newspapers, in both... Business & Citizen journalism, also known as participatory journalism is the act of citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information, according to the seminal report, We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information, by Shayne Bowman and Chris... Citizen
As long as there has been media there has been alternative media. The line between the two is not always clearly defined. Proponents of alternative media often argue that the mainstream media is heavily biased. Causes of this bias include the political interests of the owners, government influence or the... Alternative & Advocacy journalism aims to persuade through fact-telling. It rejects the notion of objectivity, instead exposing bias to the reader and expressing explicit opinions on the subject matter. The general goal is to present facts in such a compelling, well-researched manner that even a skeptical reader or one who... Advocacy
List of journalism topics A-D AP Stylebook Arizona Republic Associated Press Bar chart Canadian Association of Journalists Chart Citizen journalism Committee to Protect Journalists Conservative bias Copy editing Desktop publishing E-J Editor Freedom of the press Graphic design Hedcut Headline Headlinese Hostile media effect House style Information graphic... Other Topics & List of books related to journalism: The Art of Editing, by Floyd K. Baskette, Jack Z. Scissors, Brian S. Brooks Designing Infographics, by Eric K. Meyer The Elements of Journalism: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect, by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel Infographics, by James Glen Stovall... Books

External Influence

Infotainment (a portmanteau word formed from information and entertainment), also known as soft news, provides information in a way that is entertaining to its viewers. The information in infotainment programming consists of mostly celebrity news and human drama. Categories: Stub ... Infotainment & Celebrity news is an aspect of the wider infotainment/news trade which focuses on celebrities and celebrity gossip. Categories: News trade stubs ... Celebrity news
Infotainers are entertainers in infotainment media, such as news anchors or news personalities who cross the line between journalism (quasi-journalism) and entertainment within the broader news trade. Notables in this field, (in the US media) are Barbara Walters, Katie Couric, Bill OReilly, Maury Povich, Deborah Norville, Keith Olbermann... Infotainers & Infotainment or soft news, refers to a part of the wider news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers, as evident by attraction of a higher market demographic. The information in infotainment programming consists of mostly celebrity news and human drama stories, leading... media personalities
Distorted news or planted news are terms in journalism for two deviated aspects of the wider news media wherein media outlets deliberately present false data, evidence, or sources as factual, in contradiction to the ethical practices in professional journalism. It applies to any media organization wherin either corporate or government... Distorted news & A video news release (VNR) is a television video program used to promote or publicize a product or viewpoint. They are often created in the same style as traditional television news reports, which has led to some notable confusion. In 2004, a controversy with the Bush administration emerged when a... VNRs "Fake" News
Yellow journalism is a type of journalism in which sensationalism triumphs over factual reporting. This may take such forms as the use of colorful adjectives, exaggeration, a careless lack of fact-checking for the sake of a quick breaking news story, or even deliberate falsification of entire incidents. The sensationalized... Yellow journalism

The news media is a term used to describe print media (newspapers, magazines); broadcast media (radio stations, television stations, television networks), and often Internet-based media (World Wide Web pages, weblogs). Usually the term includes all working journalists and is often used by those who would make generalizations about the... News media

Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens Pawleys Island, South Carolina A newspaper is a lightweight and disposable publication, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint, containing a journal of current news in a variety of topics. These topics can include political events, crime, sports, opinion, weather. Newspapers also often include... Newspapers & This article is about the magazine as a published medium. For other meanings, see magazine (disambiguation) A collection of magazines Magazines A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles on various subjects. Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, or quarterly, with a date on the cover... Magazines
Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, reporting and analyzing information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. Journalism is sometimes called the first draft of history. Even though news articles are often written on deadline, they are usually edited... Broadcasting
Online & This article is about a type of web application. For information on records of web server activity, see server log. A weblog, Web log or simply a blog, is a web application which contains periodic posts on a common webpage. These posts are often but not necessarily in reverse chronological... Blogging

The terms news trade or news business refers to news-related organizations in the mass media (or information media) as a business entity —associated with but distinct from the profession of journalism. The news trade may include professional journalists, it also includes non-professionals from various trades, including spokespersons... Roles

A journalist is a person who practices journalism. Reporters are one type of journalist. They create reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find the sources for their work; the reports can be either... Journalists, A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. Reporting is usually distinguished from similar work, such as writing in general, by news judgment (determining newsworthiness) and journalism values (such as objectivity). Reporters get their information in a variety of ways... Reporters, A news anchor (US and CA) or newsreader (UK, AU and SL) (occasionally newscaster) is a person that works in television or radio that hosts a regular news program or provides occasional on air news updates. News anchors generally read prepared scripts, but in emergencies, they often have to ad... Anchors,

News style is the prose style of short, front-page Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina. A newspaper is a lightweight and disposable publication (more specifically, a periodical), usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special-interest, and may be published daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly, or quarterly. General-interest... newspaper stories and the News is the reporting of current events usually by local, regional or mass media in the form of newspapers, television and radio programs, or sites on the World Wide Web. News reporting is a type of journalism, typically written or broadcast in news style. Most news is investigated and presented... news bulletins that air on Radio transmission diagram and electromagnetic waves Radio is a technology that allows the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of light. Radio waves Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation, and are created whenever a charged object accelerates with a frequency that lies... radio and See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band Family watching television in the 1950s. Television is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. The term has come to refer to all the aspects of television programming and transmission... television. It encompasses not only vocabulary and sentence structure, but the order in which stories present information, their tone and the readers or interests to which they cater. This structure is called the The inverted pyramid is a graphical metaphor that is most often used to illustrate how information should be arranged or presented within a text, in particular within a news story. Despite the name, almost always the figure is drawn simply as an equilateral triangle with an apex pointing downward, rather... inverted pyramid.


Among the larger and more respected newspapers, fairness and balance is a major factor for the presentation of information. Commentary is usually confined to a separate section, though each paper may have a different overall slant. Editorial policy extends to the use of adjectives, euphemisms, and idioms. Papers with an international audience for example, usually use a more formal style of writing.


Specifically, news writing strives to be intelligible to the vast majority of potential readers, as well as to be engaging and succinct. Within the limits created by these goals, news stories also aim for a kind of comprehensiveness. They attempt to answer all the 5 Ws: Who? What? When? Where? and Why? The point is not comprehensiveness per se, but to satisfy reader curiosity. A journalist is a person who practices journalism. Reporters are one type of journalist. They create reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find the sources for their work; the reports can be either... Journalists try to anticipate readers' likely questions and answer them.


Language

Journalistic prose is explicit and precise, and tries not to rely on jargon. As a rule, journalists will not use a long word when a short one will do. They use subject-verb-object construction and vivid, active prose. They offer anecdotes, examples and metaphors, and they rarely depend on colorless generalizations or abstract ideas. News writers often avoid using the same word more than once in a paragraph (sometimes called an "echo" or "word mirror"). Most importantly, they use neutral or nonjudgemental language. Journalists view non-neutral words and unattributed statements of opinion as "editorializing" or failures of objectivity.


Structure

Teachers often describe the organization or structure of a news story as an The inverted pyramid is a graphical metaphor that is most often used to illustrate how information should be arranged or presented within a text, in particular within a news story. Despite the name, almost always the figure is drawn simply as an equilateral triangle with an apex pointing downward, rather... inverted pyramid. In essence, a journalist top-loads the essential and most interesting elements of his or her story. Supporting information then follows in order of diminishing importance.


The most important structural element of a story is its lead (or sometimes spelled lede to avoid inadvertent confusion with In typography, leading (pronounced ledd-ing) refers to the amount of added space between lines of type. When type was set by hand for printing presses, printers placed slugs—strips of lead of various thicknesses—between lines of type to add space. Leading is commonly confused with line... the typographical term or similarly spelled words), which may in fact be all of a story that many people will read. The lead is the first sentence, or in special cases the first two sentences. The top-loading principle applies especially to leads, but the unreadability of long sentences constrains the size of the lead. This makes writing a lead an optimization problem, in which the goal is to articulate the most encompassing and interesting statement that a writer can make in one sentence, given the material he or she has to work with.


While a rule of thumb says the lead should answer most or all of the 5 Ws, few leads fit all of these in. If they did they would either be tedious, opaque with jargon or too long.


The second paragraph is a fine place for vital information that does not appear in the first. At the very end comes the non-vital material.


This structure enables readers to quit at any point and still come away with the essence of a story. It allows people to enter a topic to the depth that their curiosity takes them, and without the imposition of details or nuances that they would consider irrelevant.


Newsroom practicalities represent another rationale. The inverted pyramid structure enables editors and other news staff to quickly create space for ads and late-breaking news simply by cutting paragraphs from the bottom ("cutting" literally, at the papers that still use traditional paste-up techniques). The structure frees editors to truncate stories at almost any length that suits their needs for space.


Poor structure typically begins with a faulty lead. Steeped in the raw material of their interviews and research, apprentice news writers often fail to anticipate what readers will find most interesting or to sum up the information quickly. These elements of their story they present only after their lead and in an article's later paragraphs. This is the reason for the popular newsroom admonition: "Don't bury the lead!"


Feature style

In fact, news stories aren't the only stories that appear in newspapers and magazines. Longer articles, such as magazine cover articles and the pieces that lead the inside sections of a newspaper, are known as features. Feature stories differ from straight news in several ways. Foremost is the absence of a straight-news lead, at least most of the time. Instead of offering the essence of a story up front, feature writers typically attempt to lure readers in.


A feature's first paragraphs often relate an intriguing moment or event, as in an "anecdotal lead". From the particulars of a person or episode, its view quickly broadens to generalities about the story's subject.


The section that signals what a feature is about is called the nut graf or billboard. Billboards appear as the third or fourth paragraph from the top, and may be up to two paragraphs long. Unlike a lead, a billboard rarely gives everything away. This reflects the fact that feature writers aim to hold their readers to the end, which requires engendering curiosity and offering a "payoff." Feature paragraphs tend to be longer than those of news stories, with smoother transitions between them. Feature writers use the active-verb construction and concrete explanations of straight news, but often they put more personality in their prose.


Feature stories close with a "kicker." In feature writing, it's a mistake to end by simply petering out... like this.


  Results from FactBites:
 
News style - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1120 words)
News style encompasses not only vocabulary and sentence structure, but also the way in which stories present the information in terms of relative importance, tone, and intended audience.
There are debated degrees of professionalism among particular news agencies, and their reputability or public value, according to professional standards of idealism and depending on what the reader wants from a news story, may be tied to their ability to be objective.
This makes writing a lede an optimization problem, in which the goal is to articulate the most encompassing and interesting statement that a writer can make in one sentence, given the material with which he or she has to work.
Lawan Yakubu Babura: NEWS WRITING TECHNIQUES (2259 words)
The golden rule for writing about anything is to know what it is because nobody can write about what he or she does not know.
News writing differs from creative writing as it deals with facts, especially for radio which emphasizes on hard, solid facts.
Now that we have an idea of what the word news entails and the basic tools of the trade, it is still necessary for the reporter to know what the news story he or she wants to write is all about.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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