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Encyclopedia > Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Quaerite prime regnum Dei
(Latin: "Seek ye first the kingdom of God." A quote from The Gospel According to St. Matthew 6:33)
Map of Canada with Newfoundland and Labrador highlighted
Capital St. John's
Largest city St. John's
Largest metro St. John's
Official languages English (de facto)
Government
Lieutenant-Governor John Crosbie
Premier Danny Williams (PC)
Federal representation in Canadian Parliament
House seats 7
Senate seats 6
Confederation March 31, 1949 (12th)
Area  Ranked 10th
Total 405,212 km² (156,453 sq mi)
Land 373,872 km² (144,353 sq mi)
Water (%) 31,340 km² (12,100 sq mi) (7.7%)
Population  Ranked 9th
Total (2008) 508,099 (est.)[1]
Density 1.35 /km² (3.5 /sq mi)
GDP  Ranked 9th
Total (2006) C$24.897 billion[2]
Per capita C$47,520 (4th)
Abbreviations
Postal NL (formerly NF)
ISO 3166-2 CA-NL
Time zone UTC-3.5 for Newfoundland
UTC -4 for Labrador(Black Tickle and North)
Postal code prefix A
Flower Pitcher plant
Tree Black Spruce
Bird Atlantic Puffin
Web site www.gov.nl.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Newfoundland and Labrador (IPA: /ˌnuːfən(d)ˈlænd ən(d) læbrəˈdɔr/) (French: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador, Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradóir, Latin: Terra Nova) is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation. Geographically, the province consists of the island of Newfoundland and the mainland Labrador, on Canada's Atlantic coast. On entry into Canada in 1949, the entire province was known as Newfoundland, but since 1964, the province's government has referred to itself as the "Government of Newfoundland and Labrador", and on December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to "Newfoundland and Labrador." In day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians generally still refer to the province itself as "Newfoundland" and to the region within the province as "Labrador." Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Newfoundland may refer to: Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province (known simply as Newfoundland until 2001) Dominion of Newfoundland, an independent country (from 1907 to 1934) Colony of Newfoundland, a British colony prior to 1907 Newfoundland (island), a Canadian island that forms part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland_and_Labrador. ... Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador The flag of Newfoundland and Labrador was introduced in 1980, and was designed by Newfoundland artist Christopher Pratt. ... The Coat of Arms of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada was originally granted by King Charles I of England on January 1, 1637 to David Kirke, Governor of Newfoundland from 1638 to 1651. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The following are the current provincial and territorial capitals of Canada: BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capitals of Canadas provinces and territories Category: ... Nickname: Motto: Avancez (Go forward) Coordinates: , Country Province Established August 5, 1583 by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Government  - City Mayor Andy Wells  - Governing body St. ... The table below lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2001 Census[1] and the Canada 2006 Census. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This is a list of viceroys for the colony, dominion and province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Hon. ... Categories: Newfoundland and Labrador premiers | Stub ... Daniel Danny Williams, QC, LL.B, BA, MHA (born August 4, 1949 in St. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador is a centre-right political party in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Here is a list of Canadian provinces and territories ranked by area. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU This is a list of Canadian provinces and territories by population, based on Statistics Canada estimates as of July 1, 2007. ... BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU This article lists Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product. ... BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU This article lists Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product. ... This is a list of Canadian provincial and territorial postal abbreviations. ... ISO 3166-2 codes for Canada describe 10 Provinces and 3 Territories. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... ... ... A Canadian postal code is a string of six characters that forms part of a postal address in Canada. ... Newfoundland and Labrador - 35 FSAs Categories: Canada Post ... Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria. ... Binomial name Picea mariana The Black Spruce (Picea mariana) is a common coniferous tree in North America. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) is a seabird in the auk family. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ... Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ...


While the name "Newfoundland" is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Latin Terra Nova), Labrador comes from the Portuguese lavrador, a title meaning "landholder" held by Portuguese explorer of the region, João Fernandes Lavrador. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... João Fernandes (John, Joam) was a Portuguese traveller of the 15th century. ...


As of January 2008, the province's population is estimated to be 508,099.[3] People from Newfoundland are called "Newfoundlanders" (and at times "Newfies", though this can be seen as a pejorative) while people from Labrador are called "Labradorians". Newfoundland has its own dialects of the English, French, and Irish languages. The English dialect in Labrador shares much with that of Newfoundland. Furthermore, Labrador has its own dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut. Scene from an outport (small fishing village) in Newfoundland Newfie is a colloquial, and generally pejorative, term used in Canada for someone who is from Newfoundland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Dictionary of Newfoundland English Newfoundland English is a name for several dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive dialect of English in Canada. ... “Montagnais” redirects here. ... Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ...

Contents

History

The History of Newfoundland and Labrador starts with two separate regions, the Colony of Newfoundland and the region of Labrador, then converge after 1946, with the creation of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...

Colony of Newfoundland

Newfoundland has a number of historical firsts. The oldest known settlement anywhere in The Americas built by Europeans is located at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. It was founded around AD 1000 by Leif Ericson's Vikings. Remnants and artifacts of the occupation can still be seen at L'Anse aux Meadows, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island was inhabited by the Beothuks and later the Mi'kmaq. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses or Jellyfish Cove) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and... Close up of Leif in front of Hallgrímskirkja, in Reykjavík, Iceland. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Beothuks were the native inhabitants of the island of Newfoundland at the time of European contact in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Miqmac, or priorly Micmac) are a First Nations or Native American people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ...


John Cabot became the first European since the Vikings to discover Newfoundland (but see João Vaz Corte-Real), landing at Cape Bonavista on June 24, 1497. On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert formally claimed Newfoundland as England's first overseas colony under Royal Prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I. John Cabot in traditional Venetian garb, from a sixteenth-century painting Giovanni Caboto (c. ... João Vaz Corte-Real Portuguese explorer (Canada) 15th century João Vaz Corte-Real (pron. ... Cape Bonavista is a headland located on the east coast of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Queen of France, nominal title Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533–March 24, 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from November 17, 1558 until her death. ...


From 1610 to 1728, Proprietary Governors were appointed to establish colonial settlements on the island. John Guy was governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove. Other settlements were Bristol's Hope, Renews, South Falkland and Avalon which became a province in 1623. The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638. The island of Newfoundland was nearly conquered by New France explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in the 1690s. Proprietary Governors were individuals authorized to govern proprietary colonies. ... John Gay (d. ... This is a list of viceroys for the colony, dominion and province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Cupers Cove on the southwest shore of Conception Bay on Newfoundlands Avalon Peninsula was an early English settlement in the New World, and the second one after the Jamestown Settlement to endure for longer than a year. ... Bristols Hope was the second Newfoundland colony established by Bristols Society of Merchant Venturers. ... Renews (now part of Renews-Cappahayden, Newfoundland and Labrador) is a small fishing village on the southern shore of Newfoundland 83 kilometres south of St. ... South Falkland was a colony in Newfoundland established by Henry Cary, 1st Viscount Falkland in 1623 on territory in the Avalon Peninsula including the former colony of Renews. ... The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula (9,270 km²) that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Sir David Kirke (ca. ... Pierre Le Moyne dIberville. ...


Newfoundland received a colonial assembly in 1832; which was and still is referred to as the House of Assembly, after a fight led by reformers William Carson, Edward Morris and John Kent. The new government was unstable and the electorate divided along religious and ethnic lines between the Catholic Irish and Protestant English West Country populations of the colony. Such was the degree of strife that, on 11 January 1841, The Times of London held up Newfoundland as an awful example of what Ireland might become. In 1842, the elected House of Assembly was amalgamated with the appointed Legislative Council. This was changed back in 1848 to two separate chambers. After this, a movement for responsible government began. Bishop Mullock took an active part in the agitation. Colonial Building, the House of Assembly of the Dominion of Newfoundland Chamber of the House of Assembly in the Confederation Building. ... William Carson (baptised 4 June 1770 – 26 February 1843), often called The Great Reformer, was an important early settler of the Newfoundland area. ... Sir Edward Patrick Morris (May 8, 1859-October 24, 1935) was a lawyer and Prime Minister of Newfoundland. ... For other persons named John Kent, see John Kent (disambiguation). ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ...


The Dominion of Newfoundland

In 1854, Newfoundland was granted responsible government by the British government. In an 1855 election, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a majority over Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. In 1861, however, Governor Bannerman dismissed the Liberals, and, in a hotly contested election marked by disorder and rioting, Hugh Hoyles formed a government which strove to incorporate all religious bodies and give out jobs and patronage on a strictly denominational basis. This process extended also, in the 1870s, to the placing of all denominational schools on the same basis that the Catholics had had since the 1840s; organised by the churches, paid for by the state. The politics of class thus replaced those of religion. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Such was the development afterwards that, by the 1890s, Blackwood's Magazine was using events in Newfoundland as an argument for Home Rule for Ireland. Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Colonialbuilding. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Colonialbuilding. ... The riot at the Colonial Building in 1932 The Colonial Building was the seat of the Newfoundland government and the House of Assembly from January 28, 1850 to July 28, 1959 and in 1974 declared a Provincial Historic Site. ... Philip Francis Little (1824 – October 22, 1897) was the Premier of Newfoundland between 1855 and 1858. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Hugh Hoyles was the Premier of Newfoundland from 1861 through 1865. ... The Conservative Party of Newfoundland was a political party in Newfoundland and Labrador prior to confederation with Canada in 1949. ... Blackwoods Magazine was a British magazine and miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980. ...


As part of the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 1904, France abandoned the French Shore, or the west coast of the island, to which it had had rights since the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. Possession of Labrador was disputed by Quebec and Newfoundland until 1927, when the British privy council demarcated the western boundary, enlarged Labrador's land area, and confirmed Newfoundland's title to it. The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The French Treaty Shore resulted from the 1713 ratification of the Treaty of Utrecht. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Newfoundland remained a colony until acquiring dominion status on September 26, 1907, along with New Zealand. It successfully negotiated a trade agreement with the United States but the British government blocked it after objections from Canada. The Dominion of Newfoundland reached its golden age under Prime Minister Sir Robert Bond of the Liberal Party. This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Sir Robert Bond (February 25, 1857 – March 16, 1927) was the Premier of Newfoundland from 1900 to 1909. ... Several earlier groupings functioned under the name Liberal Party of Newfoundland from the granting of responsible government to the island in the 1850s until its suspension in 1934 when the Commission of Government was instituted. ...


In 1934, the Dominion, because of financial difficulties, was obliged to give up its self-governing status and the Commission of Government took its place. Following World War II, the Commission held elections for the Newfoundland National Convention which debated the dominion's future in 1946 and 1947. Two referendums resulted in which Newfoundlanders decided to end the Commission,[4] and join the Canadian Confederation in 1949. The Commission of Government was established in Newfoundland due to the collapse of democratic institutions during the Great Depression. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...


The Province of Newfoundland and Labrador

In 1946, an election was held for the Newfoundland National Convention to decide the future of Newfoundland. The mechanism of the Convention was established by the British Government to make recommendations as to the constitutional options to be presented to the people of Newfoundland to be voted upon in a national referendum. Many members only wished to decide between continuing the Commission of Government or restoring Responsible Government. Joseph R. Smallwood, the leader of the confederates, moved that a third option of confederation with Canada should be included. His motion was defeated by the convention. But he did not give up, instead gathering more than 50,000 petitions from the people within a fortnight which he sent to London through the Governor. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Newfoundland Referendums of 1948 were a series of two referendums to decide the future of the British Colony of Newfoundland. ... Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... Joey Smallwood (center) Joseph Roberts Joey Smallwood (December 24, 1900 - December 18, 1991) was the last Father of Confederation in Canada, bringing Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949. ...


The UK, having already insisted that if Newfoundland chose confederation or a return to Responsible Government, it would not give Newfoundland any further financial assistance, added the third option of having Newfoundland join Canada to the ballot. After much debate, the first referendum was held on June 3, 1948 to decide between continuing with the Commission of Government, returning to Responsible Government, or joining the Canadian Confederation. The result was inconclusive, with 44.6% supporting the restoration of Responsible Government, 41.1% for confederation with Canada, and 14.3% for continuing the Commission of Government. No option had won a clear majority; so under the rules of the referendum, the option which won the fewest votes was dropped and a new run-off referendum was scheduled for late July 1948. Between the first and second referendums, rumours were spread that Roman Catholics had been instructed to vote by their bishops for Responsible Government. This was not accurate; on the west coast of Newfoundland, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. George's, Bishop Michael O'Reilly and his congregation were strong supporters of confederation. Prompted by the Confederate Association, the Orange Order was incensed and called on all its members to vote for confederation. The Protestants of Newfoundland outnumbered the Catholics at a ratio of 2:1. This was believed to have greatly influenced the outcome of the second referendum. A second referendum on July 22, 1948, which asked Newfoundlanders to choose between confederation and dominion status, was decided by a vote of 51% to 49% for confederation with Canada. Newfoundland joined Canada (just before the expiry) on March 31, 1949. is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Not everyone was satisfied with the results, however. Peter Cashin, an outspoken anti-Confederate, questioned the validity of the votes. He claimed that it was the "unholy union between London and Ottawa" that brought about confederation. Major Peter John Cashin (March 8, 1890 - May 21, 1977) was a Newfoundland politician, businessman and soldier. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


In 1959, a local controversy arose when the provincial government pressured the Moravian Church to abandon its mission station at Hebron, Labrador, resulting in the relocation southward of the area's Inuit population, who had lived there since the mission was established in 1831. The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ... Hebron, on the northern coast of Labrador, was the site of a mission opened in 1831 by the Moravian Church to minister to the corporal and spiritual needs of the local Inuit, or Eskimo, population. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...

Map of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Map of Newfoundland and Labrador.

In the 1960s, Newfoundland developed the Churchill Falls hydro-electric facility in order to sell electricity to the United States. An agreement with Quebec was required to secure permission to transport the electricity across Quebec territory. Quebec drove a hard bargain with Newfoundland, resulting in a 75-year deal that Newfoundlanders now believe to be unfair to the province because of the low and unchangeable rate that Newfoundland and Labrador receives for the electricity. Image File history File links Map_of_Newfoundland_and_Labrador_v1. ... Churchill Falls are waterfalls, 245 ft (75 m) high, on the Churchill River in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ...


Politics of the province were dominated by the Liberal Party, led by Joseph R. Smallwood, from confederation until 1972. In 1972, the Smallwood government was replaced by the Progressive Conservative administration of Frank Moores. In 1979, Brian Peckford, another Progressive Conservative, became Premier. During this time, Newfoundland was involved in a dispute with the federal government for control of offshore oil resources. In the end, the dispute was decided by compromise. In 1989, Clyde Wells and the Liberal Party returned to power ending 17 years of Conservative government. The Liberal Party of Newfoundland and Labrador is a political party in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and the provincial wing of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador is a centre-right political party in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... Frank Duff Moores (born February 18, 1933) is a Canadian politician and businessman who served as Newfoundland and Labradors second Premier (1972-1979). ... Alfred Brian Peckford (born August 27, 1942) is a former teacher, politician and premier of Newfoundland. ... Clyde Kirby Wells (born November 9, 1937) is a Newfoundland and Labrador judge and former politician and Premier of the province. ...


In 1992, the federal government declared a moratorium on the Atlantic cod fishery, because of severely declining catches in the late 1980s. The consequences of this decision reverberated throughout the provincial economy of Newfoundland in the 1990s, particularly as once-vibrant rural communities faced a sudden exodus. The economic impact of the closure of the Atlantic cod fishery on Newfoundland has been compared to the effect of closing every manufacturing plant in Ontario. The cod fishery which had provided Newfoundlanders on the south and east coasts with a livelihood for over 200 years was gone, although the federal government helped fishermen and fish plant workers make the adjustment with a multi-billion dollar program named "The Atlantic Groundfish Strategy" (TAGS). Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a well-known food fish belonging to the family Gadidae. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Newfoundland and Canadian Government delegation signing the agreement admitting Newfoundland to confederation in December 1948. Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent and Albert Walsh shake hands following signing of agreement.
Newfoundland and Canadian Government delegation signing the agreement admitting Newfoundland to confederation in December 1948. Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent and Albert Walsh shake hands following signing of agreement.

In the late 1980s, the federal government, along with its Crown corporation Petro-Canada and other private sector petroleum exploration companies, committed to developing the oil and gas resources of the Hibernia oil field on the northeast portion of the Grand Banks. Throughout the mid-1990s, thousands of Newfoundlanders were employed on offshore exploration platforms, as well as in the construction of the Hibernia Gravity Base Structure (GBS) and Hibernia topsides. Image File history File links St. ... Image File history File links St. ... Louis Stephen St. ... Sir Albert Joseph Walsh (April 3, 1900 – December 12, 1958), commissioner, chief justice and the Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland for 1949, the first Lieutenant Governor for Newfoundland after confederation with Canada. ... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... Petro-Canada is a Canadian oil and gas firm headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. ... For other uses of Hibernia, see Hibernia (disambiguation). ... The Grand Banks are a group of underwater plateaus southeast of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. ...


In 1996, the former federal minister of fisheries, Brian Tobin, was successful in winning the leadership of the provincial Liberal Party following the retirement of premier Clyde Wells. Tobin rode the waves of economic good fortune as the downtrodden provincial economy was undergoing a fundamental shift, largely as a result of the oil and gas industry's financial stimulus, although the effects of this were mainly felt only in communities on the Avalon Peninsula. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), also referred to as Fisheries and Oceans Canada, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for the management and safety of Canadas waters. ... Brian Vincent Tobin, PC (born October 21, 1954 in Stephenville, Newfoundland and Labrador) is a Canadian politician. ...

The Newfoundland Red Ensign was an unofficial commercial ensign from 1904 to 1931.
The Newfoundland Red Ensign was an unofficial commercial ensign from 1904 to 1931.

Good fortune also fell on Tobin following the discovery of a world class nickel deposit at Voisey's Bay, Labrador. Tobin committed to negotiating a better royalty deal for the province with private sector mining interests than previous governments had done with the Churchill Falls hydroelectric development deal in the 1970s. Following Tobin's return to federal politics in 2000, the provincial Liberal Party devolved into internal battling for the leadership, leaving its new leader, Roger Grimes, in a weakened position as premier. Image File history File links Newfoundland_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Newfoundland_Red_Ensign. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Voiseys Bay, located in Newfoundland and Labrador, approximately 38 kilometres south-west of Nain, is the location of a large nickel deposit discovered in September of 1993 by Archean Inc. ... Churchill Falls are waterfalls, 245 ft (75 m) high, on the Churchill River in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... Roger D. Grimes (born May 2, 1950) is a Newfoundland and Labrador politician. ...


The pressure of the oil and gas industry to explore offshore in Atlantic Canada saw Newfoundland and Nova Scotia submit to a federal arbitration to decide on a disputed offshore boundary between the two provinces in the Laurentian Basin. The 2003 settlement rewrote an existing boundary in Newfoundland's favour, opening this area up to energy exploration. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... The Federal Court of Canada, more properly known as the Federal Court and the Federal Court of Appeal, is the court system set up by the Canadian national government to resolve disputes that arise under the national governments jurisdiction. ...


In 2003, the federal government declared a moratorium on the last remaining cod fishery in Atlantic Canada - in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. While Newfoundland was again the province most directly affected by this decision, communities on Quebec's North Shore and in other parts of Atlantic Canada also faced difficulties. The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... Map of Cote-Nord in relation to Quebec Côte-Nord (literally Northern Coast) is the second largest administrative (235,742 km², 17%) region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Quebec. ... HI Eric u suck!!!!!!!!!!!!! from,Trevor and Dalton ...

James Cook's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland
James Cook's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland

Premier Grimes, facing a pending election that fall, used the Gulf cod decision and perceived federal bias against the province as a catalyst to try to rally citizens around his administration. Grimes called for a review of the Terms of Union by which the province had become a part of Canada and on July 2, 2003, the findings of the Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada (which Grimes had created in 2002) were released. It noted the following stressors in the relationship between the province and Canada: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1462, 520 KB) Description: A general chart of the island of Newfoundland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1462, 520 KB) Description: A general chart of the island of Newfoundland. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador announced the Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada on March 19, 2002, in the Speech from the Throne. ...

  • the huge impact of the destruction of resources of cod
  • development of hydroelectricity resources of Labrador by Quebec, primarily to their benefit
  • chronically high unemployment
  • lowest per-capita income in Canada
  • the highest tax rates
  • the highest emigration

The report called for the following: Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ...

  • more collaborative federalism
  • an action team to deal with the fishery
  • collaboration between Canada, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador on the development of the Gull Island hydro site
  • revision of the Atlantic Accord so that offshore oil and gas reserves primarily benefit the province
  • immediate and realistic negotiations on joint management of the fishery

In October 2003, the Liberals lost the provincial election to the Progressive Conservative Party, led by Danny Williams. For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... Map of Newfoundland and Labradors ridings and how they voted in 2003 The Newfoundland and Labrador general election of 2003 was held on October 21, 2003, to elect the 48 members of the House of Assembly of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... Daniel Danny Williams, QC, LL.B, BA, MHA (born August 4, 1949 in St. ...


From late October 2004 to early January 2006, Premier Williams argued that then Prime Minister Paul Martin had not held up his promises for a new deal on the "Atlantic Accord". The issue is the royalties from oil: currently, 70 cents on each royalty dollar are sent back to the federal government through reductions in payments by the federal government with respect to its "equalization program". The province wants 100% of the royalties to allow the province to pull itself out of poverty on a long-term basis. For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ...


Toward the end of 2004, Williams ordered the Canadian flag to be removed from all provincial buildings as a protest against federal policies, and asked for municipal councils to consider doing the same. The issue, dubbed the "Flag Flap" in the media, sparked debate across the province and the rest of Canada. The flags went back up in January 2005 after much controversy nationwide and Paul Martin stating that he would not negotiate with the province if the flags were not flying. At the end of January, the federal government signed a deal to allow 100% of oil revenues to go to the province, resulting in an extra $2 billion over eight years for the province. However, this agreement has led other provinces such as Ontario and Quebec to try to negotiate their own special deals as they too claim that the federal government is taking advantage of them financially. The "equalization program" remains a controversial issue in negotiations between Premier Williams and current Prime Minister Stephen Harper. eric As of 2005, four of the ten amendments to the Constitution of Canada since its patriation have been concerned with Canada's tenth province. The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ... Look up Patriation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Provincial Symbols

Current Current Newfoundland and Labrador license plate
Provincial Symbols
Official Flower Purple Pitcher Plant
Official Tree Black Spruce
Official Bird Atlantic Puffin
Official Animal Caribou
Official Game Bird Ptarmigan
Official Mineral Labradorite
Official Dog(s) Newfoundland dog & Labrador Retriever
Provincial Anthem Ode to Newfoundland
Provincial Holiday June 24, Discovery Day
Patron Saint St. John the Baptist
Official tartan
Great Seal
Coat of arms
Provincial Wordmark

Binomial name L. Sarracenia purpurea range Sarracenia purpurea, commonly known as the Purple pitcher plant or Side-saddle flower, is a carnivorous plant in the family Sarraceniaceae. ... Binomial name Picea mariana The Black Spruce (Picea mariana) is a common coniferous tree in North America. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) is a seabird in the auk family. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Lagopus mutus (Montin, 1781) The Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) is a small (31-35 cm) bird in the grouse family. ... Labradorite, a feldspar mineral, is a member of the plagioclase series. ... Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The Newfoundland is a large, usually black, breed of dog originally used as a working dog in Canada. ... The Labrador Retriever (also Labrador or Lab for short), is one of several kinds of retriever, a type of gun dog. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Ode to Newfoundland is the official provincial anthem of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... Image File history File links Newfoundland. ... The Great Seal of Newfoundland was given royal approval in 1827. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Logo-NFLD.jpg‎ Newfoundland and Labrador from: http://www. ...

Notable Newfoundlanders and Labradorians

Main article: Category:People from Newfoundland and Labrador
See also: List of people of Newfoundland and Labrador
See also: Category:Pre-Confederation Newfoundland and Labrador people

List of people of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ...

Demographics

According to the 2001 Canadian census, [1] the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39.4%), followed by Irish (19.7%), Scottish (6.0%), French (5.5%), and First Nations (3.2%). While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian," 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 StatsCan Ethnic Diversity Survey.[5] Newfoundland and Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth to join the Confederation. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ...

1897 Newfoundland postage stamp, the first in the world to feature mining.
1897 Newfoundland postage stamp, the first in the world to feature mining.

Population since 1951 1897 Mining Stamp of Newfoundland This image of a postage stamp has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1897 Mining Stamp of Newfoundland This image of a postage stamp has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
Provinces
1951 361,416 n/a n/a 9
1956 415,074 14.8 n/a 9
1961 457,853 10.3 26.7 9
1966 493,396 7.8 18.9 9
1971 522,100 5.8 14.0 9
1976 557,720 6.8 13.0 9
1981 567,681 1.8 8.7 9
1986 568,350 0.1 1.9 9
1991 568,475 0.02 0.1 9
1996 551,790 -2.9 -2.9 9
2001 512,930 -7.0 -9.8 9
2006* 505,469 -0.6 -7.6 9

*Preliminary 2006 census estimate.


Source: Statistics Canada[6][7] Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ...

Language

The 2006 census returns showed a population of 505,469.
Of the 499,830 singular responses to the census question concerning 'mother tongue' the languages most commonly reported were:

Rank Language Respondents Percentage
1. English 488,405 97.7%
2. French 1,885 0.4%
3. Montagnais-Naskapi 1,585 0.3%
4. Chinese 1,080 0.2%
5. Spanish 670 0.1%
6. German 655 0.1%
7. Inuktitut 595 0.1%
8. Urdu 550 0.1%
9. Arabic 540 0.1%
10. Dutch 300 0.1%
11. Russian 225 ~
12. Italian 195 ~

Figures shown above are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. There were also 435 responses of both English and a 'non-official language'; 30 of both French and a 'non-official language'; 295 of both English and French; 10 of English, French and a 'non-official language'; and about 14,305 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave some other unenumerated response.[8]

See also

References

  • Atlas of Newfoundland and Labrador by Department of Geography Memorial University of Newfoundland, Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1-55081-000-6; (1991)
  • G.J. Casey and Elizabeth Miller, eds., Tempered Days: A Century of Newfoundland Fiction St. John's: Killick Press, 1996.
  • Karl Mcneil Earle; "Cousins of a Kind: The Newfoundland and Labrador Relationship with the United States" American Review of Canadian Studies Vol: 28. Issue: 4. 1998. pp : 387-411.
  • C. R. Fay; Life and Labour in Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1956
  • Lawrence Jackson, Newfoundland & Labrador Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd; ISBN 1-55041-261-2; (1999)
  • Gene Long, Suspended State: Newfoundland Before Canada Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1-55081-144-4; (April 1, 1999)
  • R. A. MacKay; Newfoundland; Economic, Diplomatic, and Strategic Studies Oxford University Press, 1946
  • Patrick O'Flaherty, The Rock Observed: Studies in the Literature of Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1979
  • Joseph Smallwood ed. The Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador St. John's: Newfoundland Book Publishers, 1981-, 2 vol.
  • This Marvelous Terrible Place: Images of Newfoundland and Labrador by Momatiuk et al., Firefly Books; ISBN 1-55209-225-9; (September 1998)
  • True Newfoundlanders: Early Homes and Families of Newfoundland and Labrador by Margaret McBurney et al., Boston Mills Pr; ISBN 1-55046-199-0; (June 1997)
  • Biogeography and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland: Monographiae Biologicae by G. Robin South (Editor) Dr W Junk Pub Co; ISBN 90-6193-101-0; (April 1983)

Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... This page lists communities of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... The Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador describes Newfoundland and Labradors topography. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Statistics Canada. Canada's population estimates 2008-03-27. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  2. ^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory
  3. ^ Statistics Canada. Canada's population estimates 2008-03-27. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  4. ^ Letters Patent - Administration of Newfoundland and its Dependencies - George V - January 30th, 1934
  5. ^ The Daily, Monday, September 29, 2003. Ethnic Diversity Survey
  6. ^ StatCan 2001 Census - population
  7. ^ Canada's population. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.
  8. ^ (2007). "Statistics Canada catalogue no. 97-555-XCB2006015".

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ...

External links

Coordinates: 52°37′28″N, 59°41′06″W Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Newfoundland and Labrador - MSN Encarta (1144 words)
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province in Canada.
Labrador is bordered by Québec province on the south, west, and north; the Atlantic Ocean on the east; and the Strait of Belle Isle on the southeast.
Newfoundland, located southeast of Labrador, meets the Atlantic Ocean on the east and south, the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the west, and the Strait of Belle Isle on the north.
Newfoundland and Labrador (4653 words)
The island of Newfoundland is separated from the Canadian mainland by the Strait of Belle Isle in the north and by the wider Cabot Strait in the south.
The interiors of both Labrador and Newfoundland have a rolling, rugged topography, deeply etched by glacial activity and broken by lakes and swift-flowing rivers.
Newfoundland Power and Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro are the two utilities responsible for generating and distributing electricity.
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