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Encyclopedia > NewDES
NewDES
Designer(s): Robert Scott
First published: 1985
Key size(s): 120 bits
Block size(s): 64 bits
Rounds: 17
Best public cryptanalysis:
A related-key attack succeeds with 232 known plaintexts

In cryptography, NewDES is a symmetric key block cipher. It was created in 1984–1985 by Robert Scott as a potential DES replacement. Despite its name, it is not derived from DES and has a quite different structure. Its intended niche as a DES replacement has now mostly been filled by AES. The algorithm was revised with a modified key schedule in 1996 to counter a related-key attack; this version is sometimes referred to as NewDES-96. In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write) is the study of message secrecy. ... A symmetric-key algorithm is an algorithm for cryptography that uses the same cryptographic key to encrypt and decrypt the message. ... Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... The key-schedule of DES (<<< denotes a left rotation) In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of ciphers, where the (de-)ciphering of data is done in rounds. The general setup of each round is the same, except for some hard-coded parameters and a part... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ...


In 2004, Scott posted some comments on sci.crypt reflecting on the motivation behind NewDES's design and what he might have done differently to make the cipher more secure [1]. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are several newsgroups relevant for discussions about cryptography and related issues. ...

Contents

The algorithm

NewDES, unlike DES, has no bit-level permutations, making it easy to implement in software. All operations are performed on whole bytes. It is a product cipher, consisting of 17 rounds performed on a 64-bit data block and makes use of a 120-bit key. In each round, subkey material is XORed with the 1-byte sub-blocks of data, then fed through an S-box, the output of which is then XORed with another sub-block of data. In total, 8 XORs are performed in each round. The S-box is derived from the United States Declaration of Independence (to show that Scott had nothing up his sleeve). In cryptography, a product cipher is a popular type of block cipher that works by executing in sequence a number of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. ... A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ... Exclusive disjunction (usual symbol xor) is a logical operator that results in true if one of the operands (not both) is true. ... In cryptography, a substitution box (or S-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... Nothing up my sleeve numbers are the the opposite extreme of Chaitin-Kolmogorov randomness in that they appear to be random by statistical tests but are created with minimum entropy. ...


Each set of two rounds uses seven 1-byte subkeys, which are derived by splitting 56 bits of the key into bytes. The key is then rotated 56 bits for use in the next two rounds.


Cryptanalysis of NewDES

Only a small amount of cryptanalysis has been published on NewDES. The designer showed that NewDES exhibits the full avalanche effect after seven rounds: every ciphertext bit depends on every plaintext bit and key bit. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... This article is about cryptography; for other meanings, see snowball effect. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... In cryptography, plaintext is information used as input to an encryption algorithm; the output is termed ciphertext. ...


NewDES has the same complementation property that DES has: namely, that if

EK(P) = C,

then

E_{overline{K}}(overline{P})=overline{C},

where

overline{x}

is the bitwise complement of x. This means that the work factor for a brute force attack is reduced by a factor of 2. Eli Biham also noticed that changing a full byte in all the key and data bytes leads to another complementation property. This reduces the work factor by 28. The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 1,800 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days — the photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips. ... Eli Biham is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, currently a professor at the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology Computer Science department. ...


Biham's related-key attack can break NewDES with 233 chosen-key chosen plaintexts, meaning that NewDES is not as secure as DES.


John Kelsey, Bruce Schneier, and David Wagner used related-key cryptanalysis to develop another attack on NewDES; it requires 232 known plaintexts and one related key. John Kelsey is a cryptographer currently working at NIST. His research interests include cryptanalysis and design of symmetric cryptography primitives (block ciphers, stream ciphers, cryptographic hash functions, MACs), analysis and design of cryptographic protocols, cryptographic random number generation, electronic voting, side-channel attacks on cryptography implementations, and anonymizing communications systems. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... David Wagner David A. Wagner (1974) is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley and a well-known researcher in cryptography. ...


External links

  • Revision of NewDES
  • A NewDES source code implementation from Wiretrapped

References

  • R. Scott, "Wide Open Encryption Design Offers Flexible Implementations," Cryptologia, v. 9, n. 1, Jan 1985, pp. 75-90.
  • John Kelsey, Bruce Schneier, and David Wagner. Related-key cryptanalysis of 3-WAY, Biham-DES, CAST, DES-X, NewDES, RC2, and TEA. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1334, pp233–246, 1997 (PS or PDF).
  • Schneier, Bruce (1996). Applied Cryptography, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 306-308. ISBN 0-471-11709-9. 
Block ciphers
v  d  e
Algorithms: 3-Way | AES | Akelarre | Anubis | ARIA | BaseKing | Blowfish | C2 | Camellia | CAST-128 | CAST-256 | CIKS-1 | CIPHERUNICORN-A | CIPHERUNICORN-E | CMEA | Cobra | COCONUT98 | Crab | CRYPTON | CS-Cipher | DEAL | DES | DES-X | DFC | E2 | FEAL | FROG | G-DES | GOST | Grand Cru | Hasty Pudding Cipher | Hierocrypt | ICE | IDEA | IDEA NXT | Iraqi | Intel Cascade Cipher | KASUMI | KHAZAD | Khufu and Khafre | KN-Cipher | Libelle | LOKI89/91 | LOKI97 | Lucifer | M6 | MacGuffin | Madryga | MAGENTA | MARS | Mercy | MESH | MISTY1 | MMB | MWA | MULTI2 | NewDES | NOEKEON | NUSH | Q | RC2 | RC5 | RC6 | REDOC | Red Pike | S-1 | SAFER | SC2000 | SEED | Serpent | SHACAL | SHARK | Skipjack | SMS4 | Square | TEA | Triple DES | Twofish | UES | Xenon | xmx | XTEA | Zodiac
Design: Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN

Attacks: Brute force | Linear / Differential / Integral cryptanalysis | Mod n | Related-key | Slide | XSL Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... The Wiley Building in Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the waterfront between River Street and Frank Sinatra Drive. ... Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... In cryptography, 3-Way is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen, who also (with Vincent Rijmen) designed Rijndael, the winner of NISTs Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... Akelarre is a block cipher proposed in 1996, and combined features from IDEA and RC5. ... 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Three rounds of the CAST-128 block cipher In cryptography, CAST-128 (alternatively CAST5) is a block cipher used in a number of products, notably as the default cipher in some versions of GPG and PGP. It has also been approved for Canadian government use by the Communications Security Establishment. ... In cryptography, CAST-256 (or CAST6) is a block cipher published in June 1998 and submitted as a candidate for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). ... In cryptography, CIKS-1 is a block cipher designed in 2002 by A.A. Moldovyan and N.A. Moldovyan. ... In cryptography, CIPHERUNICORN-A is a block cipher created by NEC in 2000. ... In cryptography, CIPHERUNICORN-E is a block cipher created by NEC in 1998. ... In cryptography, the Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm (CMEA) is a block cipher which was used for securing mobile phones in the United States. ... 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The Hasty Pudding Cipher (abbreviated HPC) is a variable-block-size block cipher which was an unsuccessful candidate in the competition for selecting the U.S. Advanced Encryption Standard. ... In cryptography, Hierocrypt-L1 and Hierocrypt-3 are block ciphers created by Toshiba in 2000. ... General Designer(s) Matthew Kwan First published 1997 Derived from (DES) Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 64 bits for ICE, 64n for ICE-n Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 for ICE, 8 for Thin-ICE, 16n for... In cryptography, the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher designed by Xuejia Lai (來學嘉) and James L. Massey of ETH Zurich and was first described in 1991. ... In cryptography, the IDEA NXT algorithm (previously known as FOX) is a block cipher designed by Pascal Junod and Serge Vaudenay of EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland). ... In cryptography, the Intel Cascaded Cipher, is a relatively new, high bandwidth block cipher, used as an optional component of the Output Content Protection DRM scheme of the Microsoft Windows Vista operating system. ... In cryptography, KASUMI, also termed A5/3, is a block cipher used in the confidentiality (f8) and integrity algorithms (f9) for 3GPP mobile communications. ... In cryptography, KHAZAD is a block cipher designed by Paulo S. L. M. Barreto together with Vincent Rijmen, one of the designers of the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael). ... In cryptography, Khufu and Khafre are two block ciphers designed by Ralph Merkle in 1989 while working at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center. ... In cryptography, KN-Cipher is a block cipher created by Kaisa Nyberg and Lars Knudsen in 1995. ... Libelle is a German cipher system, developed by the Federal Office for Information Security. ... It has been suggested that Loki and the dwarfs be merged into this article or section. ... 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SHACAL-1 and SHACAL-2 are block ciphers based on cryptographic hash function from the SHA family. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes Symmoriida(extinct) Shark (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton[1] and a streamlined body. ... In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher — an algorithm for encryption — developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). ... SMS4 is a block cipher used in Chinese National Standard for Wireless LAN WAPI (Wired Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure). ... In cryptography, Square (sometimes written SQUARE) is a block cipher invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. ... General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1994 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design XTEA Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis TEA suffers from... In cryptography, Triple DES (also 3DES) is a block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. ... In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits. ... This article is about the block cipher. ... In cryptography, Xenon is a block cipher designed in 2000 by Chang-Hyi Lee for the Korean firm SoftForum. ... In cryptography, xmx is a block cipher designed in 1997 by David MRaïhi, David Naccache, Jacques Stern, and Serge Vaudenay. ... General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1997 Derived from Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis... In cryptography, Zodiac is a block cipher designed in 2000 by Chang-Hyi Lee for the Korean firm SoftForum. ... Feistel cipher - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The key-schedule of DES (<<< denotes a left rotation) In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of ciphers, where the (de-)ciphering of data is done in rounds. The general setup of each round is the same, except for some hard-coded parameters and a part... In cryptography, a product cipher is a popular type of block cipher that works by executing in sequence a number of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. ... In cryptography, a substitution box (or S-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms. ... In cryptography, an SP-network, or substitution-permutation network (SPN), is a series of linked mathematical operations used in block cipher algorithms such as AES. These networks consist of S-boxes and P-boxes that transform blocks of input bits into output bits. ... The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 1,800 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days — the photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips. ... In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher. ... Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. ... In cryptography, integral cryptanalysis is a cryptanalytic attack that is particularly applicable to block ciphers based around Substitution-permutation networks. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... In cryptography, mod n cryptanalysis is an attack applicable to block and stream ciphers. ... In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ... The idea of the slide attack was originally published by Edna Grossman and Bryant Tuckerman in an IBM Technical Report in 1977. ... New Scientist magazine featured the XSL attack in June 2003 with an article billed as Cipher crisis: the end of internet privacy. In cryptography, the XSL attack is a method of cryptanalysis for block ciphers. ...

Standardization: AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE

Misc: Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the ageing Data Encryption Standard (DES). ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000&#8211;2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... This article is about cryptography; for other meanings, see snowball effect. ... In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ... In cryptography, an initialization vector (IV) is a block of bits that is required to allow a stream cipher or a block cipher executed in any of several streaming modes of operation to produce a unique stream independent from other streams produced by the same encryption key, without having to... In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... In cryptography, a block cipher operates on blocks of fixed length, often 64 or 128 bits. ... In cryptanalysis, the piling-up lemma is a principle used in linear cryptanalysis to construct linear approximations to the action of block ciphers. ... In cryptography, a weak key is a key which when used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way. ...

Cryptography
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History of cryptography | Cryptanalysis | Cryptography portal | Topics in cryptography
Symmetric-key algorithm | Block cipher | Stream cipher | Public-key cryptography | Cryptographic hash function | Message authentication code | Random numbers

  Results from FactBites:
 
BIGpedia - NewDES - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (408 words)
Scott, the designer of NewDES, showed that NewDES exhibits the full avalanche effect after seven rounds: every ciphertext bit depends on every plaintext bit and key bit.
This means that the work factor for a brute force attack is reduced by a factor of 2.
NewDES therefore does not seem very secure: using Triple DES or AES instead would be more prudent.
NewDES - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (425 words)
NewDES, unlike DES, has no bit-level permutations, making it easy to implement in software.
It is a product cipher, consisting of 17 rounds performed on a 64-bit data block and makes use of a 120-bit key.
NewDES has the same complementation property that DES has: namely, that if
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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