FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
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Encyclopedia > News values
Topics in Journalism.
Professional concepts

Ethics & News values
Objectivity & Attribution
News source
News & Investigation
Reporting & Writing
Business & Citizen
Alternative & Advocacy
Science journalism
Other Topics & Books
Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, analyzing and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ... Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to proper journalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... In journalism attribution is the identification of the source of reported information. ... Source is a term used in journalism to refer to any individual from whom information about a story has been received. ... News is new information or current events. ... Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest, often related to crime, scandals, government corruption, or white collar crime. ... A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... News style is the prose style of short, front-page newspaper stories and the news bulletins that air on radio and television. ... Business journalism includes coverage of companies, the workplace, personal finance, and economics, including unemployment and other economic indicators. ... Citizen journalism, also known as participatory journalism, is the act of citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information, according to the seminal report We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information, by Shayne Bowman and Chris... As long as there has been media there has been alternative media. ... Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism which is strongly fact-based, but may seek to support a point-of-view in some public or private sector issue. ... Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism, which utilizes the art of reporting to convey information on science topics to a public forum. ... List of journalism topics A-D AP Stylebook Arizona Republic Associated Press Bar chart Canadian Association of Journalists Chart Citizen journalism Committee to Protect Journalists Conservative bias Copy editing Desktop publishing E-J Editor Freedom of the press Graphic design Hedcut Headline Headlinese Hostile media effect House style Information graphic... List of books related to journalism: The Art of Editing, by Floyd K. Baskette, Jack Z. Scissors, Brian S. Brooks Designing Infographics The Elements of Journalism What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect, by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel Infographics, by James Glen Stovall Media Management in the...

Outside influence

Infotainment & Celebrity
Infotainers & Personalities
Distorted news & VNRs
Yellow journalism
Public relations
Propaganda model Infotainment or soft news, refers to a general type of news media broadcast program which either provides a combination of current events news and entertainment programming, or an entertainment program structured in a news format. ... Celebrity news is an aspect of the wider infotainment/news trade which focuses on celebrities and celebrity gossip. ... Infotainers are entertainers in infotainment media, such as news anchors or news personalities who cross the line between journalism (quasi-journalism) and entertainment within the broader news trade. ... Infotainment or soft news, refers to a part of the wider news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers, as evident by attraction of a higher market demographic. ... Distorted news or planted news are terms in journalism for two deviated aspects of the wider news media wherein media outlets deliberately present false data, evidence, or sources as factual, in contradiction to the ethical practices in professional journalism. ... Public relations person, using a fictitious name, appears in U.S. Government Transportation Security Administration video news release on airport security (screenshot) A video news release (VNR) is a public relations or a propaganda technique whereby a video or radio program is produced, edited and distributed to various media outlets... Yellow journalism is a term given to any widespread tendencies or practices within media organizations that are detrimental to, or substandard from the point of view of, journalistic integrity. ... Public relations is, simply-stated, the art and science of building relationships between an organization and its key audiences. ... The propaganda model is a theory of political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that describes an hypothesised and empirically measured system of political biases of the mass media in terms of several causes, several of which are structural economic causes. ...

News media

Newspapers & Magazines
Online & Blogging News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... A collection of magazines A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. ... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Broadcast journalism refers to television news and radio news, as well as the online news outlets of broadcast affiliates. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A blog is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. ...


Journalists, Reporters, Editors, Anchors, Photojournalists, Visual journalists The terms news trade or news business refers to news-related organizations in the mass media (or information media) as a business entity —associated with but distinct from the profession of journalism. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... An Editor is a person who prepares text—typically language, but also images and sounds—for publication by correcting, condensing, or otherwise modifying it. ... NBC news anchor Tom Brokaw A news presenter is, broadly speaking, a person that presents a news show on television, radio or the Internet. ... Sports photojournalists at Indianapolis Motor Speedway Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. ...

Wiki Projects

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News values determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet. In practice such decisions are made informally by editors on the basis of their experience and intuition, however analysis shows that several factors are consistently applied across a range of news organizations. In 1965, Galtung and Ruge enumerated these factors. The following list is based on their analysis that remains influential today. News is new information or current events. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... Johan Galtung (Born 24th of October 1930 in Oslo, Norway) is a Norwegian professor, working at the Transcend Institute. ...



  • Threshold: A big story is one that has an extreme effect on a large number of people. Where the immediate effect of an event is more subtle, the threshold may be determined by the amount of money involved.
  • Frequency: Events that occur suddenly and fit well with the news organizations schedule are more likely to be reported than those that occur gradually or at inconvenient times of day or night. Long-term trends are not likely to receive much coverage.
  • Negativity: Bad news is more exciting than good news.
  • Unexpectedness: If an event is out of the ordinary it will have a greater effect than something that is an everyday occurrence. As Charles A. Dana famously put it: "if a dog bites a man, that's not news. But if a man bites a dog, that's news!"
  • Unambiguity: Events whose implications are clear make for better copy than those that are open to more than one interpretation, or where any understanding of the implications depends on first understanding the complex background in which the events take place.

Audience Identification

The arrest of Michael Jackson scores highly on factors related to Audience Identification
The arrest of Michael Jackson scores highly on factors related to Audience Identification
  • Personalisation: Events that can be portrayed as the actions of individuals will be more attractive than one in which there is no such "human interest."
  • Meaningfulness: This relates to the sense of identification the audience has with the topic. "Cultural proximity" is a factor here -- stories concerned with people who speak the same language, look the same, and share the preoccupations as the audience receive more coverage than those concerned with people who speak different languages, look different and have different preoccupations.
  • Reference to elite nations: Stories concerned with global powers receive more attention than those concerned with less influential nations.
  • Reference to elite persons: Stories concerned with the rich, powerful, famous and infamous get more coverage.

I believe this to be public domain. ... I believe this to be public domain. ...

Pragmatics of Media Coverage

Political speeches, inquiries and court cases lend themselves to media coverage because they are predictable and provide an ongoing narrative with which the audience becomes familiar. Here, Sen. Joe McCarthy holds up a list of alleged communist sympathizers.
Political speeches, inquiries and court cases lend themselves to media coverage because they are predictable and provide an ongoing narrative with which the audience becomes familiar. Here, Sen. Joe McCarthy holds up a list of alleged communist sympathizers.
  • Consonance: Stories that fit with the media's expectations receive more coverage than those that defy them (and for which they are thus unprepared). Note this appears to conflict with unexpectedness above. However, consonance really refers to the media's readiness to report an item. The story may still violate the audience's expectations, although today's media savvy audiences are not easily impressed by pre-prepared cliches.
  • Continuity: A story that is already in the news gathers a kind of inertia. This is partly because the media organizations are already in place to report the story, and partly because previous reportage may have made the story more accessible to the public (making it less ambiguous).
  • Composition: Stories must compete with one another for space in the media. For instance, editors may seek to provide a balance of different types of coverage, so that if there is an excess of foreign news for instance, the least important foreign story may have to make way for an item concerned with the domestic news. In this way the prominence given to a story depends not only on its own news values but also on those of competing stories.

Image File history File links McCarthy with list of communists, which was in fact just a random sheet of paper from his briefcase. ... Image File history File links McCarthy with list of communists, which was in fact just a random sheet of paper from his briefcase. ...


  • Galtung, J. & Ruge, M. Holmboe (1965): The Structure of Foreign News. The Presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus Crises in Four Norwegian Newspapers, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 2, pp. 64-91; online edition (JSTOR access required)

  Results from FactBites:
Analysing the News (1092 words)
News is often identified with the person reporting it - whether that is the journalist writing the story or the one fronting the TV report.
News is often supplied to newspapers, radios and TV stations by a news agency.
There is also a hierarchy of news - a series of news values that editors and other gatekeepers use in order to decide which news stories to communicate - and in what order.
UNCP - Journalism - The seven news values held by news media gatekeepers (435 words)
We often speak of seven news values held by news media gatekeepers – impact, timeliness, prominence, proximity, bizarreness, conflict, and currency.
Of particular value are stories brought to the public ahead of the competition.
For example, journalists assess the value of a news item reporting tragic deaths by comparing the number of deaths with the distance from the home community.
  More results at FactBites »



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