In cryptography, **NewDES** is a symmetric key block cipher. It was created in 1984–1985 by Robert Scott as a potential DES replacement. Despite its name, it is not derived from DES and has a quite different structure. Its intended niche as a DES replacement has now mostly been filled by AES. The algorithm was revised with a modified key schedule in 1996 to counter a related-key attack; this version is sometimes referred to as **NewDES-96**. In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ...
In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ...
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptÃ³s, hidden, and analÃ½ein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ...
In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ...
The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek ÎºÏÏ…Ï€Ï„ÏŒÏ‚ kryptÃ³s hidden, and the verb Î³ÏÎ¬Ï†Ï‰ grÃ¡fo write) is the study of message secrecy. ...
A symmetric-key algorithm is an algorithm for cryptography that uses the same cryptographic key to encrypt and decrypt the message. ...
Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ...
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ...
In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ...
The key-schedule of DES (<<< denotes a left rotation) In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of ciphers, where the (de-)ciphering of data is done in rounds. The general setup of each round is the same, except for some hard-coded parameters and a part...
1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...
In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ...
In 2004, Scott posted some comments on sci.crypt reflecting on the motivation behind NewDES's design and what he might have done differently to make the cipher more secure [1]. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...
There are several newsgroups relevant for discussions about cryptography and related issues. ...
## The algorithm
NewDES, unlike DES, has no bit-level permutations, making it easy to implement in software. All operations are performed on whole bytes. It is a product cipher, consisting of 17 rounds performed on a 64-bit data block and makes use of a 120-bit key. In each round, subkey material is XORed with the 1-byte sub-blocks of data, then fed through an S-box, the output of which is then XORed with another sub-block of data. In total, 8 XORs are performed in each round. The S-box is derived from the United States Declaration of Independence (to show that Scott had nothing up his sleeve). In cryptography, a product cipher is a popular type of block cipher that works by executing in sequence a number of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. ...
A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ...
Exclusive disjunction (usual symbol xor) is a logical operator that results in true if one of the operands (not both) is true. ...
In cryptography, a substitution box (or S-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms. ...
U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ...
Nothing up my sleeve numbers are the the opposite extreme of Chaitin-Kolmogorov randomness in that they appear to be random by statistical tests but are created with minimum entropy. ...
Each set of two rounds uses seven 1-byte subkeys, which are derived by splitting 56 bits of the key into bytes. The key is then rotated 56 bits for use in the next two rounds.
## Cryptanalysis of NewDES Only a small amount of cryptanalysis has been published on NewDES. The designer showed that NewDES exhibits the full avalanche effect after seven rounds: every ciphertext bit depends on every plaintext bit and key bit. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptÃ³s, hidden, and analÃ½ein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ...
This article is about cryptography; for other meanings, see snowball effect. ...
This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ...
In cryptography, plaintext is information used as input to an encryption algorithm; the output is termed ciphertext. ...
NewDES has the same complementation property that DES has: namely, that if *E*_{K}(*P*) = *C*, then where is the bitwise complement of *x*. This means that the work factor for a brute force attack is reduced by a factor of 2. Eli Biham also noticed that changing a full byte in all the key and data bytes leads to another complementation property. This reduces the work factor by 2^{8}. The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 1,800 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days â€” the photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips. ...
Eli Biham is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, currently a professor at the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology Computer Science department. ...
Biham's related-key attack can break NewDES with 2^{33} chosen-key chosen plaintexts, meaning that NewDES is not as secure as DES. John Kelsey, Bruce Schneier, and David Wagner used related-key cryptanalysis to develop another attack on NewDES; it requires 2^{32} known plaintexts and one related key. John Kelsey is a cryptographer currently working at NIST. His research interests include cryptanalysis and design of symmetric cryptography primitives (block ciphers, stream ciphers, cryptographic hash functions, MACs), analysis and design of cryptographic protocols, cryptographic random number generation, electronic voting, side-channel attacks on cryptography implementations, and anonymizing communications systems. ...
Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ...
David Wagner David A. Wagner (1974) is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley and a well-known researcher in cryptography. ...
## External links - Revision of NewDES
- A NewDES source code implementation from Wiretrapped
## References - R. Scott, "Wide Open Encryption Design Offers Flexible Implementations," Cryptologia, v. 9, n. 1, Jan 1985, pp. 75-90.
- John Kelsey, Bruce Schneier, and David Wagner. Related-key cryptanalysis of 3-WAY, Biham-DES, CAST, DES-X, NewDES, RC2, and TEA. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1334, pp233–246, 1997 (PS or PDF).
- Schneier, Bruce (1996).
*Applied Cryptography, Second Edition*. John Wiley & Sons, 306-308. ISBN 0-471-11709-9. | **Algorithms:** 3-Way | AES | Akelarre | Anubis | ARIA | BaseKing | Blowfish | C2 | Camellia | CAST-128 | CAST-256 | CIKS-1 | CIPHERUNICORN-A | CIPHERUNICORN-E | CMEA | Cobra | COCONUT98 | Crab | CRYPTON | CS-Cipher | DEAL | DES | DES-X | DFC | E2 | FEAL | FROG | G-DES | GOST | Grand Cru | Hasty Pudding Cipher | Hierocrypt | ICE | IDEA | IDEA NXT | Iraqi | Intel Cascade Cipher | KASUMI | KHAZAD | Khufu and Khafre | KN-Cipher | Libelle | LOKI89/91 | LOKI97 | Lucifer | M6 | MacGuffin | Madryga | MAGENTA | MARS | Mercy | MESH | MISTY1 | MMB | MWA | MULTI2 | **NewDES** | NOEKEON | NUSH | Q | RC2 | RC5 | RC6 | REDOC | Red Pike | S-1 | SAFER | SC2000 | SEED | Serpent | SHACAL | SHARK | Skipjack | SMS4 | Square | TEA | Triple DES | Twofish | UES | Xenon | xmx | XTEA | Zodiac | **Design:** Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN **Attacks:** Brute force | Linear / Differential / Integral cryptanalysis | Mod *n* | Related-key | Slide | XSL Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ...
The Wiley Building in Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the waterfront between River Street and Frank Sinatra Drive. ...
Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ...
In cryptography, 3-Way is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen, who also (with Vincent Rijmen) designed Rijndael, the winner of NISTs Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest. ...
In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ...
Akelarre is a block cipher proposed in 1996, and combined features from IDEA and RC5. ...
Anubis is a block cipher designed by Vincent Rijmen and Paulo S. L. M. Barreto as an entrant in the NESSIE project. ...
In cryptography, ARIA is a block cipher designed in 2003 by a large group of Korean researchers. ...
In cryptography, BaseKing is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen. ...
General Designer(s) Bruce Schneier First published 1993 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design Twofish Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 32-448 bits in steps of 8 bits; default 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best cryptanalysis Four rounds of...
The Cryptomeria cipher, commonly refered to as C2 is a proprietary block cipher defined and licensed by the 4C Entity. ...
In cryptography, Camellia is a block cipher that has been evaluated favorably by several organisations, including the European Unions NESSIE project (a selected algorithm), and the Japanese CRYPTREC project (a recommended algorithm). ...
Three rounds of the CAST-128 block cipher In cryptography, CAST-128 (alternatively CAST5) is a block cipher used in a number of products, notably as the default cipher in some versions of GPG and PGP. It has also been approved for Canadian government use by the Communications Security Establishment. ...
In cryptography, CAST-256 (or CAST6) is a block cipher published in June 1998 and submitted as a candidate for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). ...
In cryptography, CIKS-1 is a block cipher designed in 2002 by A.A. Moldovyan and N.A. Moldovyan. ...
In cryptography, CIPHERUNICORN-A is a block cipher created by NEC in 2000. ...
In cryptography, CIPHERUNICORN-E is a block cipher created by NEC in 1998. ...
In cryptography, the Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm (CMEA) is a block cipher which was used for securing mobile phones in the United States. ...
In cryptography, Cobra is the general name of a family of data-dependent permutation based block ciphers: Cobra-128, Cobra-F64a, Cobra-F64b, Cobra-H64 and Cobra-H128. ...
In cryptography, COCONUT98 (Cipher Organized with Cute Operations and N-Universal Transformation) is a block cipher designed by Serge Vaudenay in 1998. ...
In cryptography, Crab is a block cipher created by Burt Kaliski and Matt Robshaw in 1993. ...
In particle physics, the crypton is a hypothetical superheavy particle, thought to exist in a hidden sector of string theory. ...
In cryptography, the CS-Cipher is a block cipher invented by Jacques Stern and Serge Vaudenay in 1998. ...
Deal can refer to: an agreement reached after negotiation, for example a contract to sell as a dealer or dealership a bargain a situation, as in whats the deal with the Johnson account ?. a problem, as in whats your deal ?. Deal$, a U.S. dollar store a Deal...
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ...
In cryptography, DES-X (or DESX) is a variant on the DES (Data Encryption Standard) block cipher intended to increase the complexity of a brute force attack using a technique called key whitening. ...
In cryptography, DFC (Decorrelated Fast Cipher) is a block cipher which was created in 1998 by a group of researchers at Ã‰cole Normale SupÃ©rieure and submitted to the AES competition. ...
In cryptography, E2 is a block cipher which was created in 1998 by NTT and submitted to the AES competition. ...
General Designer(s) Akihiro Shimizu and Shoji Miyaguchi (NTT) First published FEAL-4 in 1987; FEAL-N/NX in 1990 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 64 bits (128 bits for FEAL-NX) Structure Feistel network Number of...
Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frog is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ...
In cryptography, the Generalized DES Scheme (G-DES or GDES) is a variant of the DES block cipher designed to speed-up the encryption. ...
Diagram of GOST In cryptography, GOST (Russian Ð“ÐžÐ¡Ð¢) (GOsudarstvennyi STandard, Russian for Government Standard) is a symmetric key block cipher published in 1990 as the Soviet standard (GOST 28147-89). ...
In cryptography, Grand Cru is a block cipher invented in 2000 by Johan Borst. ...
The Hasty Pudding Cipher (abbreviated HPC) is a variable-block-size block cipher which was an unsuccessful candidate in the competition for selecting the U.S. Advanced Encryption Standard. ...
In cryptography, Hierocrypt-L1 and Hierocrypt-3 are block ciphers created by Toshiba in 2000. ...
General Designer(s) Matthew Kwan First published 1997 Derived from (DES) Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 64 bits for ICE, 64n for ICE-n Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 for ICE, 8 for Thin-ICE, 16n for...
In cryptography, the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher designed by Xuejia Lai (ä¾†å¸å˜‰) and James L. Massey of ETH Zurich and was first described in 1991. ...
In cryptography, the IDEA NXT algorithm (previously known as FOX) is a block cipher designed by Pascal Junod and Serge Vaudenay of EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland). ...
In cryptography, the Intel Cascaded Cipher, is a relatively new, high bandwidth block cipher, used as an optional component of the Output Content Protection DRM scheme of the Microsoft Windows Vista operating system. ...
In cryptography, KASUMI, also termed A5/3, is a block cipher used in the confidentiality (f8) and integrity algorithms (f9) for 3GPP mobile communications. ...
In cryptography, KHAZAD is a block cipher designed by Paulo S. L. M. Barreto together with Vincent Rijmen, one of the designers of the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael). ...
In cryptography, Khufu and Khafre are two block ciphers designed by Ralph Merkle in 1989 while working at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center. ...
In cryptography, KN-Cipher is a block cipher created by Kaisa Nyberg and Lars Knudsen in 1995. ...
Libelle is a German cipher system, developed by the Federal Office for Information Security. ...
It has been suggested that Loki and the dwarfs be merged into this article or section. ...
In cryptography, LOKI97 is a block cipher which was a candidate in the Advanced Encryption Standard competition. ...
In cryptography, Lucifer was the name given to several of the earliest civilian block ciphers, developed by Horst Feistel and his colleagues at IBM. Lucifer was a direct precursor to the Data Encryption Standard. ...
In cryptography, M6 is a block cipher proposed by Hitachi in 1997 for use in the IEEE 1394 FireWire standard. ...
In cryptography, MacGuffin is a block cipher created in 1994 by Bruce Schneier and Matt Blaze at a Fast Software Encryption workshop. ...
In cryptography, Madryga is a block cipher created in 1984 by W. E. Madryga. ...
Magenta is a color made up of equal parts of red and blue light. ...
Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...
In cryptography, Mercy is a block cipher designed by Paul Crowley for disk encryption. ...
In cryptography, MESH is a block cipher designed in 2002 by Jorge Nakahara, Jr. ...
In cryptography, MISTY1 (or MISTY-1) is a block cipher designed in 1995 by Mitsuru Matsui and others for Mitsubishi Electric. ...
In cryptography, MMB (Modular Multiplication-based Block cipher) is a block cipher designed by Joan Daemen as an improved replacement for the IDEA cipher. ...
This article is about the MWA encryption algorithm. ...
MULTI2 is a block cipher, developed by Hitachi in 1988. ...
Noekeon is a block cipher with a block and key length of 128 bits. ...
In cryptography, NUSH is a block cipher invented by Anatoly Lebedev and Alexey Volchkov for LAN Crypto, a Russian company. ...
In cryptography, Q is a block cipher invented by Leslie McBride. ...
In cryptography, RC2 is a block cipher designed by Ron Rivest in 1987. ...
RC5 is a block cipher notable for its simplicity. ...
In cryptography, RC6 is a symmetric key block cipher derived from RC5. ...
In cryptography, REDOC II and REDOC III are block ciphers designed by Michael Wood for Cryptech Inc and are optimised for use in software. ...
Red Pike is a classified United Kingdom government cipher, proposed for use by the National Health Service by GCHQ, but designed for a broad range of applications in the British government [1]. Little is publicly known about Red Pike, except that it is a block cipher with a 64-bit...
Uplandia Regiment, or Upplands regemente, also S 1, is a Swedish Army signaling regiment that traces its origins back to the 19th Century. ...
This article is about the encryption algorithm. ...
In cryptography, SC2000 is a block cipher invented by a research group at Fujitsu Labs. ...
A ripe red jalapeÃ±o cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...
Serpent is a symmetric key block cipher which was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard contest, where it came second to Rijndael. ...
SHACAL-1 and SHACAL-2 are block ciphers based on cryptographic hash function from the SHA family. ...
Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes Symmoriida(extinct) Shark (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton[1] and a streamlined body. ...
In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher â€” an algorithm for encryption â€” developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). ...
SMS4 is a block cipher used in Chinese National Standard for Wireless LAN WAPI (Wired Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure). ...
In cryptography, Square (sometimes written SQUARE) is a block cipher invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. ...
General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1994 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design XTEA Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis TEA suffers from...
In cryptography, Triple DES (also 3DES) is a block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. ...
In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits. ...
This article is about the block cipher. ...
In cryptography, Xenon is a block cipher designed in 2000 by Chang-Hyi Lee for the Korean firm SoftForum. ...
In cryptography, xmx is a block cipher designed in 1997 by David MRaÃ¯hi, David Naccache, Jacques Stern, and Serge Vaudenay. ...
General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1997 Derived from Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis...
In cryptography, Zodiac is a block cipher designed in 2000 by Chang-Hyi Lee for the Korean firm SoftForum. ...
Feistel cipher - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...
The key-schedule of DES (<<< denotes a left rotation) In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of ciphers, where the (de-)ciphering of data is done in rounds. The general setup of each round is the same, except for some hard-coded parameters and a part...
In cryptography, a product cipher is a popular type of block cipher that works by executing in sequence a number of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. ...
In cryptography, a substitution box (or S-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms. ...
In cryptography, an SP-network, or substitution-permutation network (SPN), is a series of linked mathematical operations used in block cipher algorithms such as AES. These networks consist of S-boxes and P-boxes that transform blocks of input bits into output bits. ...
The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 1,800 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days â€” the photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips. ...
In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher. ...
Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. ...
In cryptography, integral cryptanalysis is a cryptanalytic attack that is particularly applicable to block ciphers based around Substitution-permutation networks. ...
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptÃ³s, hidden, and analÃ½ein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ...
In cryptography, mod n cryptanalysis is an attack applicable to block and stream ciphers. ...
In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ...
The idea of the slide attack was originally published by Edna Grossman and Bryant Tuckerman in an IBM Technical Report in 1977. ...
New Scientist magazine featured the XSL attack in June 2003 with an article billed as Cipher crisis: the end of internet privacy. In cryptography, the XSL attack is a method of cryptanalysis for block ciphers. ...
| **Standardization:** AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE **Misc:** Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the ageing Data Encryption Standard (DES). ...
CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ...
NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ...
This article is about cryptography; for other meanings, see snowball effect. ...
In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ...
In cryptography, an initialization vector (IV) is a block of bits that is required to allow a stream cipher or a block cipher executed in any of several streaming modes of operation to produce a unique stream independent from other streams produced by the same encryption key, without having to...
In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ...
In cryptography, a block cipher operates on blocks of fixed length, often 64 or 128 bits. ...
In cryptanalysis, the piling-up lemma is a principle used in linear cryptanalysis to construct linear approximations to the action of block ciphers. ...
In cryptography, a weak key is a key which when used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way. ...
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