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Encyclopedia > New urbanism

New urbanism is an American urban design movement that arose in the early 1980s. Its goal is to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban planning, from urban retrofits to suburban infill. New urbanist neighborhoods are designed to contain a diverse range of housing and jobs, and to be walkable. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... A real estate developer builds on land, thereby increasing its value. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Suburban infill describes the development of land in existing suburban areas that was left vacant during the development of the suburb. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city, town or suburb. ... Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). ...


New Urbanism can include (neo)traditional neighborhood design and transit-oriented development. Aerial view of growth patterns in Arlington County, Virginia. ...


In 1991, the Local Government Commission, a private nonprofit group in Sacramento, California, invited architects Peter Calthorpe, Michael Corbett, Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Moule, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Stefanos Polyzoides, and Daniel Solomon to develop a set of community principles for land use planning. Named the Ahwahnee Principles (after Yosemite National Park's Ahwahnee Hotel), the commission presented the principles to about one hundred government officials in the fall of 1991, at its first Yosemite Conference for Local Elected Officials. Sacramento redirects here. ... Peter Calthorpe has been named one of twenty five innovators on the cutting edge by Newsweek magazine for his work redefining the models of urban and suburban growth in America. ... Michael Corbett can refer to any of the following people Michael Corbett (ice hockey), a former ice hockey player in the National Hockey League. ... Andrés Duany (born September 7, 1949) is a American architect and urban planner. ... Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk was born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania on December 10, 1950. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... The Ahwahnee Hotel is an impressive 80-year-old stone, wood and glass destination hotel in Yosemite National Park California on the floor of Yosemite Valley. ...

Market Street, downtown Celebration, Florida
Market Street, downtown Celebration, Florida

Calthorpe, Duany, Moule, Plater-Zyberk, Polyzoides, and Solomon founded the Chicago-based Congress for the New Urbanism in 1993. The CNU has grown to more than 3,000 members, and is the leading international organization promoting new urbanist design principles. It holds annual Congresses in various U.S. cities. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1088 KB) Summary A view of downtown Market Street, Celebration, Florida: the city designed and planned by The Walt Disney Company. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1088 KB) Summary A view of downtown Market Street, Celebration, Florida: the city designed and planned by The Walt Disney Company. ... Celebration, Florida is a census-designated place and an unincorporated master-planned community in Osceola County in the U.S. state of Florida, near Walt Disney World Resort. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The CNU's Charter of the New Urbanism says:

We advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice.

New urbanists support regional planning for open space, context-appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and rein in urban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the redevelopment of brownfield land. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Regional planning is a branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. ... This article is about building architecture. ... -1... Demolition of the former Penn Station concourse raised public awareness about preservation Historic preservation is the act of maintaining and repairing existing historic materials and the retention of a propertys form as it has evolved over time. ... This article is about green building construction. ... Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. ...

Contents

Background

Through the first quarter of the twentieth century, cities in the United States were developed in the form of compact, mixed-use neighborhoods. That pattern began to change when cheap rapid transit enabled the emergence of streetcar suburbs, modern architecture, zoning codes, and the ascension of the automobile. “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... A streetcar suburb is a community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ...


A new system of development with a rigorous separation of uses, known as suburban development, or pejoratively as urban sprawl, arose after World War II. The majority of U.S. citizens now live in suburban communities built in the last fifty years. Suburban development consumes large areas of countryside, and automobile use per capita has soared.-1... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


The suburban working poor spend a large portion of their incomes on cars, and the mobility of those who cannot drive is significantly restricted in areas without good public transportation. Strip malls, auto-oriented civic and commercial buildings, and subdivisions without much individuality or character dominate the landscape.


New urbanism is a reaction to sprawl, based on planning and architectural principles working together to create human-scale, walkable communities. It is rooted in the work of architects, planners, and theorists who believed that conventional planning thought was failing.


Social philosopher and historian Lewis Mumford criticized the "anti-urban" development of post-war America. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, written by Jane Jacobs in the early 1960s, called for planners to reconsider the single-use housing projects, large car-dependent thoroughfares, and segregated commercial centers that had become the "norm." Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. ... Jane Jacobs, OC, O.Ont (May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-born Canadian urbanist, writer and activist. ...


In the 1970s and 1980s, New Urbanism emerged with the urban visions and theoretical models for the reconstruction of the "European" city proposed by architect Leon Krier, and the "pattern language" theories of Christopher Alexander. These eventually coalesced into a unified group in the 1990s. Leon Krier (born 1946) is an architect and urban planner from Luxembourg. ... Christopher Alexander (born October 4, 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is an architect noted for his theories about design, and for more than 200 building projects in California, Japan, Mexico and around the world. ...


The New Urbanism includes traditional architects and those with modernist sensibilities. Some work exclusively on infill projects, others focus on transit-oriented development, some attempt to transform the suburbs, and many work in all these categories. All believe in the power and ability of traditional neighborhoods to restore functional, sustainable communities.


New Urbanist developments are purchased quickly by interested home buyers, but have captured only a small share of the residential market. Developers continue to build conventional suburban projects, because they are more familiar with the conventional suburban development retail model, particularly the strip mall format. Example of a small strip mall. A strip mall (also called a plaza) is a shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. ...


Defining elements

Prospect New Town in Longmont, Colorado, showing a mix of aggregate housing and traditional detached homes
Prospect New Town in Longmont, Colorado, showing a mix of aggregate housing and traditional detached homes

The husband-wife team of town planners Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, two of the founders of the Congress for the New Urbanism, met at Princeton University. Their beliefs coalesced while at the Yale School of Architecture in New Haven. While living in one of New Haven's Victorian neighborhoods, they observed mixed-use streetscapes with corner shops, front porches, and a diversity of well-crafted housing. According to Duany and Plater-Zyberk, the heart of New Urbanism is in the design of neighborhoods, which can be defined by thirteen elements: ImageMetadata File history File links DSCN3187_prospectnewtown_e_600. ... ImageMetadata File history File links DSCN3187_prospectnewtown_e_600. ... View south of Tenacity Drive in Prospect New Town showing a mix of aggregate housing and traditional detached homes. ... The City of Longmont is a home rule municipality located in Boulder County and Weld County, Colorado, United States. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Yale School of Architecture is one of the constituent schools of Yale University. ... This article is about the city in Connecticut. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ...

  1. The neighborhood has a discernible center. This is often a square or a green and sometimes a busy or memorable street corner. A transit stop would be located at this center.
  2. Most of the dwellings are within a five-minute walk of the center, an average of roughly 1/4 mile or 1,320 feet (0.4 km).
  3. There are a variety of dwelling types — usually houses, rowhouses, and apartments — so that younger and older people, singles, and families, the poor, and the wealthy may find places to live.
  4. At the edge of the neighborhood, there are shops and offices of sufficiently varied types to supply the weekly needs of a household.
  5. A small ancillary building or garage apartment is permitted within the backyard of each house. It may be used as a rental unit or place to work (for example, an office or craft workshop).
  6. An elementary school is close enough so that most children can walk from their home.
  7. There are small playgrounds accessible to every dwelling — not more than a tenth of a mile away.
  8. Streets within the neighborhood form a connected network, which disperses traffic by providing a variety of pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination.
  9. The streets are relatively narrow and shaded by rows of trees. This slows traffic, creating an environment suitable for pedestrians and bicycles.
  10. Buildings in the neighborhood center are placed close to the street, creating a well-defined outdoor room.
  11. Parking lots and garage doors rarely front the street. Parking is relegated to the rear of buildings, usually accessed by alleys.
  12. Certain prominent sites at the termination of street vistas or in the neighborhood center are reserved for civic buildings. These provide sites for community meetings, education, and religious or cultural activities.
  13. The neighborhood is organized to be self-governing. A formal association debates and decides matters of maintenance, security, and physical change. Taxation is the responsibility of the larger community.

A street of British Victorian/Edwardian terraced homes. ... A red brick apartment block in central London, England, on the north bank of the Thames An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... In relationships, a single person is one that is not married, or, more broadly, that they are not in an exclusive romantic relationship. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Examples

The following towns, neighborhoods, and developments are examples of New Urbanism. ...

U.S.A.

New urbanism is having a growing influence on how and where metropolitan regions choose to grow. At least fourteen large-scale planning initiatives are based on the principles of linking transportation and land-use policies, and using the neighborhood as the fundamental building block of a region.


More than six hundred new towns, villages, and neighborhoods in the U.S. following new urbanism principles, are planned or under construction. Hundreds of new, small-scale, urban and suburban infill projects are restoring the urban fabric of cities and towns, by re-establishing walkable streets and blocks. In Maryland and several other states, new urbanist principles are an integral part of smart growth legislation.


In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) adopted the principles of the new urbanism in its multi-billion dollar program to rebuild public housing projects nationwide. New urbanists have planned and developed hundreds of projects in infill locations. Most were driven by the private sector, but many, including HUD projects, used public money. The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, often abbreviated HUD, is a Cabinet department of the United States government. ...


Seaside

Seaside, Florida, the first fully new urbanist town, began development in 1981 on eighty acres (324,000 m²) of Florida Panhandle coastline. It was featured on the cover of the Atlantic Monthly in 1988, when only a few streets were completed, and has become internationally famous for its architecture, and the quality of its streets and public spaces. Seaside, Florida is an unincorporated master-planned community on the Florida panhandle roughly midway between Fort Walton Beach, Florida and Panama City, Florida. ... The Florida Panhandle is the region of the state of Florida which includes the westernmost 16 counties in the state. ... The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ...


Seaside is now a tourist destination and appeared in the movie The Truman Show. Lots sold for $15,000 in the early 1980s, and slightly over a decade later, the price had escalated to about $200,000. Today, most lots sell for more than a million dollars, and some houses top $5 million.[citation needed] The Truman Show is a 1998 film directed by Peter Weir, written by Andrew Niccol, and starring Jim Carrey and Ed Harris. ...


Stapleton

The site of the former Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado, closed in 1995, is now being redeveloped by Forest City Enterprises as the largest new urbanist project in the United States. Construction began in 2001. The new community is zoned for residential and commercial development, including office parks and "big box" shopping centers. Stapleton is by far the largest neighborhood in the city of Denver and an eastern portion of the redevelopment site lies in the neighboring city of Aurora. Stapleton highlighted on this map of Denvers neighborhoods. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... Forest City Enterprises is a diversified real estate management and development company based in Cleveland, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... A big box is a box that is big. ... Nickname: Location in Arapahoe County and the state of Colorado Coordinates: , Country United States State Colorado Counties Arapahoe, Adams, Douglas[1] Founded 1891 Incorporated (town) May 5, 1903[2] Incorporated (city) 1929[3] Government  - Type Home Rule Municipality[1]  - Mayor Ed Tauer (R) Area  - City 369. ...


The design emphasizes a pedestrian orientation rather than the automobile-oriented designs found in many other planned developments. Nearly a third of the airport site was set aside for public parks and open space.


Stapleton is the site of the Denver School for Science and Technology, a 451-student public high school (grades 9-12) that is a charter school. [1] Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each schools...


By the end of 2006, about 2,500 houses and more than 300 apartments had been built on the Stapleton site.[2] When complete in about 15 years, it is expected to provide 8,000 houses, 4,000 apartments, 4 schools and 2 million square feet (180,000 m²) of retail space. Up to 30,000 people could live there.[3] Northfield Stapleton, one of the development's major retail centers, recently opened. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


All of Stapleton's airport infrastructure has been removed except for the control tower and a parking structure which remain standing as a reminder of the site's former days.


Haile Plantation

Haile Plantation, Florida, is a 2,600 household (1,700 acre) development of regional impact southwest of the City of Gainesville, within Alachua County. Haile Village Center is a traditional neighborhood center within the development. It was originally started in 1978 and completed in 2007. In addition to the 2,600 homes the neighborhood consists of two merchant centers (one a New England narrow street village and the other a chain grocery strip mall). There are also two public elementary schools and an 18-hole golf course. Haile Plantation is a 2,600 household (1,700 acre) development of regional impact southwest of the City of Gainesville, within Alachua County. ...


Disney's Celebration, Florida

In June of 1996, the Walt Disney Company unveiled its 5,000 acre (20 km²) town of Celebration, near Orlando, Florida. Celebration opened its downtown in October, 1996, while Seaside's downtown was still mostly unbuilt. It has since eclipsed Seaside as the best-known new urbanist community, but Disney shuns the label, calling Celebration simply a "town." Disney has been criticized for insipid nostalgia, and heavy-handed rules and management. Disney redirects here. ... Celebration, Florida is a census-designated place and an unincorporated master-planned community in Osceola County in the U.S. state of Florida, near Walt Disney World Resort. ... Look up nostalgia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other countries

View of Poundbury, Dorset, UK
View of Poundbury, Dorset, UK

Europeans may consider a "New Urbanism" project in the USA as simply traditional city planning. In Europe many brown-field sites have been redeveloped since the 1980s following the models of the traditional city neighbourhoods rather than Modernist models. One well-publicized example is Poundbury in England, a suburban extension to the town of Dorchester, which was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall under the overview of Prince Charles. The original masterplan was designed by Leon Krier. A report carried out after the first phase of construction found a high degree of satisfaction by residents, although the aspirations to reduce car dependency had not been successful. Rising house prices and a perceived premium have made the open market housing unaffordable for many local people.[4] Poundbury in Dorset. ... Poundbury in Dorset. ... View of Poundbury, Dorset. ... View of Poundbury, Dorset. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Prince Charles may refer to: Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, current heir-apparent to the British throne Any of the previous British royals named Charles, Prince of Wales The former Belgian regent, Prince Charles of Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Leon Krier (born 1946) is an architect and urban planner from Luxembourg. ...


The Council for European Urbanism (C.E.U.), formed in 2003, shares many of the same aims as the US New Urbanists. C.E.U.'s Charter is a development of the Congress for the New Urbanism Charter revised and reorganised to relate better to European conditions. An Australian organisation, Australian Council for New Urbanism has since 2001 run conferences and events to promote new urbanism in that country. A New Zealand Urban Design Protocol was created by the Ministry for the Environment in 2005. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In the United Kingdom New Urbanist and European urbanism principles are practiced and taught by the The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment. Other organisations promote New Urbanism as part of their remit, such as INTBAU, A Vision of Europe, and others. The Princes Foundation for the Built Environment (formerly The Prince of Waless Institute of Architecture) is an educational charity established by HRH The Prince of Wales to teach and demonstrate in practice those principles of traditional urban design and architecture which put people and the communities of which...


There are many developments around the world that follow New Urbanist principles to a greater or lesser extent:

  • The Alta de Lisboa project, in north Lisbon, Portugal, is one of the largest new urbanist projects in Europe.
  • Jakriborg, in Southern Sweden, is a recent example of the new urbanist movement.
  • Other developments can be found in Heulebrugge, the Netherlands; Knokke-Heist, in Belgium; and Fonti di Matilde, Italy.

There are several such developments in South Africa. The most notable is Melrose Arch in Johannesburg. The first development in the Eastern Cape, one of the lesser known provinces in the country, is located in East London. The development, announced in 2007, comprises 30 hectares. It is made up of three apartment complexes together with over 30 residential site as well as 20,000 sqm of residential and office space. The development is valued at over R2-billion ($250 million). Location of McKenzie Towne in Calgary McKenzie Towne is a neighbourhood in the southeast corner of Calgary, Alberta built by Carma Developers LP. The community is bordered on the west by Deerfoot Trail and on the south by Highway 22X. McKenzie Towne was designed to reflect a small town, complete... This article is about the Canadian city. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུག།) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Many of the apartments include two or three storeys. ...


New Urbanism in Film

The 1998 fantasy comedy-drama film The Truman Show uses the real life New Urbanist town of Seaside, Florida as the setting for a perfect, fictional town constructed as a set for a television show. The 2004 documentary The End of Suburbia: Oil Depletion and the Collapse of the American Dream argues that the depletion of oil will result in the demise of the sprawl-type development.[5] New Urban Cowboy: Toward a New Pedestrianism, a feature length 2008 documentary about urban designer Michael E. Arth, explains the principles of New Urbanism, gives a brief history of the movement, and chronicles the rebuilding of an inner city slum into a model of New Urbanism.[6] [7] The film promotes a more ecology and pedestrian-oriented branch of New Urbanism called New Pedestrianism that Arth founded in 1999.[8][9][10] The year 1998 in film involved some significant events. ... Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Truman Show is a 1998 film directed by Peter Weir, written by Andrew Niccol, and starring Jim Carrey and Ed Harris. ... Seaside, Florida is an unincorporated master-planned community on the Florida panhandle roughly midway between Fort Walton Beach, Florida and Panama City, Florida. ... A documentary is a work in a visual or auditory medium presenting political, scientific, social, or historical subjects in a factual and informative manner. ... The End of Suburbia: Oil Depletion and the Collapse of The American Dream is a 2004 documentary film concerning peak oil and its implications on the suburban lifestyle. ... Michael E. Arth, born on April 27, 1953, is an American artist, home/landscape/urban designer, futurist, and author. ... New Pedestrianism is a variation of New Urbanism in urban planning theory. ...


Criticisms

Perhaps the most frequent criticism of the movement is that the most famous and highest-profile projects most associated with the movement (primarily Celebration, Kentlands, and Seaside) are all greenfield projects built on what was previously open space and therefore are just another form of sprawl. Critics react to this as a controlled sprawl that assumes that social situations can and should also be controlled, such that preconceived rules of what a town need be are first worked out on paper and then acted out in real space. Often the results are elitist and exclusionary, and are almost always conservative in nature. Greenfield is the name of several places: In the United States of America: Greenfield, Illinois Greenfield, Indiana Greenfield, Massachusetts Greenfield, Michigan Greenfield, Missouri Greenfield, New Hampshire Greenfield, New York Greenfield, Ohio Greenfield, Wisconsin Greenfield Township, Ohio Greenfield Township, Pennsylvania South Greenfield, Brooklyn, New York In England: Greenfield, Greater Manchester See...


Critics accuse the new urbanism movement of elevating aesthetics over practicality, subordinating good urban planning principles to dogma. Some charge the movement is grounded in nostalgia for a period in American (and to a certain extent, European) history that may never have existed. A related charge is that the movement represents nothing truly new, as towns and neighborhoods were built on similar principles in the U.S. until the 1920s. Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Look up nostalgia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually when speaking about the United States. ...


The New Urbanist principle of mixed-income developments as a means of ameliorating poverty lacks evidence which supports that this is achieved. The theoretical basis for addressing poverty through mixed-income development posits that planned mixed-income developments facilitate the bridging of social capital, and thus a higher shared quality of life across socioeconomic cleavages.[11]


Academics have criticized New Urbanism as retrograde, bordering on fascist.[12] Some environmentalists decry new urbanism as nothing more than conventional sprawl dressed up with superficial stylistic cues. Some activists argue that the New Urbanism is too dense, with too much mixed use and around-the-clock activity. This article is about retrograde motion. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


A stream of thought in sustainable development maintains that sustainabilty is based primarily on the combination of high density and transit service. Critics claim many new urbanist developments fall short of being truly sustainable, to the extent that they rely on automobile transport, and serve the detached single family housing market. Many new urbanists claim that this is an incentive that prepare people in transition from conventional suburban living to going back to downtown living.[citation needed] Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... A Northern European single-family home in Germany. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ...


The New Urbanist preference for 'permeable' street grids has been criticised on the grounds that it gives private motor vehicles an advantage over walking, cycling and public transport[13]. The transport performance of some New Urbanist developments, such as Poundbury have been disappointing, with surveys revealing high levels of car use[4] The alternative view, termed 'filtered permeability' (see Permeability (spatial and transport planning)) is that to give pedestrians and cyclists a time and convenience advantage, they need to be separated from motor vehicles in places. View of Poundbury, Dorset. ...


A forthcoming rating and certification scheme for neighborhood environmental design, LEED-ND, being developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, Natural Resources Defense Council, and the Congress for the New Urbanism, should help to quantify the sustainability of New Urbanist neighborhood design. 7 World Trade Center, considered New York Citys first green office tower by gaining gold status in the U.S. Green Building Councils LEED program. ... This article is about green building construction. ... The Natural Resources Defense Council is an environmental advocacy organization that led the drive to ban alar, claiming that it was a dangerous carcinogen. ...


New urbanism has drawn both praise [14] and criticism from all quarters of the political spectrum. Some members of the right wing view new urbanism as a collectivist plot designed to rob Americans of their civil freedoms, property rights, and free-flowing traffic. [15] Some members of the left wing view new urbanism as an example of capitalistic excess, aligned with forces of greed and racism that would intentionally or unintentionally purge residents of color and the underclass from their historical neighborhoods by raising property values far beyond their pre-urban renewal rates. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Collectivism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


See also

Architects and urbanists

Locations

Topics

Christopher Alexander (born October 4, 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is an architect noted for his theories about design, and for more than 200 building projects in California, Japan, Mexico and around the world. ... Michael E. Arth, born on April 27, 1953, is an American artist, home/landscape/urban designer, futurist, and author. ... Peter Calthorpe has been named one of twenty five innovators on the cutting edge by Newsweek magazine for his work redefining the models of urban and suburban growth in America. ... Andrés Duany (born September 7, 1949) is a American architect and urban planner. ... Jane Jacobs, OC, O.Ont (May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-born Canadian urbanist, writer and activist. ... Leon Krier (born 1946) is an architect and urban planner from Luxembourg. ... James Howard Kunstler (born 1948) is an American author, social critic, and blogger who is perhaps best known for his book The Geography of Nowhere, a history of suburbia and urban development in the United States. ... Sim Van der Ryn is acknowledged as a leader in sustainable architecture. ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: County Prince Georges County Incorporated 1937 Government  - Mayor Judith F. Davis (D) Area  - City 15. ... National Harbor in April 2007, as viewed from the Potomac River National Harbor is a 300-acre new urbanist mixed use waterfront development being built by the The Peterson Companies on the shores of the Potomac River in Prince Georges County, Maryland. ... Port Melbourne is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... View of Poundbury, Dorset. ... Seaside, Florida is an unincorporated master-planned community on the Florida panhandle roughly midway between Fort Walton Beach, Florida and Panama City, Florida. ... Stapleton highlighted on this map of Denvers neighborhoods. ... Carsharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned and operated/overseen by a company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping, or even a single individual, and made available for use by members of the carshare group in a wide variety of ways. ... Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior. ... The European Urban Renaissance is an architectural movement aiming at developing the European cities according to the principles of the Traditional City. ... Naked streets is a term used to describe a road safety initiative in which, contrary to normal practice, roads are cleared of markings, signage and pedestrian barriers, reducing the normal priority given to motor traffic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... New Pedestrianism is a variation of New Urbanism in urban planning theory. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Urban Planning: Walkable Communities. ... Smart growth is a concept and term used by those who seek to identify a set of policies governing transportation and land use planning policy for urban areas that benefits communities and preserves the natural environment. ... Aerial view of growth patterns in Arlington County, Virginia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Urban Renaissance is a term used to describe the recent period of repopulation and regeneration of many British cities, including, Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, and parts of London after a period of suburbanisation during the mid-20th century. ... An Urbanate is the name given by the Technocracy movement to their proposal for an entirely new living environment, which is envisioned to replace cities in a possible future technate. ... Urbanism is the study of cities - their geographic, economic, political, social and cultural environment, and the imprint of all these forces on the built environment. ... The international organization for World Urbanism Day , known as World Town Planning Day in USA, was founded in 1949 by the late Professor Carlos Maria della Paolera of the University of Buenos Aires to advance public and professional interest in planning. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ DSST Web site
  2. ^ Stapleton Web Site
  3. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-10-26-100-million_x.htm USA Today
  4. ^ a b WATSON, G., BENTLEY, I., ROAF, S. and SMITH, P., 2004. Learning from Poundbury, Research for the West Dorset District Council and the Duchy of Cornwall. Oxford Brookes University.
  5. ^ http://www.endofsuburbia.comlink to official website
  6. ^ Teri Pruden, "The New Urban Cowboy: Michael E. Arth transforms Cracktown into Historic Garden District in DeLand” DeLand Magazine, Jan-Feb, 2008. Pages 8, 9.
  7. ^ New Urban Cowboy review in Carbusters Magazine, issue #32, Winter 2007/2008, page 26.
  8. ^ "The Labors of Hercules: Modern Solutions to 12 Herculean Problems" by Michael E. Arth, Labor IX. link to article
  9. ^ Michael E. Arth, "Pedestrian Villages are the Antidote to Sprawl" The DeLand-Deltona Beacon, May 29, 2003. Page 1D.
  10. ^ Morris Sullivan, "Town designer solves problem areas." Daytona Beach News-Journal, January 15, 2006, p. 10H.
  11. ^ Chaskin, R.J., Joseph, M.L., Webber, H.S. (2007) The Theoretical Basis for Addressing Poverty Through Mixed-Income Development. Urban Affairs Review 42 (3): 369-409.
  12. ^ (2001) New Urbanism: Comprehensive Report & Best Practices Guide. Ithaca, NY: Robert Steuteville. 
  13. ^ "Neighbourhoods Should be Made Permeable for Walking and Cycling but not for Cars", Steve Melia, Local Transport Today, January 23rd 2008link to article
  14. ^ "The Labors of Hercules: Modern Solutions to 12 Herculean Problems" by Michael E. Arth, Labor IX. link to article
  15. ^ "Plan Obsolescence," Reason, June 1998: http://www.reason.com/news/show/30660.html

References

  • Arth, Michael E., The Labors of Hercules: Modern Solutions to 12 Herculean Problems. 2007 Online edition. Labor IX: Urbanism Link to book
  • Brooke, Steven (1995). Seaside. Gretna, La.: Pelican Publishing Company. ISBN 0-88289-997-X
  • Calthorpe, Peter (1993). The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1-878271-68-7
  • Calthorpe, Peter and William Fulton (2001). The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-784-6
  • Congress for the New Urbanism (1999). in Leccese, Michael; and McCormick, Kathleen (Eds.): Charter of the New Urbanism. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-135553-7. 
  • Duany, Andres; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; & Alminana, Robert (2003). The New Civic Art: Elements of Town Planning. New York: Rizzoli Publications. ISBN 0-8478-2186-2. 
  • Duany, Andres; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; & Speck, Jeff (2000). Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-557-1. 
  • Dutton, John A. (2001). New American Urbanism: Re-forming the Suburban Metropolis. Milano: Skira editore. ISBN 88-8118-741-8
  • El Nasser, Haya. "Miss. Wal-Marts may apply 'new urbanism' in rebuilding", USA Today, November 14, 2005. 
  • Jacobs, Jane (1992). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-74195-X. Originally published: New York: Random House, (1961).
  • Katz, Peter (1994). The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-033889-2
  • Kunstler, James Howard (1994). Geography Of Nowhere: The Rise And Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-88825-0
  • Talen, Emily (2005). New Urbanism & American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-70133-3. 
  • Tagliaventi, Gabriele (2002). New Urbanism. Florence: Alinea. ISBN 88-8125-602-9. 

Waugh, David. 2004 Buying New Urbanism: A Study of New Urban Characteristics that Residents Value. Applied Research Project. Texas State University. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/22/ is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jane Butzner Jacobs (born May 4, 1916) is a writer, activist, and city aficionado. ... James Howard Kunstler (b. ...


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New Urbanism

  Results from FactBites:
 
New urbanism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3138 words)
New urbanism is an urban design movement whose popularity increased from the beginning of the 1980s onwards.
The new urbanism is a reaction to sprawl.
New urbanism is in part a reform movement and, as such, has drawn criticism from all quarters of the political spectrum.
About New Urbanism (2062 words)
New urbanists take a wide variety of approaches — some work exclusively on infill projects, others focus on transit-oriented development, still others are attempting to transform the suburbs, and many are working in all of these categories.
That blending of old and new is the basis of the adjective neotraditional, a term that carries a lot of baggage, especially with modernists, who see it as an architectural "style." However, it is more of an urban design approach that borrows from the past while adapting to the present and future.
New urbanists also must prove, over time, that their ideas are superior for both revitalizing old cities and towns and building new communities.
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