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Encyclopedia > New antisemitism

New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel.[1] The term has entered common usage to refer to what some writers describe as a wave of antisemitism that escalated, particularly in Western Europe, after the Second Intifada in 2000, the failure of the Oslo accords, and the September 11, 2001 attacks. [2][3][4] Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The phrase Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the West to describe Islamist groups. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


The concept generally posits that much of what purports to be criticism of Israel by various individuals and world bodies is in fact tantamount to demonization, and that together with an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols and an increased acceptance of antisemitic beliefs in public discourse, such demonization represents an evolution in the appearance of antisemitic beliefs. Jewish symbolism refers to any forms or types of symbolism in Judaism; a symbol in this sense is defined as some kind of visible representation of an object or an idea. ...

Photographed at an anti-war rally in San Francisco on February 16, 2003, this placard mixes anti-imperialist, anti-American, anti-capitalist, anti-Zionist and anti-globalization imagery with some classic antisemitic motifs. Photograph taken by zombie of zombietime.com.
Photographed at an anti-war rally in San Francisco on February 16, 2003, this placard mixes anti-imperialist, anti-American, anti-capitalist, anti-Zionist and anti-globalization imagery with some classic antisemitic motifs. Photograph taken by zombie of zombietime.com. [5]

Proponents of the concept argue that anti-Zionism, anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, third worldism, and demonization of Israel or double standards applied to its conduct may be linked to antisemitism, or constitute disguised antisemitism.[2][3] Critics of the concept argue that it conflates anti-Zionism with antisemitism, defines legitimate criticism of Israel too narrowly and demonization too broadly, trivializes the meaning of antisemitism, and exploits antisemitism in order to silence debate. [6][7] Image File history File links AntiWarRallyFeb162003. ... Image File history File links AntiWarRallyFeb162003. ... February 15, 2003 was a global day of protests against the imminent invasion of Iraq. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Opposition to United States foreign policy. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, the movement for a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, the movement for a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Opposition to United States foreign policy. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Third-worldism is a tendency within (ostensibly) left wing political thought to regard the division between advanced capitalist nations and (so called) third world ones as of primary political importance. ...

Contents

History

A Nazi German cartoon circa 1938 depicts the Jews as an octopus encircling the globe; see article Anti-globalization and anti-Semitism
A Nazi German cartoon circa 1938 depicts the Jews as an octopus encircling the globe; see article Anti-globalization and anti-Semitism [8]
The same imagery revived on the cover of the 2001 Egyptian edition of The International Jew by Henry Ford.
The same imagery revived on the cover of the 2001 Egyptian edition of The International Jew by Henry Ford. [9]

The concept of a "new antisemitism" rooted in anti-Zionism was discussed in France during the aftermath of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. The French philosopher Pierre-André Tanguieff cites a number of works written on the subject in his La Nouvelle Judéophobie (2002, trans. 2004), including 1968 and 1969 publications from Jacques Givet and Léon Poliakov.[10] Taguieff's own position is that what he calls the "nouvelle judéophobie" of this period was centred in the Arab-Muslim world and the Soviet empire, and was marked by anti-Jewish themes centred on "demonical figures of Israel" and the idea of a "fantasy-world 'Zionism'": that Jews plot together, seek to conquer the world, and are imperialistic and bloodthirsty.[2] Image File history File links OctopusNAS1. ... Image File history File links OctopusNAS1. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Some writers have argued there is rising acceptance of anti-Semitism within the anti-globalization movement. ... Image File history File links 2001_ed_The_International_Jew_by_Henry_Ford. ... Image File history File links 2001_ed_The_International_Jew_by_Henry_Ford. ... The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Léon Poliakov (Russian: ; 1910-1997) was a historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. ...


Arnold Forster and Benjamin Epstein, officials of the Anti-Defamation League, published a book entitled The New anti-Semitism in 1974, expressing concern about what they described as new manifestations of antisemitism coming from radical left, radical right, and "pro-Arab" figures in the United States of America.[11] Forster and Epstein argued that "the heart of the new anti-Semitism" was "indifference to the most profound apprehensions of the Jewish people", "a blandness and apathy in dealing with anti-Jewish behavior", and "a widespread incapacity or unwillingness to comprehend the necessity of the existence of Israel to Jewish safety and survival throughout the world".[12] Reviewing Forster and Epstein's work in Commentary, Earl Raab argued that a "new anti-Semitism" was indeed emerging in the America, in the form of opposition to the collective rights of the Jewish people. However, Raab criticized Forster and Epstein for conflating "anti-Israel bias in general" with antisemitism, and for "sometimes interpret[ing] the failure to be pro-Israel as anti-Semitism".[13] Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... // Commentary, a monthly magazine founded by the American Jewish Committee in 1945, bills itself as Americas premier monthly magazine of opinion. ...


Radical left-wing movements voiced increasing opposition to Israel after the 1967 war, controversially claiming that Zionism was a racist and colonialist movement. The historian Robert Wistrich addressed this subject in a 1984 lecture delivered in the home of Israeli President Chaim Herzog. Wistrich argued that a "new anti-Semitic anti-Zionism" was emerging, distinguishing features of which were the equation of Zionism with Nazism and the belief that Zionists had actively collaborated with Nazis during World War II. He argued that such claims were prevalent in Soviet Union, but added that "grotesque Soviet blood-libels" of this sort had been taken up more recently by a part of the radical Left, particularly Trotskyist groups in Western Europe and America.[14] During the same period, former Israeli foreign minister Abba Eban argued that "the New Left is the author and progenitor of the new anti-Semitism."[15] The radical left generally rejected this assessment. In 2004, former Trotskyist Tariq Ali wrote that most pro-Palestinian, anti-Zionist groups that emerged after 1967 war "were careful to distinguish between anti-Zionism and anti-semitism".[16] It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... Chaim Vivian Herzog (Hebrew: )‎ (September 17, 1918 - April 17, 1997) served as the sixth President of Israel (1983 - 1993), following a distinguished career in both the British Army and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Abba Eban (אבא אבן) (February 2, 1915 – November 17, 2002) was an Israeli diplomat and politician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chip Berlet of Political Research Associates, an American research group that tracks the far right, writes that, during the early 1980s, isolationists on the far right made overtures to anti-war activists on the left to join forces against government policies in areas where they shared concerns,[17] mainly civil liberties, opposition to U.S. military intervention overseas, and opposition to U.S. support for Israel.[18] [19] John Foster Chip Berlet (born November 22, 1949) is an American photographer and researcher specializing in the study of right-wing movements in the United States, particularly the religious right, white supremacists, homophobic groups, and paramilitary organizations. ... Political Research Associates (PRA) is a non-profit research group located in Somerville, Massachusetts, which studies the U.S. political right wing, as well as white supremacists, anti-Semitic groups, and paramilitary organizations. ...


As they interacted, some of the classic right-wing anti-Semitic scapegoating conspiracy theories began to seep into progressive circles, [18] including stories about how a "New World Order", also called the "Shadow Government" or "The Octopus," [17] was manipulating world governments. Berlet writes that antisemitic conspiracism [20] was "peddled aggressively" by right-wing groups, and that the left adopted the rhetoric, which Berlet argues was made possible by the left's lack of knowledge of the history of fascism and its use of "scapegoating, reductionist and simplistic solutions, demagoguery, and a conspiracy theory of history." [18] The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ... This article describes an alleged conspiracy to establish a unitary world government. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ...


Toward the end of 1990, as the movement against the Gulf War began to build, Berlet writes that a number of far-right and antisemitic groups sought out alliances with left-wing anti-war coalitions, who began to speak openly about a "Jewish lobby" that was encouraging the United States to invade the Middle East. This idea morphed into conspiracy theories about a "Zionist-occupied government" (ZOG), which Berlet writes is the modern incarnation of the antisemitic hoax, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. [17] Berlet adds: "It is important to recognize that as a whole the antiwar movement overwhelmingly rejected these overtures by the political right, while recognizing that the attempt reflected a larger ongoing problem." He cites the example of Wisconsin anti-war activist Alan Ruff, who appeared on a panel in Verona to discuss the Gulf War. Also on the panel on the anti-war side was another local activist, Emmanuel Branch. "Suddenly I heard Branch saying the war was the result of a Zionist banking conspiracy," said Ruff. "I found myself squeezed between pro-war hawks and this anti-Jewish nut, it destroyed the ability of those of us who opposed the war to make our point." [18] Combatants United States & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... Zionist Occupation Government (abbreviated as ZOG) is an antisemitic conspiracy theory according to which Jews secretly (or overtly in the case of the United States of America) control a country, while the formal government is a puppet regime. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic text that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. ...


Arguments for and against the concept

A new phenomenon

Poster at San Francisco State University resurrects the blood libel: "Palestinian Children Meat", "Made in Israel" and "slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license."

Jack Fischel, chair of history at Millersville University of Pennsylvania, writes that the new anti-Semitism is a new phenomenon stemming from what he calls an "unprecedented coalition" of enemies: "leftists, vociferously opposed to the policies of Israel, and right-wing antisemites, committed to the destruction of Israel, [who] were joined by millions of Muslims, including Arabs, who immigrated to Europe ... and who brought with them their hatred of Israel in particular and of Jews in general." It is this new political alignment, he argues, that makes new antisemitism unique. [21] Mark Strauss of the political magazine Foreign Policy links it to anti-globalism, describing it as "the medieval image of the 'Christ-killing' Jew resurrected on the editorial pages of cosmopolitan European newspapers. It is the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement refusing to put the Star of David on their ambulances ... It is neo-Nazis donning checkered Palestinian kaffiyehs and Palestinians lining up to buy copies of Mein Kampf." [22] http://fp. ... San Francisco State University (commonly referred to as San Francisco State, SF State, and SFSU) is a public university located in the southwestern San Francisco, California, bordering Lake Merced and Lowell High School, near Fort Funston and Daly City. ... Blood libels are false accusations, usually made by Christians, that Jews use human blood in certain of their religious rituals and magical rites. ... Jack R. Fischel is professor emeritus of history at Millersville University of Pennsylvania. ... Millersville University of Pennsylvania is a public university in Millersville, Pennsylvania, 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Lancaster. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Mark Strauss is an American journalist. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Anti-globalization (anti-globalisation) is a political stance of opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... The Star of David The Star of David in the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text, the Leningrad Codex, dated 1008. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... A keffiyeh being worn by Yasser Arafat The keffiyeh, or hatta, is a cotton cloth, usually white or chequered, fastened by a band called the agal, and traditionally worn by Arab Bedouin and in some areas peasants. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician and dictator Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ...

It is the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement refusing to put the Star of David on their ambulances ... It is neo-Nazis donning checkered Palestinian kaffiyehs and Palestinians lining up to buy copies of Mein Kampf. — Mark Strauss [22]

The French philosopher Pierre-André Taguieff argues that Judenhass based on racism and nationalism has been replaced by a new form based on anti-racism and anti-nationalism. He identifies some of its main features as the use of anti-racism for anti-Jewish purposes, identifying Zionism as racism; the use of material related to Holocaust denial becomes an ordinary feature of discourse e.g. doubts about the number of victims, allegations of a Holocaust industry; discourse is borrowed from third worldism, anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, anti-Americanism, and anti-globalization; there is widespread dissemination of what he calls the "myth" of the "intrinsically good Palestinian — the innocent victim par excellence. [23] A keffiyeh being worn by Yasser Arafat The keffiyeh, or hatta, is a cotton cloth, usually white or chequered, fastened by a band called the agal, and traditionally worn by Arab Bedouin and in some areas peasants. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician and dictator Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Mark Strauss is an American journalist. ... Pierre-Andre Taguieff, born at 1946 in Paris is a philosopher and political economist, director of research at CNRS (in a Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) laboratory, the CEVIPOF). ... Because racism carries connotations of race-based bigotry, prejudice, violence, oppression, stereotyping or discrimination, the term has varying and often hotly contested definitions. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Third-worldism is a tendency within (ostensibly) left wing political thought to regard the division between advanced capitalist nations and (so called) third world ones as of primary political importance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... hey, frank the tank rocks ur mom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Opposition to United States foreign policy. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In part because the concept of new antisemitism is a recent one, and because of the nature of it, there are no indices of measurement, according to Irwin Cotler, Professor of Law at McGill University, and Canada's former Justice Minister. [24] Cotler defines classical antisemitism as "the discrimination against, or denial of, the right of Jews to live as equal members of a free society," the focus of which is discrimination against Jews as individuals. He argues that the new antisemitism, by contrast, "involves the discrimination against the right of the Jewish people to live as an equal member of the family of nations"; that is, discrimination against Jews as a people. He argues that antisemitism has expanded from hatred of Jews (classical antisemitism) to hatred of Jewish national aspirations (new antisemitism). [24] The latter is hard to measure because the usual indices used by governments to detect discrimination — standard of living, housing, health, and employment — are useful only in measuring discrimination against individuals. Because it is difficult to measure, Cotler argues, it is difficult to show convincingly that the concept is a valid one. Irwin Cotler, PC , MP , OC , BA , BCL , LL.D , Ph. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) of Canada is the minister in the Cabinet of Canada who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ...


A new phenomenon, but not antisemitism

Dr. Brian Klug argues that the new prejudice is not antisemitism, new or old; not a mutation of an existing virus, but "a brand new 'bug'."
Dr. Brian Klug argues that the new prejudice is not antisemitism, new or old; not a mutation of an existing virus, but "a brand new 'bug'." [25]

That there has been a resurgence of antisemitic attacks and attitudes is accepted by most opponents of the concept of new antisemitism. [26] What is not accepted is that this constitutes a different kind of antisemitism. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x3000, 1306 KB) Description: Dr. Brian Klug, Senior Research Fellow & Tutor in Philosophy at St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x3000, 1306 KB) Description: Dr. Brian Klug, Senior Research Fellow & Tutor in Philosophy at St. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ...


Brian Klug, senior research fellow in philosophy at St Benet's Hall, Oxford — who gave expert testimony in February 2006 to a British parliamentary inquiry into antisemitism in the UK, and in November 2004 to the Hearing on Anti-Semitism at the German Bundestag — argues against the idea that there is a "single, unified phenomenon" that could be called "new" antisemitism. He accepts that there is reason for the Jewish community to be concerned, citing the truck-bombing of two synagogues in Istanbul, an arson attack on an Orthodox Jewish school in Paris, the reappearance of anti-Semitic slogans during demonstrations opposing the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the increase in conspiracy theories involving Jews. He writes that some researchers report a 60 percent increase worldwide of assaults on Jews in 2002 compared to the previous year. [27] Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... and of the St. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... The Istanbul bombings were two truck bomb attacks carried out on two days in November 2003. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, a variety of conspiracy theories have emerged about the attacks which contradict the mainstream account of events that day. ...


Klug argues that the antisemitism involved in such incidents is not a new phenomenon but "classical" antisemitism, and that "it is closer to the truth to say that anti-Zionism today takes the form of anti-Semitism rather than the other way round." Proponents of the new antisemitism concept, he writes, see an "organizing principle" that allows them to formulate a new concept, but it is only in terms of this concept that many of the examples cited in evidence of it count as examples in the first place. [27] That is, the creation of the concept may be based on a circular argument or tautology. He argues that it is an unhelpful concept, because it devalues the term "anti-Semitism," leading to widespread cynicism about the use of it, which undermines the credibility of those who fight it. People of goodwill who support the Palestinians resent being falsely accused of being anti-Semites. [25] Within the study of logic, a tautology is a statement containing more than one sub-statement, that is true regardless of the truth values of its parts. ...


Klug defines classical antisemitism as "an ingrained European fantasy about Jews as Jews," arguing that whether Jews are seen as a race, religion, or ethnicity, and whether antisemitism comes from the right or the left, the antisemite's image of the Jew is always as "a people set apart, not merely by their customs but by their collective character. They are arrogant, secretive, cunning, always looking to turn a profit. Loyal only to their own, wherever they go they form a state within a state, preying upon the societies in whose midst they dwell. Mysteriously powerful, their hidden hand controls the banks and the media. They will even drag governments into war if this suits their purposes. Such is the figure of 'the Jew,' transmitted from generation to generation." [28] For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...

[W]hen anti-Semitism is everywhere, it is nowhere. And when every anti-Zionist is an anti-Semite, we no longer know how to recognize the real thing--the concept of anti-Semitism loses its significanceBrian Klug [29]

He argues that, although it is true that the new antisemitism incorporates the idea that anti-Semitism is hostility to Jews as Jews, the source of the hostility has changed; therefore, to continue using the same expression for it — antisemitism — causes confusion. Today's hostility to Jews as Jews is based on the Arab-Israeli conflict, not on ancient European fantasies. Israel proclaims itself as the state of the Jewish people, and many Jews align themselves with Israel for that very reason. It is out of this alignment that the hostility to Jews as Jews arises, rather than hostility to Israelis or to Zionists. Klug agrees that it is a prejudice, because it is a generalization about individuals; nevertheless, he argues, it is "not rooted in the ideology of 'the Jew'," and is therefore a different phenomenon from antisemitism. [25] Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...


According to Klug, the problem with calling this new prejudice "new antisemitism" is that it gives the impression of an ideological continuum from religious to racial to "new" antisemitism. Klug writes that religious antisemitism mutated into racial antisemitism, and that the latter was clearly a variation on a pre-existing theme. Not so with the new phenomenon, he argues, which has entirely different origins and content. It is not a mutation of an existing virus, but "a brand new 'bug'." [25]


That is, Klug argues that there are three distinct components of what some scholars are calling "new antisemitism":

  • Antisemitism, a prejudice that is based on the stereotypical construction of 'the Jew';
  • Anti-Zionism and antagonism to Israel, based on a political cause or moral code, and not anti-Jewish per se;
  • Prejudice against all Jews that is derived from the latter. [25]

The discourse of the new antisemitism conflates these, he argues, leading not only to the branding as anti-Semitic of legitimate political views about Israel, but to inflated estimates of the scale of antisemitic incidents. The line between "fair and foul" criticism of Israel tends to be drawn in such a way that it rules out criticism "that goes much beyond a gentle rap across the [Israeli] government's knuckles or finger-wagging at the laws of the land." If most anti-Zionist arguments do cross the line, and if crossing the line is antisemitic, it follows that most attacks on Israel are antisemitic, as is any attack on a Jewish target that is inspired by the line that has been crossed. This is compelling logic, writes Klug, but the effect of it is "to produce, at a stroke, a quantum leap in the amount of antisemitism worldwide, if not a veritable 'war against the Jews'," given how much controversy Israel currently inspires. [30] He argues that crossing the line from fair to foul is a normal part of political debate. Pro-Israelis aren't necessarily racists when they do it; pro-Palestinians are not necessarily anti-Semites when they do. Jumping to conclusions about people's prejudices is itself a form of prejudice. [25] Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, the movement for a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. ...


Klug writes that contemporary antisemitism can be identified by looking for the use of the antisemitic figure of 'the Jew'. Whenever a text or image projects this figure (a) onto Israel because Israel is a Jewish state; (b) onto Zionism because Zionism is a Jewish movement; or (c) onto Jews as individuals or a group in association with Israel or Zionism, then it is antisemitic. [25]


In his conclusion to "The Myth of the New anti-Semitism" Klug argues that the tendency to elevate anti-Zionism into a "new" anti-semitism trivalizes the concept of anti-Semitism and threatens to make it meaningless. "[W]hen anti-Semitism is everywhere, it is nowhere. And when every anti-Zionist is an anti-Semite, we no longer know how to recognize the real thing--the concept of anti-Semitism loses its significance".[31]


Rabbi Michael Lerner, a spiritual leader and liberal activist, also says that there is no new antisemitism. He claims that he and like-minded activists have been termed "self-hating Jews" by those who charge that new antisemitism exists, and fears that "[w]hen this bubble of repression of dialogue explodes into open resentment at the way Jewish Political correctness has been imposed, it may really yield a 'new' anti-Semitism."[7] CLEAN THIS UP! Most of the content is a personal attack on Lerner, Jewish Renewal, and his political and spiritual views. ... Self-hating Jew (or self-loathing Jew) is an epithet used about Jews, which suggests a hatred of ones Jewish identity or ancestry. ...


The Klug/Wistrich correspondence

In correspondence with Klug, Robert Wistrich, Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and director of its International Center for the Study of Antisemitism — who also testified in February 2006 to the British parliamentary inquiry — responds that his own litmus test of when criticism of Israel becomes antisemitism is when the critic wishes to dismantle the Jewish state without calling for the dismantling of other states; demonizes Israel; brands it "Nazi" or "racist"; or relies on classic antisemitic stereotypes: for example, the "Jewish Lobby." He notes that Britain's Association of University Teachers voted to boycott Israeli universities, but not Russian academics for the Chechen atrocities, China for its occupation of Tibet, Saudi Arabian universities for "gender apartheid," or Palestinian universities for "glorifying jihadi terrorism." These decisions are "inexplicable without taking anti-Semitism into account," he writes. Wistrich also takes issue with the notion that Israelis are European interlopers in the Middle East; they are an "aboriginal people returning to their historic homeland and source of national identity." He argues that half the Israeli population is not European anyway, but was "uprooted from the Arab Middle East by exclusivist pan-Arabism, Islamic fanaticism, and the pressures of decolonization." [32] He writes: Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... A litmus test is a question asked of a potential candidate for high office, the answer to which would determine whether the nominating official would choose to proceed with the appointment or nomination. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... Demonization is the characterization of individuals, groups, or political bodies as evil or subhuman for purposes of justifying and making plausible an attack, whether in the form of character assassination, legal action, circumscribing of political liberties, or warfare. ... The term gender apartheid or sexual apartheid is used to describe sexual discrimination, particularly strict gender-based segregation[1] in countries such as Iran[2], Saudi Arabia[3] or Afghanistan under the Taliban[4] where women are segregated on the basis of sex from men in public and do not... Flag used by Muslims Army during early Islam Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, (Arabic: IPA: ) as an Islamic term, is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in Sunni Islam. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ...

[S]ixty years ago, there were more than a million Jews in Arab lands. Their exodus says it all. Israel integrated them, providing a haven, pride, dignity and freedom as it did for the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust. Palestinian refugees, on the other hand, were left to rot in UN refugee camps by their Arab brethren, fed with revanchist delusions about their inalienable "right of return" to Israel. If the Middle East tragedy is to be resolved, it is these camps – the seedbed of terrorism and an entire culture of hatred – which have to be dismantled and not the thriving Jewish state. [32] “Shoah” redirects here. ... Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A refugee camp is a temporary camp built up by governments or NGOs (such as the ICRC) to receive refugees. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in... Terrorist redirects here. ...

Klug agrees that it is "simplistic" to regard Israel as an interloper in the Middle East, but that nevertheless it is how the Jewish state has "looked through Arab eyes." The view that Jews are "an aboriginal people returning to their historic homeland" is equally one-sided, he argues, and is just one version of the Zionist point of view. Both sides must grasp what he calls this "clash of perspectives" and stop relying on one-sided accounts. Klug sums up his own view of when criticism of Israel becomes antisemitism:

Seen through the eyes of an anti-semite, Jews are essentially alien, powerful, cohesive, cunning, parasitic, and so on. Opposition to Israel or its government is anti-Semitic when it employs some variation or other of this fantasy – just as criticism of Arabs is racist when it is based on the stock figure of the Arab as cunning, lying and degenerate, or as a hateful terrorist who attaches no value to human life. [32]

Wistrich argues there is a "continuum of prejudice" against Jews that can lead from social discrimination to ghettoization and worse, and that Klug "radically underestimates" the effects of the liberal-left delegitimization of Zionism. "What we have seen in recent years is indeed a new form of anti-Semitism operating under a humanist façade which (falsely) pillories Israel and Jews as being inherently 'racist'." Wistrich writes that anti-Semitism is now driven by "Islamists who set the tone" by demonizing America, Israel, and the Jews, while "the media, the academic, artistic, religious and political elites in the European Union meekly follow suit." [32] A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... Islamist is sometimes also used for a scholar who studies Islam and Muslim societies. ...


Klug agrees that the "continuum of prejudice" exists, but argues that it is part of European history, not Middle Eastern; and that Zionism was the response to it, the empowerment of the powerless. He writes that the Zionist movement succeeded, and Israel is now a major power. For that very reason, he argues, when people object to the way it exercises its power, it should not be regarded as antisemitism. [32]


Criticism of Israel is not necessarily antisemitism

Earl Raab, founding director of the Nathan Perlmutter Institute for Jewish Advocacy at Brandeis University writes that "[t]here is a new surge of antisemitism in the world, and much prejudice against Israel is driven by such antisemitism," but argues that "charges of antisemitism based on anti-Israel remarks alone have proven to lack credibility in most circles". He adds that "a grave educational misdirection is imbedded in formulations suggesting that if we somehow get rid of antisemitism, we will get rid of anti-Israelism. This reduces the problems of prejudice against Israel to cartoon proportions." Raab describes prejudice against Israel as a "serious breach of morality and good sense," and argues that it is often a bridge to antisemitism, but distinguishes it from antisemitism as such. [33] Usen Castle, the most recognized building on campus Brandeis University is a private university located in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ...

[Jews] are prone to see a Jewish state as ... more vulnerable, less powerful, less culpable, as victim and not as an actor, at least partly because — so very recently in our own history — we were the quintessential victims. — Steven Zipperstein [34]

Steven Zipperstein, professor of Jewish Culture and History at Stanford University, argues that a belief in the State of Israel's responsibility for the Arab-Israeli conflict is considered "part of what a reasonably informed, progressive, decent person thinks," [35] and a disproportionate criticism of Israel is not the result of new anti-Semitism, or even classical anti-Semitism, but is simply a "by-product of the wildly disproportionate responses that mark the post-September 11 world." [36] Zipperstein writes that "anti-Israelism" is shaped by "a much distorted, simplistic, but this-worldly political analysis devoid of anti-Jewish bias." [34] Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San José in Stanford, California. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...


He argues that Jews have a tendency to see the State of Israel as "more vulnerable, less powerful, and less culpable, as victim and not as an actor" because they were very recently themselves "the quintessential victims." [34] He writes that: "We were mostly undefended and overwhelmingly friendless, and this trauma continues to haunt and perhaps at times to distort our sense of the world around us now. When we encounter antagonism — especially outsized, disproportionate antagonism — the memories of horrible times, whether personally experienced or imbibed secondhand, elicit reactions that are often sincere, acute, and disorienting." [37]


The third wave

Professor Bernard Lewis argues that the new anti-Semitism — what he calls "ideological anti-Semitism" — has mutated out of religious and racial anti-Semitism.
Professor Bernard Lewis argues that the new anti-Semitism — what he calls "ideological anti-Semitism" — has mutated out of religious and racial anti-Semitism.

Bernard Lewis, Cleveland E. Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, argues that the new antisemitism represents the third or "ideological" wave of antisemitism, the first two waves being religious antisemitism and racial antisemitism, respectively. [38] Prof. ... Prof. ... Prof. ... Prof. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ...


Lewis defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the rest. According to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by two distinct features: Jews are judged according to a standard different from that applied to others, and they are accused of "cosmic evil." Thus, "it is perfectly possible to hate and even to persecute Jews without necessarily being anti-Semitic" unless this hatred or persecution displays one of the two features specific to antisemitism. [38]


He writes that what he calls the first wave of antisemitism arose with the advent of Christianity because of the Jews' rejection of Jesus as Messiah. The second wave, racial anti-Semitism, emerged in Spain when large numbers of Jews were forcibly converted, and doubts about the sincerity of the converts led to ideas about the importance of "la limpieza de sangre", purity of blood. [39] Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Aramaic:  ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Lewis associates the third wave with the Arabs, and writes that it arose only in part because of the establishment of the State of Israel. Until the 19th century, Muslims had regarded Jews with what Lewis calls "amused, tolerant superiority" — they were seen as physically weak, cowardly, and unmilitary — and although Jews living in Muslim countries were not treated as equals, they were shown a certain amount of respect. The Western form of anti-Semitism — what Lewis calls "the cosmic, satanic version of Jew hatred" — arrived in the Middle East in several stages, beginning with Christian missionaries in the 19th century, and continued to grow slowly into the 20th century, up to the establishment of the Third Reich. He writes that it increased because of the humiliation of the Israeli military victories of 1948 and 1967. (See 1948 Arab-Israeli War and Six Day War.) [39] Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Gustave Dorés depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan, from the Hebrew word for adversary (Standard Hebrew: , Satan; Tiberian Hebrew ; Koine Greek: Σατανάς Satanás, Persian: , Satanás; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , , Geez: , Turkish: Åžeytan), is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally applied to... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


Into this mix entered the United Nations. Lewis argues that the United Nations' handling of the 1948 refugee situation convinced the Arab world that discrimination against Jews was acceptable. When the ancient Jewish community in East Jerusalem was evicted and its monuments desecrated or destroyed, they were offered no help. Similarly, when Jewish refugees fled or were driven out of Arab countries, no help was offered, but elaborate arrangements were made for Arabs who fled or were driven out of the area that became Israel. All the Arab governments involved in the conflict announced that they would not admit Israelis of any religion into their territories, but the United Nations did not protest; and furthermore announced that they would not give visas to Jews, no matter which country they were citizens of. Again, the United Nations did not protest. All of this has sent what Lewis calls a "clear message" to the Arab world. Lewis writes that this third wave of antisemitism has in common with the first wave that Jews are able to be part of it. With religious antisemitism, Jews were able to distance themselves from Judaism and convert, and Lewis writes that some even reached high rank within the church and the Inquisition. With racial antisemitism, this was not possible, but with the new, ideological antisemitism, Jews are once again able to join the critics. The new antisemitism also allows non-Jews, he argues, to criticize or attack Jews without feeling overshadowed by the crimes of the Nazis. [39] The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


The fourth wave since 1945

Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, writes that there have been three waves of anti-Semitism since 1945 — 1958-60; 1968-1972; and 1987-1992 — and that we are now experiencing the fourth, which he estimates started in 1999 or 2000. [40] Each wave has had different causes, some of them to do with economic downturns, though the common ground has been "an underlying latency of anti-Semitism that waits to explode when aroused by some outside crisis." [41] He describes the fourth wave as an upper-middle class, intellectual phenomenon, "widespread in the media, in universities, and in well-manicured circles. Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


Bauer notes that the two crises that led to the post-1945 waves of antisemitism are the Holocaust and the establishment of the State of Israel. The Holocaust created an unease about Jews, he writes, especially in Europe, where people "have to live with six million ghosts, created by a deadly mutation of European culture." [41] Although a feeling of relief accompanied the creation of Israel, because Europeans no longer had to deal with the Jews, at the same time, he argues, it turned the Jews from victims into perpetrators. He argues that the Arab-Israeli conflict "provide[s] ample material for an antisemitism that sees itself as anti-Zionist." Anti-Zionism need not be deemed antisemitic, "but only if one says that all national movements are evil, and all national states should be abolished. But if one says that the Fijians have the right to independence, and so do the Malays or the Bolivians, but the Jews have no such right, then one is anti-Jewish, and as one singles out the Jews for nationalistic reasons, one is anti-Semitic, with an attendant strong suspicion of being racist." Citing Irwin Cotler, Bauer writes that "the status of the collective Jew, that is Israel, is akin to the status of the individual Jew in the Middle Ages." [42] For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Irwin Cotler, PC , MP , OC , BA , BCL , LL.D , Ph. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Although the Arab-Israeli conflict has produced real tragedy for Palestinians, Bauer suggests that Western latent antisemitism has fastened onto that tragedy in order to brand the Jews as mass murderers and Nazis as a way of solving the West's own psychological problems caused by the Holocaust. "Facts do not matter there," he writes, arguing that the number of Palestinians killed between the beginning of the Second Intifada in 2000 and 2003 (when he was writing) was around 2,000, which is one sixth of the daily number of Jews shipped to Auschwitz from Hungary in the spring of 1944. Bearing these figures in mind, "[a]ny kind of simplistic comparison becomes totally ridiculous," he argues. [43] The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ... History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ...

A charming TV personality [on Egyptian television] asked little Basmallah, a 3½ year old girl, 'Do you know who the Jews are?' "Yes." 'Do you like them?' "No." 'Why?' "Because they are monkeys and swine ..."
Yehuda Bauer [44]

Bauer regards this wave of antisemitism as dangerous because of Islamism. He identifies Islamism as one of three major ideologies to have emerged during the 20th century, alongside Soviet Communism and National Socialism, [45] and argues that all three saw or see the Jews as a main enemy. [46] The language used about Jews by the Muslim media is, he says, "clearly and unmistakably genocidal," the ideology of Nazism "in a different dress."[47] He cites a television program broadcast on May 2, 2002 on the Egyptian television station IQRAA, during which a three-year-old girl was asked whether she knew who the Jews were and whether she liked them. She replied that she did not like them, because "they are monkeys and swine ... and also because they tried to poison the wife of our prophet." [44] Bauer writes that 1.2 billion Muslims are being exposed to these teachings, making this fourth wave of antisemitism a "genocidal threat to the Jewish people." [48] Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Islamist is sometimes also used for a scholar who studies Islam and Muslim societies. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The term National socialism has been used in self-description by a number of unrelated political movements. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


A contradictory political ploy

Dr. Norman Finkelstein argues that Israel's supporters deny a causal relationship between Israeli policies and hostility toward Jews, because "if Israeli policies, and widespread Jewish support for them, evoke hostility toward Jews, it means that Israel and its Jewish supporters might themselves be causing anti-Semitism; and it might be doing so because Israel and its Jewish supporters are in the wrong".
Dr. Norman Finkelstein argues that Israel's supporters deny a causal relationship between Israeli policies and hostility toward Jews, because "if Israeli policies, and widespread Jewish support for them, evoke hostility toward Jews, it means that Israel and its Jewish supporters might themselves be causing anti-Semitism; and it might be doing so because Israel and its Jewish supporters are in the wrong". [49]

Norman Finkelstein, a political scientist at DePaul University, has criticized the concept of new antisemitism. He argues that organizations such as the Anti-Defamation League have brought forward charges of "new antisemitism" at varied intervals since the 1970s, "not to fight antisemitism but rather to exploit the historical suffering of Jews in order to immunize Israel against criticism". [50] He has criticized much of the recent literature on the subject, including works by Phyllis Chesler, Gabriel Schoenfeld and Ron Rosenbaum. [51] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 509 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (644 × 758 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 509 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (644 × 758 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... DePaul University is a private institution of higher education and research in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Founded by the Vincentians in 1898, the university takes its name from the 17th century French priest who valued philanthropy, Saint Vincent de Paul. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Phyllis Chesler (Ph. ... Ron Rosenbaum (born on November 27, 1946, New York, New York) is an American journalist and author. ...


Finkelstein writes that what is currently called the new antisemitism consists of three components: (i) "exaggeration and fabrication", (ii) "mislabeling legitimate criticism of Israeli policy," and (iii) "the unjustified yet predictable spillover from criticism of Israel to Jews generally". [52] Finkelstein argues that most evidence purporting to show a new anti-Semitism has been taken from "organizations directly or indirectly linked to Israel or having a material stake in inflating the findings of anti-Semitism" and that some anti-Semitic incidents reported in recent years either did not occur or were misidentified. [53] He draws attention to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia's 2003 report on antisemitism, which included displays of the Palestinian flag, support for the PLO, and allegations of Israeli apartheid in its list of antisemitic activities and beliefs. [54] Proportions 1:2 The Palestinian flag has been in use by Palestinians to represent their national aspirations since the middle of the 20th century. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ...


Finkelstein argues that much recent hostility toward Israel and its "vocal Jewish supporters abroad" has been misinterpreted as resulting from "an irrational, inexplicable, and ineluctable" hatred of Jews, rather than from opposition to Israel's actions against the Palestinians. He writes that "Israel's apologists" have denied a causal relationship between Israeli policies and hostility toward Jews, since "if Israeli policies, and widespread Jewish support for them, evoke hostility toward Jews, it means that Israel and its Jewish supporters might themselves be causing anti-Semitism; and it might be doing so because Israel and its Jewish supporters are in the wrong". [49] Finkelstein notes that Jewish figures such as George Soros and Avraham Burg, who have argued that such a causal relationship exists, have been criticized by groups such as the ADL and the World Jewish Congress. [49] Palestinian people, Palestinians, or Palestinian Arabs are terms used today to refer mainly to Arabic-speaking people with family origins in Palestine. ... George Soros (pronounced ) [Shorosh] (born August 12, 1930, in Budapest, Hungary, as György Schwartz) is an American financial speculator, stock investor, philanthropist, and political activist. ... Avraham Burg (born January 19, 1955) is an Israeli politician. ... The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ...

What's currently called the new anti-Semitism actually incorporates three main components: (1) exaggeration and fabrication, (2) mislabeling legitimate criticism of Israeli policy, and (3) the unjustified yet predictable spillover from criticism of Israel to Jews generally.Norman Finkelstein. [52]

Finkelstein acknowledges that "[i]n some quarters anger at Israel's brutal occupation has undoubtedly slipped over to an animus against Jews generally", a phenomenon that he describes as "lamentable" but "hardly cause for wonder." [55] The wars in Vietnam and Iraq contributed to anti-Americanism, and the aggression of Nazi Germany gave rise to anti-Teutonic sentiment. Why does it surprise us, he asks, that an occupation by a self-declared Jewish state should cause antipathy towards Jews? The only surprise, he argues, is that the antipathy does not run deeper, given that mainstream Jewish organizations offer uncritical support to Israel, that Israel defines itself juridically as the sovereign state of the Jewish people, and that Jews themselves sometimes argue that to distinguish between Israel and world Jewry is itself an example of antisemitism.[56] Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Opposition to United States foreign policy. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire...


Finkelstein identifies several proponents of the concept of new antisemitism who appear to contradict themselves or each other on the issue of whether to identify Jews with Israel. Phyllis Chesler argues, on the one hand, that "anyone who does not distinguish between Jews and the Jewish state is an anti-Semite," but on the other that "Israel is our heart and soul ... we are family." [57] Gabriel Schoenfeld, the editor of Commentary magazine, writes that "Iranian anti-Semitic propagandists make a point of erasing all distinctions among Israel, Zionism and the Jews," [58] while Hillel Halkin argues that "Israel is the state of the Jews ... To defame Israel is to defame the Jews,"[59] and Italian journalist Fiamma Nirenstein that "Jews everywhere should consider their being identified with Israel a virtue and honor." [60] It would seem to be anti-Semitic, Finkelstein concludes, "both to identify and not to identify Israel with Jews." [61] Phyllis Chesler (Ph. ... Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ... Hillel Halkin is a prominent translator of Jewish literature. ...


Political directions

The far right and Islamism

This 2005 Syrian edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion repeats the blood libel that Jews use the blood of gentile children to bake matzos on Passover."
This 2005 Syrian edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion repeats the blood libel that Jews use the blood of gentile children to bake matzos on Passover." [62]

The September 2006 British "All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism" heard evidence from Searchlight, the anti-fascist magazine, that: "the far right have started to use 'Zionists' as a euphemism for 'Jews,' to disguise their anti-Semitism, a phenomenon that also occurs on the left and among Islamist extremists." [63] The British National Party's Voice of Freedom wrote of the war in Iraq that "Tony Blair swapped British blood for donations from a clique of filthy-rich Zionist businessmen." [63] The Muslim Public Affairs Committee UK (MPACUK) has cited the Talmud as a "Zionist holy book," [64] and describes Zionism as an "octopus that now penetrates every western nation and pushes it to start world war three against Muslims," [64] an anti-Semitic motif used by the Nazis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (463x668, 27 KB)Protocols of the Elders of Zion 2005 Syria This image is a book cover. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (463x668, 27 KB)Protocols of the Elders of Zion 2005 Syria This image is a book cover. ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... Blood libels are false accusations, usually made by Christians, that Jews use human blood in certain of their religious rituals and magical rites. ... Machine-made shmura matzo Matzo (also Matzoh, Matzah, Matza, Hebrew מַצָּה maā) is a Jewish food item made of plain flour and water, which is not allowed to ferment or rise before it is baked. ... Pasch redirects here. ... Searchlight is a British anti-fascist magazine, founded in 1975, which publishes exposés about racism, antisemitism, and fascism in the UK. Searchlights main focus is on the British National Party (BNP), Combat 18, and other sections of the far right, although it has also published criticism of the... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right political party in Great Britain. ... The logo of MPACUK The Muslim Public Affairs Committee UK (MPACUK) is a not-for-profit British Muslim organization. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ...


The report describes a "symbiotic relationship" between Islamists and the far right,[64] united in their hatred of Jews, Zionism, and Israel. [65] The inquiry saw evidence of the shared use of materials, such as the same newspaper articles appearing on the MPACUK and white nationalist websites. MPACUK published a photograph of George Bush standing next to the Israeli flag, adding the caption: "Some say Lobbying the Government doesn't make a difference. We humbly disagree," while the National Front used the same photograph, with the caption: "There is no Zionist conspiracy." Islamist and far right groups also share Holocaust denial literature, and the organizations' websites publish each other's authors. [65] // White nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... The name National Front, is used by a number of political parties and coalitions. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...


Edward Said, the late Palestinian-American literary theorist, warned of a "nasty, creeping wave of anti-Semitism" insinuating itself into Palestinian politics, writing that the "notion that the Jews never suffered and that the Holocaust is an obfuscatory confection ... is one that is acquiring too much, far too much, currency". [66] Hamas, the majority party of the Palestinian Legislative Council, has called the Holocaust "an alleged and invented story with no basis." [67] Political scientist George Michael writes that the statements by Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that the Holocaust is a "myth" and that Israel should be "wiped off the map" were met with public approval from Hamas, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, American white supremacist David Duke, and the Institute for Historical Review, a leading Holocaust-denial group. [68] Edward Wadie Saïd (Arabic: , transliteration: ; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... George Michael (born 1961) is an assistant professor of political science and administration of justice at the University of Virginias College of Wise. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement founded by the sufi schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Logo/Banner of the Institute for Historical Review (Acronym IHR) The Institute for Historical Review (IHR), founded in 1978, is an American Holocaust denial[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] organization which describes itself as a public-interest educational, research and publishing center dedicated to promoting greater public awareness...


Michael cites as an example of the new Islamist/far right alliance the March 2001 conference in Beirut, Lebanon on "Revisionism and Zionism," organized by the Institute for Historical Review, where there was a plan to present lectures in English, French, and Arabic. The Lebanese government cancelled the conference after protests from Jewish groups and the American government, but a smaller meeting was held in May 2001 in Amman, Jordan. [69] For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ...

Image:DavidDukeonSyrianTV.jpg
David Duke, former leader of a Ku Klux Klan faction, on Syrian television in November 2005. He told viewers that "Israel makes the Nazi state look very, very moderate." View clip. [70]

Michael writes that Duke, a former Ku Klux Klan leader, has been at the forefront of efforts to foster cooperation between the far right and the Islamic world, in what Michael calls a "cross-fertilization of rhetoric" against Zionism, Jews, and Israel. [68] Duke presented two lectures in Bahrain in 2002 entitled "The Global Struggle against Zionism," and "Israeli Involvement in September 11," after being invited by the Discover Islam Center, an Islamist group who admired the anti-Semitic rhetoric on Duke's website. Duke told Michael: "The ADL issued a protest to Bahrain [saying] 'How can they have a white supremacist in Bahrain?' But the people in Bahrain understand very well that I am not a white supremacist and that I am a European American who wants to preserve my heritage ... but the real danger to all heritages is Jewish supremacism ..." [71] David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


In November 2005, Duke addressed a rally in Syria, saying "It saddens my heart to tell you that part of my country is occupied by Zionists, just as part of your country, the Golan Heights, is occupied by Zionists. [They] occupy most of the American media and now control much of the American government ... It is not just the West Bank of Palestine, it is not just the Golan Heights that are occupied by the Zionists, but Washington D.C. and New York and London and many other capitals of the world. Your fight for freedom is the same as our fight for freedom." [72] In an interview with Syrian television, Duke said that "Jewish supremacists" are in control of the U.S. government and that "Israel makes the Nazi state look very, very moderate." [73] The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ...


The left and anti-Zionism

Alan Johnson, Eve Garrard, Nick Cohen, Shalom Lappin, and Norman Geras at the launch of the Euston Manifesto in 2006. They wrote that anti-Zionism has "developed to a point where supposed organizations of the Left are willing to entertain openly anti-Semitic speakers and to form alliances with anti-Semitic groups."[74]

Those who argue in favor of the centrality of the left to the new anti-Semitism say that anti-Zionism may function as a proxy for anti-Semitism, allowing a socially acceptable opposition to the Israeli state to be espoused, rather than a socially unacceptable religious or ethnic hatred. At the same time, genuine grievances against Israel stemming from the Arab-Israeli conflict may become anti-Semitic in character and may manifest themselves as hostility toward Jews in general. [75][76] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2355x1054, 549 KB) The ethnically-diverse panel at the public launch of the Euston Manifesto (May 25, 2006). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2355x1054, 549 KB) The ethnically-diverse panel at the public launch of the Euston Manifesto (May 25, 2006). ... Alan Arthur Johnson MP (born 17 May 1950, London) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Nick Cohen is a British journalist, author, and political commentator. ... Norman Geras is Professor Emeritus of Government at the University of Manchester. ... The Euston Manifesto (pron. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to sentiments and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees. ...


Historian Robert Wistrich argues that "left-leaning Judeophobes ... never call themselves 'anti-Semitic.' Indeed, they are usually indignant at the very suggestion that they have anything against Jews. Such denials notwithstanding, they are usually obsessed with stigmatizing Israel ..." [77] Wistrich adds that not all criticism of Israel is anti-Semitic — his checklist to identify the "anti-Semitic wolf in anti-Israeli sheep's clothing" includes the singling-out by writers of the "Jewish lobby" or the "Jewish vote"; complaining about Jewish solidarity with Israel; gratuitous emphasis on Jewish wealth or alleged Jewish control of the media; calls for economic boycotts directed exclusively against Israeli products and academic institutions; and the assertion that Jews reject all criticism as anti-Semitic. [77] Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ...


The 2006 British All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism [78] (see below) heard evidence that "contemporary antisemitism in Britain is now more commonly found on the left of the political spectrum than on the right." [79] The chairman, former Europe Minister Denis McShane, referred in a radio interview to what he called "a 'witch's brew' of anti-semitism including the far left and 'ultra-Islamist' extremists", who use criticism of Israel as a "pretext" for "spreading hatred against British Jews." [80] The report notes that "[a]lliances between extremist and fundamentalist groups have created links between groups on the far left and radical Islamists." [81] Professor David Cesarani of Royal Holloway, University of London gave evidence that anti-Semitism "no longer has any resemblance to classical Nazi-style Jew hatred, because it is masked by or blended inadvertently into anti-Zionism, and because it is often articulated in the language of human rights." [79] The report states that ignorance of the history of anti-Semitism means that some may not even realize that the language and imagery they use are part of the tradition of anti-Semitic discourse. [81] New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... The Right Honourable Denis MacShane (born May 21, 1948) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... Professor David Cesarani (1956-) is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. ... Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL) is one of the larger institutions of the University of London. ...

Emanuele Ottolenghi of St Antony's College, Oxford, told the British all-parliamentary inquiry that the New Statesman's January 14, 2002 cover, illustrating a story about the "Zionist lobby," evoked "classical anti-Jewish stereotypes" implying "conspiracy" and "dishonesty" on the part of British Jews. The editor apologized for the image, but said the magazine remained opposed to Israeli government policies.
Emanuele Ottolenghi of St Antony's College, Oxford, told the British all-parliamentary inquiry that the New Statesman's January 14, 2002 cover, illustrating a story about the "Zionist lobby," [82] evoked "classical anti-Jewish stereotypes" implying "conspiracy" and "dishonesty" on the part of British Jews. [83] The editor apologized for the image, but said the magazine remained opposed to Israeli government policies. [84]

Gerry Gable, publisher of the anti-fascist Searchlight magazine, agrees that "a lot of anti-semitism is driven by the left. There are elements who take up a position on Israel and Palestine which in reality puts them in league with anti-Semites."[85] The Sunday Times reported in August 2006 that "[w]omen pushing their children in buggies bearing the familiar symbol of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament marched last weekend alongside banners proclaiming 'We are all Hezbollah now' and Muslim extremists chanting 'Oh Jew, the army of Muhammad will return'." [86] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x633, 40 KB) This image is of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or the individual contributors who worked on the cover depicted. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x633, 40 KB) This image is of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or the individual contributors who worked on the cover depicted. ... College name St Antonys College Named after Established 1950 Warden Professor Roger Goodman (acting) Graduates 300 Homepage St Antonys College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Gerry Gable (born 1937) is a British Jewish political activist. ... Searchlight is a British publication which describes itself as an international anti-fascist magazine, and publishes material critical of far-right political parties. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Radu Ioanid, director of the Meed Registry of Jewish Holocaust Survivors at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, writes in his foreword to Rising from the Muck, Pierre-André Taguieff's book about the new anti-Semitism in Europe, that during the student uprising in France in 1968, protesters could be heard shouting: "Nous sommes tous des Juifs Allemands" ("We are all German Jews") in support of Daniel Cohn-Bendit, one of their expelled leaders. In 2002, in contrast, the slogans heard at rallies in Paris were "Death to the Jews" and "Jews to the ovens." [87] Interior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from Raoul Wallenberg Place (15th St. ... Pierre-Andre Taguieff, born at 1946 in Paris is a philosopher and political economist, director of research at CNRS (in a Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) laboratory, the CEVIPOF). ...


Mortimer Zuckerman, editor-in-chief of U.S. News & World Report wrote in 2003 that Americans would be "amazed by what now appears in the sophisticated European press," citing the British New Statesman's January 14, 2002 cover story alleging a "kosher conspiracy" in the UK, a cover widely cited as an example of the crossroads between antisemitism and anti-Zionism. [88] Zuckerman also cites the French weekly Le Nouvel Observateur, which he says alleged that Israeli soldiers raped Palestinian women so that their relatives would kill them to preserve family honor; the Vatican's L'Osservatore Romano reference to Israeli "aggression that's turning into extermination"; and La Stampa's page one cartoon of a tank bearing the Star of David pointing its gun at the baby Jesus, who cries: "Surely they don't want to kill me again." [89] Mort Zuckerman Mortimer Benjamin (Mort) Zuckerman (born 1937, in Montreal, Canada) is a self-made American billionaire magazine editor, publisher, and real estate tycoon. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Le Nouvel Observateur (often shorten to Le Nouvel Obs) is a weekly French newsmagazine. ... Masthead LOsservatore Romano is the Vaticans newspaper. ... La Stampa is one of the best-known and most widely sold Italian daily newspapers, published in Turin and distributed in Italy and in other nations in Europe. ... The Star of David The Star of David in the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text, the Leningrad Codex, dated 1008. ...

Tariq Ali argues that the "supposed new 'anti-Semitism'" is a "cynical ploy."
Tariq Ali argues that the "supposed new 'anti-Semitism'" is a "cynical ploy." [90]

A group of left-wing British academics, journalists, and activists founded the Euston Manifesto in April 2006, a new declaration of principles for the democratic left. It declares that: "'Anti-Zionism' has now developed to a point where supposed organizations of the Left are willing to entertain openly anti-Semitic speakers and to form alliances with anti-Semitic groups. Amongst educated and affluent people are to be found individuals unembarrassed to claim that the Iraq war was fought on behalf of Jewish interests, or to make other 'polite' and subtle allusions to the harmful effect of Jewish influence in international or national politics — remarks of a kind that for more than fifty years after the Holocaust no one would have been able to make without publicly disgracing themselves." [74] Tariq Ali at Imperial College London. ... Tariq Ali at Imperial College London. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Euston Manifesto (pron. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


The association of anti-Zionism with new anti-Semitism has been controversial. British writer Tariq Ali has argued that the campaign against "the supposed new 'anti-semitism'" in modern Europe is in effect a "cynical ploy on the part of the Israeli Government to seal off the Zionist state from any criticism of its regular and consistent brutality against the Palestinians."[90] Ali argues that the new anti-Semitism is, in fact, "Zionist blackmail," and that Israel, far from being a victim, is "the strongest state in the region. It possesses real, not imaginary, weapons of mass destruction. It possesses more tanks and bomber jets and pilots than the rest of the Arab world put together. To say that the Zionist state is threatened by any Arab country is pure demagogy." [90][91] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Professor Noam Chomsky argues that traditional anti-Semitism is ignored while criticism of Israel is vilified.
Professor Noam Chomsky argues that traditional anti-Semitism is ignored while criticism of Israel is vilified. [92]

Peter Beaumont, writing in The Observer, argues that some proponents of the concept of "new antisemitism" have attempted to co-opt "the phenomenon of anti-Jewish sentiment and attacks in some quarters of the Islamic community in Europe" as a means of silencing opposition to the policies of the Israeli government. He argues that "Israel's brutal response to the often equally reprehensible anti-Israeli Palestinian violence of the intifada has produced one of the most vigorous media critiques of Israel's policies in the European media in a generation. The reply to this criticism, say those most vocal in reporting the existence of the new anti-Semitism, particularly in the Israeli press, is devastating in its simplicity: criticise Israel, and you are an anti-Semite just as surely as if you were throwing paint at a synagogue in Paris." Israel cannot be declared out of bounds, writes Beaumont, for fear of invoking Europe's "last great taboo — the fear of being declared an anti-Semite." [91] Cropped from Image:Noam Chomsky WSF - 2003. ... Cropped from Image:Noam Chomsky WSF - 2003. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) , Ph. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Noam Chomsky, professor of linguistics at MIT, maintains that Jewish groups see criticism of Israeli policies as examples of new anti-Semitism while turning a blind eye to traditional anti-Semitism. He cites the allegations in 1988 that several known anti-Semites occupied senior positions in the Republican Party. [92][93] The New Republic argued that the discovery of "seven aging Eastern European fascists in the Republican apparatus" wasn't the threat it was made out to be; the greater threat lay in the anti-Semitism of the left, which had a salient agenda: "the delegitimization of the Jewish national movement". Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) , Ph. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... For other uses, see the New Republic disambiguation page. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Responses

European Union

The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) (superseded in 2007 by the European Agency for Fundamental Rights) noted an upswing in antisemitic incidents in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and The Netherlands. [94] Location: Vienna, Austria Formation: - Signed - Established 1994/1998 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Dr Beate Winkle Website: eumc. ...


The EUMC established the Racism and Xenophobia Network (RAXEN) composed of organisations "(NFPs)" in each Member State which collect publicly available data and information at the local, regional and national level. In 2002 the EUMC conducted a project on antisemitism. It reported to the European Parliament in March 2004 with statistics on antisemitic incidents across the EU. Its report of December 2006 found an increase in antisemitic activity between 2001 and 2002 and again between 2003 and 2004. There was insufficient data to calculate the overall trend in the number of incidents between 2001 and 2005 but there had been increases in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the United Kingdom, and decreases only in the Netherlands and Sweden. Since 2004, there had been decreases in the Netherlands and the UK. The report drew the “speculative conclusion” that developments in the Middle East may have affected the Arab and Muslim communities in Europe, the far right and far left. Referring to the view that antisemitism since 2000 constituted new antisemitism, defined as "the vilification of Israel as 'the Jewish collective' and perpetrated primarily by members of Europe’s Muslim population," it found little evidence of a change in anti-Semitic stereotypes, although it said that public manifestations of antisemitism had indeed changed since 2000. [95]


In September 2004, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, a part of the Council of Europe, called on its member nations to ensure that anti-racist criminal law covers antisemitism. In 2005, the EUMC offered a definition of antisemitism to enable a standard definition to be used for data collection by RAXEN, [96] one that the British government was urged to adopt by a 2006 all-party parliamentary inquiry. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London 5...


The working definition was developed in consultation with Jewish organisations like the European Jewish Congress, the American Jewish Committee , other major Jewish NGO's and prominent academics. The data collection instructions circulated to RAXEN defines antisemitism as:


"Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred towards Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed towards Jews and non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, towards Jewish community institutions and religious facilities."


The instruction attached some contemporary examples which "could, taking into account the overall context, include but are not limited to":

  • Denying the Jewish people the right to self-determination, e.g. by claiming that the existence of a state of Israel is a racist endeavor;
  • Applying double standards by requiring of Israel a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation;
  • Using the symbols and images associated with classic anti-Semitism (e.g. claims of Jews killing Jesus or blood libel) to characterize Israel or Israelis;
  • Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis;
  • Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the State of Israel. [97][95]

The EUMC added that criticism of Israel cannot be regarded as antisemitism so long as it is "similar to that leveled against any other country." [97]


In 2006, the European Jewish Congress released a report detailing a new wave of antisemitic incidents in most of Western Europe in the wake of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, in contrast to neutral or pro-Israel sentiment in the former Eastern bloc as well as Denmark. [98] Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13...


The report cited:

  • the first instances of antisemitism in Turkey since the change of regime in 2002;
  • 83 instances of antisemitism in Austria from April through August 2006, compared to 50 in the same period of 2005;
  • 61 instances of antisemitism in France from April through August 2006, compared to 34 in the same period of 2005;
  • normalization of antisemitic political and media rhetoric in Greece after the conflict.

France

In France, Interior Minister Dominique de Villepin commissioned a report on racism and anti-Semitism from Jean-Christophe Rufin, president of Action Against Hunger and former vice-president of Médecins Sans Frontières, in which Rufin challenges the perception that the new anti-Semitism in France comes exclusively from North African immigrant communities and the far right. [99][100] Reporting in October 2004, Rufin writes that "[t]he new anti-Semitism appears more heterogeneous," and identifies what he calls a new and "subtle" form of anti-Semitism in "radical anti-Zionism" as expressed by far-left and anti-globalization groups, in which criticism of Jews and Israel is used as a pretext to "legitimize the armed Palestinian conflict." [101][102] Rufin recommended that French law be changed to "make it possible to punish those who would make unfounded charges of racism against groups, institutions or States, or would make unjustified comparisons with apartheid or Nazism about them."[101][103][104] Norman Finkelstein described Rufin's recommendation as "truly terrifying", the "stigmatizing of dissent as a disease that must be wiped out by the state."[105] This does not cite any references or sources. ... Jean-Christophe Rufin (born June 28, 1952) is a French physician and novelist. ... Action Against Hunger (also known under French name Action Internationale Contre la Faim) is international non-profit non-governmental organization that fights against hunger, the physiological need to eat, worldwide. ... Médecins Sans Frontières ( (help· info)) (English: Doctors Without Borders) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organisation best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ...


United Kingdom

A 2006 British parliamentary inquiry states that "anti-Jewish themes and remarks are gaining acceptability in some quarters in public and private discourse in Britain ..." [106]

The British All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism in the UK published its report in September 2006. [107] Those who gave evidence included then-Home Secretary Charles Clarke; the Attorney General Lord Goldsmith; chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks; chairman of the Commission for Racial Equality, Trevor Phillips; the former head of the Muslim Council of Britain, Sir Iqbal Sacranie; Prof Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Brian Klug of St Benet's Hall, Oxford; and Prof Gert Weisskirchen of the German Bundestag. [107] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (588x826, 59 KB) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the publisher of the book. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (588x826, 59 KB) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the publisher of the book. ... The Rt Hon. ... Peter Henry Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith, PC, QC (born 5 January 1950), is the current Attorney General of England and Wales. ... Sir Jonathan Henry Sacks (born 1948, London) is the Chief Rabbi of the United Synagogue, the United Kingdoms main body of Orthodox synagogues. ... The Commission for Racial Equality is a non-governmental organisation in the United Kingdom which tackles racial discrimination and promotes racial equality. ... Trevor Phillips Trevor Phillips OBE (born in London on December 31, 1953) is a Black British Labour politician and former political journalist of Guyanese origins. ... The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) is an unincorporated association founded in 1997 with the following aims: To promote co-operation, consensus and unity on Muslim affairs in the UK. To encourage and strengthen all existing efforts being made for the benefit of the Muslim community. ... Sir Iqbal Sacranie (born 1952) is best known for his work as the chairman of the Muslim Council of Britain (MCB). ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ...


The inquiry adopted the view of racism expressed by the MacPherson report after the murder of Stephen Lawrence, namely that a racist act is defined by its victim, and that it is the Jewish community that is in the best position to determine what is anti-Semitic. [108] The report states that left-wing activists and Muslim extremists are using criticism of Israel as a "pretext" for anti-Semitism, [80] and that the "most worrying discovery" is that anti-Semitism appears to be entering the mainstream. [109] The inquiry calls for the adoption of a clearer definition of anti-Semitism that reflects its "complex and multi-faceted" nature. [109] It argues that anti-Zionism may become anti-Semitic when it adopts a view of Zionism as a "global force of unlimited power and malevolence throughout history," a definition that "bears no relation to the understanding that most Jews have of the concept: that is, a movement of Jewish national liberation ..." Having re-defined Zionism, the report states, traditional anti-Semitic motifs of Jewish "conspiratorial power, manipulation and subversion" are often transferred from Jews onto Zionism. The report notes that this is "at the core of the 'New Anti-Semitism', on which so much has been written," adding that many of those who gave evidence called anti-Zionism "the lingua franca of antisemitic movements," but also clarifying that "It is not the role of this inquiry to take sides in this major debate, but we cannot avoid raising it. In doing so, we would wish to emphasise that our concern lies with the effects of anti-Jewish prejudice and hostility.."[110] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Lord Janner of Braunstone gave evidence regarding anti-Semitic remarks made to him in Parliament. After the arrest of Saddam Hussein, for example, another peer approached him and said: "We've got rid of Saddam Hussein now. Your lot are next." When asked what she meant by "your lot," she replied: "Yes, you cannot go on killing Palestinians forever, you know." [111] Oona King, former MP for Bethnal Green and Bow, gave evidence that many of her former constituents told her they could not vote for her because she was funded by the Israeli Secret Service.[111] Greville Ewan Janner, Baron Janner of Braunstone (July 11, 1928-) is a British politician in the Labour Party. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Oona Tamsyn King (born October 22, 1967, in Sheffield) is an English politician. ...   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations), often referred to as The Mossad (meaning The Institute), is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. ...


Labour MP Denis MacShane, who chaired the commission said: "The most worrying discovery of this inquiry is that anti-Jewish sentiment is entering the mainstream, appearing in the everyday conversations of people who consider themselves neither racist nor prejudiced" [2]. Dr. Denis MacShane (born May 21, 1948) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ...


Israel

In November 2001, in response to an Abu-Dhabi television broadcast showing Ariel Sharon drinking blood of Palestinian children, the Israeli government set up the "Coordinating Forum for Countering Antisemitism," headed by Deputy Foreign Minister Rabbi Michael Melchior. According to Melchior, "in each and every generation antisemitism tries to hide its ugly face behind various disguises - and hatred of the State of Israel is its current disguise." He also noted that "... hate against Israel has crossed the red line, having gone from criticism to unbridled antisemitic venom, which is a precise translation of classical antisemitism whose past results are all too familiar to the entire world." [112] The multilingual forum regularly issues reports, articles and press releases. [113]   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... -1...


United Nations

Antisemitism

History · Timeline · Resources
Racial · Religious · New AS
Antisemitism around the world
Arabs and antisemitism
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Nation of Islam and antisemitism
Universities and antisemitism
Anti-globalization and antisemitism
Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... Poster at SFSU resurrects the blood libel: Palestinian Children Meat, Made in Israel and slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license. ... Some writers have argued there is rising acceptance of antisemitism within the anti-globalization movement. ...

Allegations
Deicide · Blood libel · Ritual murder
Well poisoning · Host desecration
Jewish lobby · Jewish Bolshevism
Usury · Dreyfus affair
Zionist Occupation Government
Holocaust denial This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blood libels are false accusations, usually made by Christians, that Jews use human blood in certain of their religious rituals and magical rites. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... For the logical fallacy, see poisoning the well. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... White Army propaganda poster depicting Leon Trotsky. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... Zionist Occupation Government (abbreviated as ZOG) is an antisemitic conspiracy theory according to which Jews secretly (or overtly in the case of the United States of America) control a country, while the formal government is a puppet regime. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...

Publications
On the Jews and their Lies
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The International Jew Title page of Martin Luthers On the Jews and their Lies. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic text that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ... The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ...

Persecutions
Expulsions · Ghetto · Pogroms
Judenhut · Judensau · Yellow badge
Inquisition · Segregation
Holocaust · Nazism · Neo-Nazism
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...

Organizations fighting AS
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust
EUMC · Stephen Roth Institute
Wiener Library · SPLC · SWC · UCSJ Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... Location: Vienna, Austria Formation: - Signed - Established 1994/1998 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Dr Beate Winkle Website: eumc. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... UCSJ, or the Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union, is a collection of Jewish human rights organisations working in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

v  d  e

General-Secretary Kofi Annan told a June 2004 seminar on anti-Semitism that "[i]t is hard to believe that 60 years after the tragedy of the Holocaust, anti-Semitism is once again rearing its head. But it is clear that we are witnessing an alarming resurgence of these phenomena in new forms and manifestations." [114] He has called the 1975 General Assembly resolution equating Zionism with racism, repealed in 1991, "lamentable," saying that "its negative resonance even today is difficult to overestimate," [115] Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


A number of commentators argue that the United Nations has condoned anti-Semitism.[116] Lawrence Summers, then-president of Harvard University, wrote that the UN's World Conference on Racism failed to condemn human rights abuses in China, Rwanda, or anywhere in the Arab world, while raising Israel's alleged "ethnic cleansing" and "crimes against humanity." [117] The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Lawrence Henry (Larry) Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist and academic. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...


David Matas, senior counsel to B'nai Brith Canada, has written that the UN is a forum for anti-Semitism. [115] He argues that statements are made within the UN that would not be tolerated within any democratic parliament, citing the example of the Palestinian representative to the UN Human Rights Commission who, in an echo of the traditional blood libel, claimed in 1997 that Israeli doctors had injected Palestinian children with the AIDS virus. [115] Congressman Steve Chabot told the U.S. House of Representatives in 2005 that the commission took "several months to correct in its record a statement by the Syrian ambassador that Jews allegedly had killed non-Jewish children to make unleavened bread for Passover. [118] Bnai Brith Membership Certificate, 1876. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Steve Chabot (born January 22, 1953) is a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio, representing that states first congressional district, in the Cincinnati area. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Machine-made shmura matzo Matzo (also Matzoh, Matzah, Matza, Hebrew מַצָּה maā) is a Jewish food item made of plain flour and water, which is not allowed to ferment or rise before it is baked. ... Pasch redirects here. ...


Anne Bayefsky, a Canadian legal scholar who addressed the UN about its treatment of Israel, argues that the UN hijacks the language of human rights to discriminate and demonize Jews. She writes that over one quarter of the resolutions condemning a state's human rights violations have been directed at Israel. "But there has never been a single resolution about the decades-long repression of the civil and political rights of 1.3 billion people in China, or the million female migrant workers in Saudi Arabia kept as virtual slaves, or the virulent racism which has brought 600,000 people to the brink of starvation in Zimbabwe." [119] In the early years of its existence, she writes, the Human Rights Commission focused only on themes. When it shifted its focus to countries, it targeted only South Africa and Israel, and for six years, from 1969 until 1975, those two countries were the only two the Commission would consider. For the last 40 years, almost 30 percent of country-specific resolutions and 15 percent of the Commission's time has been directed against Israel. [120] David Matas writes: "Each year matters get worse ... [A]t its annual six-week session in 2002, [the Commission] spent a good half of its time on Israel, far more than the time it spent on all other countries of the world combined." [121] Professor Anne Bayefsky is a preeminent human rights scholar and activist. ...


United States

The U.S. State Department's 2004 Report on Global Anti-Semitism identified four sources of rising anti-Semitism, particularly in Europe: The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The Global Anti-Semitism Review Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-332, 118 Stat. ...

  • "Traditional anti-Jewish prejudice ... This includes ultra-nationalists and others who assert that the Jewish community controls governments, the media, international business, and the financial world."
  • "Strong anti-Israel sentiment that crosses the line between objective criticism of Israeli policies and anti-Semitism."
  • "Anti-Jewish sentiment expressed by some in Europe's growing Muslim population, based on longstanding antipathy toward both Israel and Jews, as well as Muslim opposition to developments in Israel and the occupied territories, and more recently in Iraq."
  • "Criticism of both the United States and globalization that spills over to Israel, and to Jews in general who are identified with both." [94]

Yale University

Edward Kaplan and Charles Small of Yale University conducted a study based on a survey of 5,000 people: 500 citizens in each of 10 European countries. Their report, published in August 2006, concluded that anti-Israel sentiment reliably predicted the probability that an individual was an anti-Semite, with the likelihood of measured anti-Semitism increasing with the extent of anti-Israel sentiment observed. The authors write that, based on their analysis, "when an individual's criticism of Israel becomes sufficiently severe, it does become reasonable to ask whether such criticism is a mask for underlying anti-Semitism." [122] Edward H. Kaplan is the William N. and Marie A. Beach Professor of Management Sciences at the Yale School of Management, Professor of Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine, and Professor of Engineering in the Yale Faculty of Engineering. ... Charles A. Small is the Director of Urban Studies at the Southern Connecticut State University, and professor with the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University. ... “Yale” redirects here. ...


The study found that 56 percent of those who voiced the most extreme anti-Israel opinions held anti-Semitic views. Those who believed the IDF "intentionally targets Palestinian civilians" and that Palestinian suicide bombers who target Israeli civilians are "justified" also believed that "Jews don't care what happens to anyone but their own kind," "Jews have a lot of irritating faults," "Jews stick together more" than other citizens of the respondent’s country of residence, and "Jews are more willing than others to use shady practices to get what they want." [123] Of those who were the most negative about Israel, "some 60% also believed that Jews engaged in shady financial practices, and more than 70% thought that Jews had too much business power." [124] The percentage of those expressing anti-Semitic views increased with age and decreased with income level; men were more likely to be anti-Semitic than women; the degree of social interaction with Jews had no significant impact; individuals who were less tolerant of illegal immigrants were more likely to express anti-Semitic views; and Muslims were disproportionately more likely to hold anti-Semitic views than Christians, Jews, or those with no religious beliefs.[123] Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


Kaplan and Small draw no conclusion as to whether radical anti-Israel views are per se antisemitic, an issue that "remains bitterly contested." In describing the scope of their survey, they claim to be "interested in the fraction of individuals with anti-Israel views of differing severity who also harbor anti-Semitic views, as opposed to whether the anti-Israel views themselves are (or are not) inherently anti-Semitic."


In September 2006, Yale announced that it had established the Yale Initiative for Interdisciplinary Study of Antisemitism, [125] the first university-based institute in North America dedicated to the study of anti-Semitism. Charles Small, who will head the institute, said in a press release that anti-Semitism has "reemerged internationally in a manner that many leading scholars and policy makers take seriously ... Increasingly, Jewish communities around the world feel under threat. It's almost like going back into the lab. I think we need to understand the current manifestation of this disease." [126]


See also

Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sources for the first sentence are:
    • Sacks, Jonathan. "The New Antisemitism", Ha'aretz, September 6, 2002.
    • Chesler, Phyllis. The New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About It, Jossey-Bass, 2003, pp. 158-159, 181.
    • Kinsella, Warren. [ http://www.warrenkinsella.com/words_extremism_nas.htm The New anti-Semitism], accessed March 5, 2006.
    • Doward, Jamie. Jews predict record level of hate attacks: Militant Islamic media accused of stirring up new wave of anti-semitism, The Guardian, August 8, 2004.
    • Endelman, Todd M. "Antisemitism in Western Europe Today" in Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World. University of Toronto Press, 2005, pp. 65-79.
    • Bauer, Yehuda. "Problems of Contemporary Anti-Semitism"PDF (196 KiB), 2003, retrieved April 22, 2006.
    • Strauss, Mark. "Antiglobalism's Jewish Problem" in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004, p 272.
  2. ^ a b c Taguieff, Pierre-André. Rising From the Muck: The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2004.
  3. ^ a b Rosenbaum, Ron. Those who forget the past. Random House, 2004.
  4. ^ Endelman, Todd M. "Antisemitism in Western Europe Today" in Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World. University of Toronto Press, 2005, p. 69.
  5. ^ Zombie. Photographs taken at an anti-war rally in San Francisco on Saturday, February 16th, 2003, zombietime.com.
    • Jaffe, Ben-Zion. [ http://blogcentral.jpost.com/newsItems/viewFullItem$356 "Big Jew on Campus: The Jewish obsession"], Jerusalem Post Blog Central, December 11, 2005.
    • [ http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=11137 "Posters of hate"], Frontpage Magazine, December 8, 2003.
    • Moormeister, Robyn. [ http://www.santa-cruz.com/archive/2003/May/02/local/stories/01local.htm "Holocaust survivor organizes UCSC conference on anti-semitism"], Santa Cruz Sentinel, May 2, 2003.
    • [ http://watch.windsofchange.net/03_1208_1214.htm "December 8, 2003"], Watch, retrieved August 27, 2006.
    • "Scene from a 'peace rally'", BackSpin Weblog of Honest Reporting, December 4, 2003.
  6. ^ Klug, Brian. [ http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20040202&s=klug The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism]. The Nation, posted January 15, 2004 (February 2, 2004 issue), accessed January 9, 2006.
  7. ^ a b Lerner, Michael. [ http://baltimorechronicle.com/2007/020207LERNER.shtml There Is No New Anti-Semitism], posted February 5, 2007, accessed February 6, 2007.
  8. ^ Nazi Propaganda as part of the Zichronam l'Vracha site. Accessed 24 September 2006.
  9. ^ Examples of anti-Semitism in the Arab and Muslim world on intelligence.org.il, site of the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S), Israel. Accessed 24 September 2006.
  10. ^ Pierre-André Taguieff cites the following works: Jacques Givet, La Gauche contre Israel? Essai sur le néo-antisémitisme, Paris 1968; idem, "Contre une certain gauche," Les Nouveaux Cahiers, No. 13-14, Spring-Summer 1968, pp. 116-119; Léon Poliakov, De l'antisionisme a l'antisémitisme, Paris 1969; Shmuel Ettinger, "Le caractère de l'antisémitisme contemporain," Dispersion et Unité, No. 14, 1975, pp. 141-157; and Michael Curtis, ed., Antisemitism in the Modern World, Boulder, 1986. All cited in Pierre-André Taguieff. Rising from the Muck: The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2002, trans. 2004, p. 159-160, footnote 1.
  11. ^ Forster, Arnold & Epstein, Benjamin, The New Anti-Semitism. McGraw-Hill 1974, p.165. See for instance chapters entitled "Gerald Smith's Road" (19-48), "The Radical Right" (285-296), "Arabs and Pro-Arabs" (155-174), "The Radical Left" (125-154)
  12. ^ Forster, Arnold & Epstein, Benjamin, The New Anti-Semitism. McGraw-Hill 1974, p. 324.
  13. ^ Earl Raab, "Is there a New Anti-Semitism?", Commentary, May 1974, pp. 53-54.
  14. ^ Wistrich, Robert. "Anti-zionism as an Expression of Anti-Semitism in Recent Years", lecture delivered to the Study Circle on World Jewry in the home of the President of Israel, December 10, 1984.
  15. ^ Rubin, Daniel. (ed.) Anti-Semitism and Zionism: Selected Marxist Writings. International Publishers, 1987, p. 35.
  16. ^ Tariq Ali, "Notes on Anti-Semitism, Zionism and Palestine", CounterPunch, 4 March 2004.
  17. ^ a b c Berlet, Chip. "ZOG Ate My Brains", New Internationalist, October 2004.
  18. ^ a b c d Berlet, Chip. "Right woos Left", Publiceye.org, December 20, 1990; revised February 22, 1994, revised again 1999.
  19. ^ Berlet reports that the right-wing use of anti-Zionism as a cover for anti-Semitism can be seen in a 1981 issue of Spotlight, published by the neo-Nazi Liberty Lobby: "A brazen attempt by influential "Israel-firsters" in the policy echelons of the Reagan administration to extend their control to the day-to-day espionage and covert-action operations of the CIA was the hidden source of the controversy and scandals that shook the U.S. intelligence establishment this summer. The dual loyalists ... have long wanted to grab a hand in the on-the-spot "field control" of the CIA's worldwide clandestine services. They want this control, not just for themselves, but on behalf of the Mossad, Israel's terrorist secret police. (Spotlight, August 24, 1981, cited in Berlet, Chip. "Right woos Left", Publiceye.org, December 20, 1990; revised February 22, 1994, revised again 1999.)
  20. ^ Berlet does not himself use the expression "new antisemitism"; nor does he comment on whether he believes the current wave of antisemitism should be regarded as a new phenomenon or not.
  21. ^ Fischel, Jack R. "The New Anti-Semitism", The Virginia Quarterly Review, Summer 2005, pp. 225-234.
  22. ^ a b Strauss, Mark. "Antiglobalism's Jewish Problem" in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004, p 272.
  23. ^ Taguieff, Pierre-André. Rising from the Muck: The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2004, p. 67-68.
  24. ^ a b Cotler, Irwin. "Human Rights and the New Anti-Jewishness", FrontPageMagazine.com, February 16, 2004.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Klug, Brian. "In search of clarity", Catalyst, March 17, 2006.
  26. ^ Norman Finkelstein argues that there has been no significant rise in antisemitism: "What does the evidence show? There has been good investigation done, serious investigation. All the evidence shows there's no — there's no evidence at all for a rise of a new anti-Semitism, whether in Europe or in North America. The evidence is zero. And, in fact, there's a new book put out by an Israel stalwart. His name is Walter Laqueur, a very prominent scholar. It's called The Changing Face of Anti-Semitism. It just came out, 2006, from Oxford University Press. He looks at the evidence, and he says no. There's some in Europe among the Muslim community, there's some anti-Semitism, but the notion that in the heart of European society or North American society there's anti-Semitism is preposterous. And in fact — or no, a significant rise in anti-Semitism is preposterous." ("Finkelstein on DN! -- No New Antisemitism", Interview of Norman Finkelstein by Amy Goodman, August 29, 2006.) In Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City(2006), Laqueur writes: "... behind the cover of "anti-Zionism" lurks a variety of motives that ought to be called by their true name. When, in the 1950s under Stalin, the Jews of the Soviet Union came under severe attack and scores were executed, it was under the banner of anti-Zionism rather than anti-Semitism, which had been given a bad name by Adolf Hitler. When in later years the policy of Israeli governments was attacked as racist or colonialist in various parts of the world, the basis of the criticism was quite often the belief that Israel had no right to exist in the first place, not opposition to specific policies of the Israeli government. Traditional anti-Semitism has gone out of fashion in the West except on the extreme right. But something we might call post-anti-Semitism has taken its place. It is less violent in its aims, but still very real. By and large it has not been too difficult to differentiate between genuine and bogus anti-Zionism. The test is twofold. It is almost always clear whether the attacks are directed against a specific policy carried out by an Israeli government (for instance, as an occupying power) or against the existence of Israel. Secondly, there is the test of selectivity. If from all the evils besetting the world, the misdeeds, real or imaginary, of Zionism are singled out and given constant and relentless publicity, it can be taken for granted that the true motive is not anti-Zionism but something different and more sweeping." (Laqueur, Walter: "Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City" (Sourcebooks, Inc., 2006) ISBN 1-4022-0632-1. p. 55)
  27. ^ a b Klug, Brian. The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism. The Nation, February 2, 2004, accessed January 9, 2006, p.1.
  28. ^ Klug, Brian. Israel, Antisemitism and the left, Red Pepper, November 24, 2005.
  29. ^ Klug, Brian. The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism. The Nation, posted January 15, 2004 (February 2, 2004 issue), accessed January 9, 2006.
  30. ^ Klug, Brian. The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism. The Nation, February 2, 2004, accessed January 9, 2006, p.2.
  31. ^ Klug, Brian. The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism. The Nation, posted January 15, 2004 (February 2, 2004 issue), accessed January 9, 2006.
  32. ^ a b c d e Klug, Brian & Wistrich, Robert S. "Correspondence between Prof. Robert Wistrich and Brian Klug: When Is Opposition to Israel and Its Policies Anti-Semitic?", International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, retrieved September 8, 2006.
  33. ^ Earl Raab, "Antisemitism, anti-Israelism, anti-Americanism", Judaism, Fall 2002.
  34. ^ a b c Zipperstein, Steven. "Historical Reflections of Contemporary Antisemitism" in Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World. in Derek J. Penslar et al, ed., Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005, pp. 61-62.
  35. ^ Zipperstein, Steven. "Historical Reflections of Contemporary Antisemitism" in Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World, p. 53.
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  38. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, pp. 25-36. The paper is based on a lecture delivered at Brandeis University on March 24, 2004.
  39. ^ a b c Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, pp. 25-36.
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  47. ^ Bauer, Yehuda. "Problems of Contemporary Anti-Semitism"PDF (196 KiB), 2003, p 15.
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  49. ^ a b c Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, 2005, pp. 78-79.
  50. ^ Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, 2005, pp. 21-22.
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  52. ^ a b Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, 2005, p. 66.
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  58. ^ Schoenfeld, Gabriel. The Return of Anti-Semitism, Encounter Books, 2004, p. 11, cited in Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, 2005, p. 82.
  59. ^ Halkin, Hillel. "The Return of Anti-Semitism," Commentary, February 2002, cited in Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, 2005, p. 82.
  60. ^ Nirenstein, Fiamma. "How I became an unconscious fascist," in Rosenbaum, Ron. (ed) Those Who Forget the Past: The Question of Anti-Semitism. Random House, 2004, p. 302, cited in Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, 2005, p. 82.
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  62. ^ A new Syrian edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (2005) featured at the Cairo International Book Fair and exhibited with other Syrian-published anti-Semitic books on intelligence.org.il, site of the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S), Israel. Accessed 24 September 2006.
  63. ^ a b "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006, p.25.
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  68. ^ a b Michael, George. The Enemy of my Enemy: The Alarming Convergence of Militant Islam and the Extreme Right. University Press of Kansas, 2006, p.309.
  69. ^ Michael, George. The Enemy of my Enemy: The Alarming Convergence of Militant Islam and the Extreme Right. University Press of Kansas, 2006, p.156.
  70. ^ "American White Supremacist David Duke: Israel Makes the Nazi State Look Very Moderate", interview with David Duke on Syrian television, the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), November 25, 2005. The clip can be viewed here.
  71. ^ Michael, George. The Enemy of my Enemy: The Alarming Convergence of Militant Islam and the Extreme Right. University Press of Kansas, 2006, p.162.
  72. ^ HaLevi, Ezra. "David Duke in Syria: Zionists Occupy Washington, NY and London", Arutz Sheva, November 29, 2005. The clip can be viewed here.
  73. ^ "American White Supremacist David Duke: Israel Makes the Nazi State Look Very Moderate", interview with David Duke on Syrian television, the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), November 25, 2005. The clip can be viewed here.
  74. ^ a b "The Euston Manifesto", March 29, 2006.
  75. ^ Daniel Lazare wrote, in a paraphrase of August Bebel, that: "Anti-Semitism is the anti-Zionism of fools ...," an allusion to Bebel's famous remark, "Anti-Semitism is the socialism of fools." (Lazare, Daniel. "The Chosen People", The Nation, December 19, 2005, p.36, accessed January 8, 2005.)
  76. ^ Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) has said: "The harsh but un-deniable truth is this: what some like to call anti-Zionism is, in reality, anti-Semitism — always, everywhere, and for all time ... Therefore, anti-Zionism is not a politically legitimate point of view but rather an expression of bigotry and hatred." (Klug, Brian. "The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism". The Nation, February 2, 2004) Foxman argues that it is anti-Semitic to criticize the occupation by the Jews of the West Bank if one does not also criticize the "Indian Hindus and their occupation of Muslim Kashmir." (Foxman, Abraham H. New Excuses, Old Hatred: Worldwide Anti-Semitism In Wake Of 9/11. Speech given before the ADL's Executive Committee, Palm Beach, Florida, February 8, 2002, accessed January 3, 2006)
  77. ^ a b Wistrich, Robert S. "European Anti-Semitism Reinvents Itself"PDF (2.62 MiB), American Jewish Committee, 2005, pp 11-12.
  78. ^ "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006.
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  80. ^ a b Temko, Ned. "Critics of Israel 'fuelling hatred of British Jews'", The Observer, February 3, 2006.
  81. ^ a b "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006, p.33.
  82. ^ Sewell, Dennis. "A kosher conspiracy?", New Statesman, January 14 2002.
  83. ^ "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006, p. 42.
  84. ^ Hodgson, Jessica. "Editor apologises for 'Kosher Conspiracy' furore", The Guardian, February 7, 2002.
  85. ^ Jews predict record level of hate attacks: Militant Islamic media accused of stirring up new wave of anti-semitism, The Guardian, August 8, 2004.
  86. ^ Baxter, Sarah. "Wimmin at War", The Sunday Times, August 13, 2006.
  87. ^ Ioanid, Radu. Foreword Taguieff, Pierre André. Rising from the Muck: The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2004, p. xi.
  88. ^ See, for example, the "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006, p. 42.
  89. ^ Zuckerman, Mortimer B. "Graffiti On History's Walls}, U.S. News & World Report, March 11, 2003.
  90. ^ a b c Ali, Tariq. "Notes on Anti-Semitism, Zionism and Palestine", Counterpunch, March 4, 2004, first published in il manifesto, February 26, 2004.
  91. ^ a b Beaumont, Peter. "The new anti-semitism?", The Observer, February 17, 2002.
  92. ^ a b Chomsky, Noam. "Historical Revisionism", letter. March 31, 1992. Accessed January 9l, 2006.
  93. ^ Berke, Richard L. "Bush Panelist Out After Reports of Anti-Jewish Ties," New York Times, September 9, 1988, p. A15 (reporting that Jerome Brentar, a Cleveland travel agent, was dismissed from a Republican Party advisory panel after it was brought to public attention that Brentar had raised funds and made public speeches to defend John Demjanjuk, a fellow-Cleveland resident and former Cleveland autoworker, against the unfair death sentence that the Israeli court had imposed after finding that Demjanjuk had "committed atrocities as a guard at the Treblinka camp in Nazi-occupied Poland.") In prefacing the announcement of the dismissal of Brentar from the advisory panel, James A. Baker, the Bush campaign chairman had said, "there is absolutely no room for anti-Semitism or bigotry of any sort in our campaign." Id. See also, Rosenthal, Andrew. "Campaign Tactics Provoke New Charges," New York Times, October 31, 1988, p. B6 (comparing political attack fliers published by rival state party officials). The Maryland state Republican Party had published a flier that "showed a picture of Mr. Dukakis and Willie Horton, a murderer who escaped while on furlough from a Massachusetts prison and later raped a Maryland woman and stabbed her fiancé;" the flier asked, "'Is this your pro-family team for 1988,' ... referring repeatedly to the 'Dukakis/Horton team.'" In response to complaints about this flier, James A. Baker responded by attacking the similar untruthfulness in the flier by California Democratic party affiliates that claimed that "'anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi activists' were infiltrating the Bush campaign." Id.
  94. ^ a b (U.S.) State Department report on Anti-Semitism: Europe and Eurasia, excerpted from a longer piece, and covering the period of July 1, 2003 – December 15, 2004. Accessed 6 Jan 2005.
  95. ^ a b "Antisemitism: Summary overview of the situation in the European Union, 2001-2005 Updated Version December 2006"PDF (335 KiB), European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, December 2006.
  96. ^ Whine, Michael. "Progress in the Struggle Against Anti-Semitism in Europe: The Berlin Declaration and the European Union Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia's Working Definition of Anti-Semitism", Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs.
  97. ^ a b "Working definition of antisemitism", EUMC.
  98. ^ Spritzer, Dinah. "Study: European anti-Semitism up since war," Connecticut Jewish Ledger, November 17, 2006.
  99. ^ "French concern about race attacks", BBC News, October 2004.
  100. ^ "France: International Religious Freedom Report 2005", U.S. Department of State.
  101. ^ a b Rufin, Jean-Christophe. "Chantier sur la lutte contre le racisme et l'antisémitisme"PDF (302 KiB), presented October 19, 2004.
  102. ^ Bryant, Elizabeth. "France stung by new report on anti-Semitism," United Press International, October 20, 2004.
  103. ^ Exact quote (with context) in French: "C’est pourquoi nous invitons à réfléchir sur l’opportunité et l’applicabilité d’un texte de loi qui complèterait les dispositions de la loi du 1 juillet 1972 et celles de la loi du 13 juillet 1990 (dite loi Gayssot). Ce texte permettrait de punir ceux qui porteraient sans fondement à l’encontre de groupes, d’institutions ou d’Etats des accusations de racisme et utiliseraient à leur propos des comparaisons injustifiées avec l’apartheid ou le nazisme." [1] page 30.
  104. ^ "France: Anti-Israel acts like anti-Semitism", AFP, March 22, 2006.
  105. ^ Norman G. Finkelstein, Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005, p. 49.
  106. ^ "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 7, 2006, Summary.
  107. ^ a b Website of The All Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism in the UK The panel consisted of Chair: Rt Hon Dr Denis MacShane (Lab); Rt Hon Kevin Barron MP (Lab); Tim Boswell MP (Con); Rt Hon David Curry MP (Con); Rt Hon Iain Duncan Smith MP (Con); Nigel Evans MP (Con); Rt Hon Bruce George MP (Lab); Lady Sylvia Hermon MP (UUP); Chris Huhne MP (Lib Dem); Daniel Kawczynski MP (Con); Barbara Keeley MP (Lab); Khalid Mahmood MP (Lab); Rt Hon John Spellar MP (Lab), and Theresa Villiers MP (Con).
  108. ^ "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006, p.1.
  109. ^ a b "MPs urge action on anti-Semitism", BBC News, September 6, 2006.
  110. ^ "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006, p.17.
  111. ^ a b "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism"PDF (430 KiB), September 2006, p.17.
  112. ^ Announcement by the Forum of 18 November 2001 (antisemitism.org.il)
  113. ^ The Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism
  114. ^ Annan, Kofi. "Opening Remarks at DPI Seminar on anti-Semitism", The UN Chronicle, accessed March 6, 2006.
  115. ^ a b c Matas, David. Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism. Dundurn Press, Toronto, 2005, pp. 129-144.
  116. ^ "Anti-Semitism in the United Nations", UN Watch, February 1998 (originally published December 1997), accessed March 6, 2005.
  117. ^ Summers, Lawrence H. Address at morning prayers, September 17, 2002. On the site of Harvard University, accessed January 9, 2006.
  118. ^ House Passes Chabot’s Bipartisan United Nations Reform Amendment, June 17, 2005. Accessed March 6, 2006.
  119. ^ Bayefsky, Anne. One Small Step, Wall Street Journal, June 21, 2004, accessed January 9, 2006.
  120. ^ Bayefsky, Anne. "The UN and the Jews", Commentary Magazine, February 2004
  121. ^ Matas, David. Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism. Dundurn Press, Toronto, 2005, pp. 130.
  122. ^ Kaplan, Edward H. & Small, Charles A. "Anti-Israel sentiment predicts anti-Semitism in Europe"PDF (135 KiB), Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol 50, No. 4, 548-561, August 2006.
  123. ^ a b Kaplan, Edward H. & Small, Charles A. "Anti-Israel sentiment predicts anti-Semitism in Europe"PDF (135 KiB), Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol 50, No. 4, 548-561, August 2006, cited in Conger, George. "UK MPs find leap in anti-Semitism", The Jerusalem Post, September 5, 2006.
  124. ^ Stephens, Bret, An Honest Man, Opinion Journal from the Wall Street Journal Editorial Page.
  125. ^ Yale Initiative for Interdisciplinary Study of Antisemitism
  126. ^ "Yale Creates Center to Study Antisemitism", Associated Press, September 19, 2006.

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Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... Hillel Halkin is a prominent translator of Jewish literature. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Edward Wadie Saïd (Arabic: , transliteration: ; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... George Michael (born 1961) is an assistant professor of political science and administration of justice at the University of Virginias College of Wise. ... George Michael (born 1961) is an assistant professor of political science and administration of justice at the University of Virginias College of Wise. ... David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... George Michael (born 1961) is an assistant professor of political science and administration of justice at the University of Virginias College of Wise. ... David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ... The Nation logo The Nation is a weekly left-liberal periodical devoted to politics and culture. ... Abraham H. Foxman (b. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Abraham H. Foxman (b. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Pierre-Andre Taguieff, born at 1946 in Paris is a philosopher and political economist, director of research at CNRS (in a Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) laboratory, the CEVIPOF). ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Mort Zuckerman Mortimer Benjamin (Mort) Zuckerman (born 1937, in Montreal, Canada) is a self-made American billionaire magazine editor, publisher, and real estate tycoon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) , Ph. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... John Demjanjuk (born Ivan Demjanjuk on 3 April 1920[1] in Dubovye Makharintsy, Kiev Oblast, USSR), is a retired auto worker who emigrated to the United States from Europe in 1951. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in the President Ronald Reagans first administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush and as United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in... George H. W. Bush - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Willie Hortons mugshot on the Weekend Passes ad William R. Horton (born August 12, 1951 in Chesterfield, South Carolina) is a convicted felon who was the subject of a Massachusetts weekend furlough program that released him while serving a life sentence for murder, without the possibility of parole, providing... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Location: Vienna, Austria Formation: - Signed - Established 1994/1998 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Dr Beate Winkle Website: eumc. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Dr. Denis MacShane (born May 21, 1948) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... Kevin John Barron (October 29, 1946) is a British politician. ... Timothy Eric Boswell (born December 2, 1942) is an English politician, and Tory member of Parliament for Daventry since 1987. ... David Curry The Right Honourable David Maurice Curry (born June 13, 1944) is a British Conservative politician and the Member of Parliament for Skipton and Ripon. ... Rt. ... Nigel Martin Evans (born November 10, 1957) British politician. ... The Right Honourable Bruce Thomas George (born June 1, 1942, Wales) is the English member of Parliament for Walsall South. ... Lady Sylvia Hermon (born 11 August 1955) is a Northern Ireland unionist politician. ... Christopher Murray Paul Huhne, known as Chris Huhne, (born 2 July 1954) is a British Liberal Democrat politician and the current Member of Parliament for the Eastleigh constituency in Hampshire. ... Daniel Robert Kawczynski (born January 24, 1972) is the Conservative Party Member for Parliament for Shrewsbury and Atcham in Shropshire, England. ... Barbara Keeley is the Labour MP for Worsley. ... Khalid Mahmood (born 13 July 1961) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... John Francis Spellar (born 5 August 1947, Bromley) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... Theresa Anne Villiers (born March 5, 1968, London) is a British Conservative politician, and the Member of Parliament for Chipping Barnet. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Lawrence Henry (Larry) Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist and academic. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Professor Anne Bayefsky is a preeminent human rights scholar and activist. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... Professor Anne Bayefsky is a preeminent human rights scholar and activist. ... Edward H. Kaplan is the William N. and Marie A. Beach Professor of Management Sciences at the Yale School of Management, Professor of Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine, and Professor of Engineering in the Yale Faculty of Engineering. ... Charles A. Small is the Director of Urban Studies at the Southern Connecticut State University, and professor with the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Edward H. Kaplan is the William N. and Marie A. Beach Professor of Management Sciences at the Yale School of Management, Professor of Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine, and Professor of Engineering in the Yale Faculty of Engineering. ... Charles A. Small is the Director of Urban Studies at the Southern Connecticut State University, and professor with the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Bret Stephens is a writer, editorialist and member of the Wall Street Journal Editorial Board. ... Wall Street Journal Editorial Board members oversee the journals editorial page and represent the newspaper and its editorial page publically. ...

References

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim)
Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha
Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah
Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... “Tora” redirects here. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Languages Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Spaniards, Portuguese Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Tiberian ; plural ספרדים, Standard Tiberian ) are a subgroup of Jews originating in the Iberian Peninsula, usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · Iran · Australia · USA
Russia/USSR · Poland · Canada
Germany · France · England · Scotland
India · Spain · Portugal · Latin America
Under Muslim rule · Turkey · Iraq · Lebanon · Syria
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... The history of the Jews in the Americas dates back to Christopher Columbus and his first cross-Atlantic voyage on August 3, 1492, when he left Spain and eventually discovered the New World. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... This page is a list of Jews. ... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform
Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite
Alternative · Renewal Several denominations have developed within Judaism, especially among Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbÄ« is derived from a... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian
Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic
The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish), Hebrew, Turkish and some French and Greek. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile
Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline)
Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms
Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars
Relationship with Christianity; with Islam
Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans
Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation
Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History)
Arab conflict · Land of Israel Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... A Sanhedrin (Hebrew: ; Greek: , [1] synedrion, sitting together, hence assembly or council) is an assembly of 23[2] judges Biblically required in every city. ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (years 66–73 CE), sometimes called The... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the expulsion of the Jewish people out of the Roman province of Judea. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism
New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism
Religious Zionism · General Zionism
The Bund · World Agudath Israel
Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

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  • Asserson, Trevor & Williams, Cassie. "The BBC and the Middle East", BBC Watch, retrieved August 20, 2006.
  • Barkun, Michael. A Culture of Conspiracy, University of California Press, 2003; this edition 2006
  • Bauer, Yehuda. "Problems of Contemporary Anti-Semitism"PDF (196 KiB), 2003, retrieved April 22, 2006.
  • Baxter, Sarah. "Wimmin at War", The Sunday Times, August 13, 2006.
  • Bayefsky, Anne. "One Small Step," Wall Street Journal, June 21, 2004.
  • Bayefsky, Anne. "The UN and the Jews", Commentary Magazine, February 2004.
  • Beaumont, Peter. "The new anti-semitism?", '"The Observer, February 17, 2002.
  • Berger, Luciana. "Why I had to resign", The Guardian , April 15, 2005
  • Berlet, Chip. "ZOG Ate My Brains", New Internationalist, October 2004.
  • Berlet, Chip. "Right woos Left", Publiceye.org, December 20, 1990; revised February 22, 1994, revised again 1999.
  • Berlin, Howard. "Jews, Muslims on same side of several battles", NewsJournal, March 8, 2004.
  • Booth, Jenny. "Oona King reveals 'yid' taunts during election", The Times, May 11, 2005.
  • Bryant, Elizabeth. "France stung by new report on anti-Semitism," United Press International, October 20, 2004.
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Abraham H. Foxman (b. ... Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819. ... The current version of this biographical article or section reads like a résumé. Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld (1937 - ) is currently (since 2000) the Chairman of the Board of Fellows at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, a Jerusalem based think tank. ... The current version of this biographical article or section reads like a résumé. Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld (1937 - ) is currently (since 2000) the Chairman of the Board of Fellows at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, a Jerusalem based think tank. ... Gitlin on the cover of Letters to a Young Activist Dr. Todd Gitlin is an American sociologist, political writer, novelist, and cultural commentator. ... Edward H. Kaplan is the William N. and Marie A. Beach Professor of Management Sciences at the Yale School of Management, Professor of Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine, and Professor of Engineering in the Yale Faculty of Engineering. ... Charles A. Small is the Director of Urban Studies at the Southern Connecticut State University, and professor with the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University. ... Warren Kinsella in his basement Warren Kinsella should not be confused with Canadian author W. P. Kinsella. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... The Nation logo The Nation is a weekly left-liberal periodical devoted to politics and culture. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... Catalyst, the magazine of the Commission for Racial Equality, is a bimonthly publication of debate and analysis. ... Baruch Kimmerling (born 1939) is a Professor of Sociology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. ... Prof. ... Usen Castle, the most recognized building on campus Brandeis University is a private university located in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rod Liddle (born 1960) is a controversial British journalist best known for his term as editor of BBC Radio 4s Today programme. ... Lipstadts book: Denying The Holocaust Deborah Esther Lipstadt (born March 18, 1947, New York City) is an American historian and author of the book Denying the Holocaust. ... Dennis Prager (born August 2, 1948) is a conservative syndicated radio talk show host, columnist, and public speaker in the United States. ... Modern Orthodox Jewish rabbi, author, and teacher. ... George Michael (born 1961) is an assistant professor of political science and administration of justice at the University of Virginias College of Wise. ... Salomon Reinach (August 29, 1858 - 1932) was a French archaeologist. ... Jean-Christophe Rufin (born June 28, 1952) is a French physician and novelist. ... Sir Jonathan Henry Sacks (born 1948, London) is the Chief Rabbi of the United Synagogue, the United Kingdoms main body of Orthodox synagogues. ... Edward Wadie Saïd (Arabic: , transliteration: ; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Natan Sharansky (Hebrew: נתן שרנסקי, Russian: Натан Борисович Щаранский; born January 20, 1948) is a notable former Soviet anticommunist, Zionist, Israeli politician and writer. ... Mark Strauss is an American journalist. ... Lawrence Henry (Larry) Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist and academic. ... Pierre-Andre Taguieff, born at 1946 in Paris is a philosopher and political economist, director of research at CNRS (in a Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) laboratory, the CEVIPOF). ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... The National Interest is a prominent quarterly international affairs journal, founded in 1985 by Irving Kristol and currently published by the Nixon Center. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... 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Further reading

  • Aaronovitch, David. "The New Anti-Semitism", The Observer, June 22, 2003.
  • Abram, Morris B. Anti-Semitism in the United Nations
  • Arenson, David & Grynberg, Simon. Anti-Globalization and the New Anti-Semitism.
  • Avneri, Uri. Anti-Semitism: A Practical Manual, Gush Shalom.
  • Bergmann, Werner & Wetzel, Julie. "Manifestations of Anti-Semitism in the European Union"PDF (751 KiB), Berlin Research Centre on Anti-Semitism, Berlin Technical University.
  • Bourne, Jenny. "Anti-Semitism or Anti-Criticism?", Race and Class, Vol. 46, 2004.
  • Burchill, Julie. "The hate that shames us", The Guardian, December 6, 2003.
  • Chittenden, Maurice. "Dons' boycott raises Jewish student fear", The Sunday Times, April 17, 2005
  • Cohen, Ben. "The Persistence of Anti-Semitism on the British Left" Jewish Political Studies Review 16:3-4 via the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Fall 2004.
  • Cohen, Nick. "One woman's war: anti-Semitism," New Statesman, October 10, 2005.
  • Cohen, Nick. "Following Mosley's East End footsteps", The Observer, April 17, 2005
  • Cook, Jonathan. "The 'New Anti-Semitism' and Nuclear War", antiwar.com, September 25, 2006.
  • Cotler, Irwin. "Identifying the New Anti-Semitism", Jewish People Policy Planning Institute, November 2002.
  • Curthoys, Ned. "A new anti-Semitism: American discourse since September 11 has seen a reinvention of the eternal anti-semitism thesis applied to critics of Israel," Arena Magazine, April 1, 2004.
  • Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Is There a New Anti-Semitism in the United States?" Society, 41 (January/February 2004), 53-58.
  • The Engage website, a huge resource on contemporary antisemitism
  • Foxman, Abraham H. Blurring the Line, Ha'aretz, April 4, 2004.
  • Gerstenfeld, Manfred. "Something is rotten in the State of Europe: Anti-Semitism as a Civilizational Pathology", an interview with Robert S. Wistrich, October 1, 2004.
  • Gerstenfeld, Manfred. "Major Anti-Semitic Motifs in Arab Cartoons: An Interview with Joël Kotek", Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, No. 21, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, June 1, 2004.
  • Gerstenfeld, Manfred. Europe’s Crumbling Myths: The Post-Holocaust Origins of Today’s Anti-Semitism, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs/Yad Vashem/World Jewish Congress, 2003. ISBN 965-218-045-9.
  • Glazov, Jamie. "Symposium: Leftist Anti-Semitism", FrontPageMagazine.com, September 19, 2003.
  • Gordon, Neve. "Seeing through the 'new anti-Semitism': Norman Finkelstein critiques Israel's human rights record and Alan Dershowitz's defense of it," National Catholic Reporter, October 14, 2005.
  • Grant, Linda. "The hate that will not die", The Guardian, December 18, 2001.
  • Greenspan, Miriam. (Nov-Dec 2003). "The New Anti-Semitism". Tikkun 18:6. p. 33.
  • Harris, Ben. "'Progressive' anti-Semitism? S.F. meet considers phenomenon", JTA, January 23, 2006.
  • Horowitz, Craig. "The Return of Anti-Semitism", New York Magazine.
  • David Hirsh, writing on contemporary antisemitism on the guardian's Comment Is Free website
  • Iganski, Paul & Kosmin, Barry. (eds) New European Extremism: Hating America, Israel and the Jews. Profile Books Limited, 2006. ISBN 1-86197-792-1
  • Iganski, Paul & Kosmin, Barry. (eds) A New Antisemitism? Debating Judeophobia in 21st Century Britain, Profile Books Limited, 2003. ISBN 1-86197-651-8
  • Jonas, George. "Pragmatic anti-Semites", National Post, October 27, 2003.
  • Joffe, Josef. "Nations we love to hate: Israel, America and the New Anti-Semitism", Posen Papers in Contemporary Antisemitism, No.1, Vidal Sassoon Center for the Study of Antisemitism, 2004.
  • Kaye/Kantrowitz, Melanie. "Some Notes on Anti-Semitism from a Progressive Jewish Perspective", Jewish Currents, March 2007.
  • Kite, Melissa. "Labour should have fought back on immigration, says Euan Blair's girlfriend", The Telegraph, April 17, 2005.
  • Klein, Naomi. "Sharon's Best Weapon", May 2, 2002.
  • Klug, Brian. "The collective Jew: Israel and the new antisemitism," used as a resource by the EUMC in their report Manifestations of Antisemitism in the EU 2002-2003, Vienna, March 2004. See especially pp. 12-13, 225-241.
  • Lewis, Bernard. "Muslim Anti-Semitism" in Rosenbaum, Ron. Those who forget the past, Random House, 2003. pp. 549-62.
  • Kuruvila, Matthai Chakko. "Bay Area debate flares over 'new anti-Semitism'", San Fransisco Chronicle, January 27, 2007.
  • Lopez, Kathryn Jean. "Liberal & Pro-Israel, Feminist Phyllis Chesler on 'The New Anti-Semitism'", National Review Online, November 25, 2003.
  • MacShane, Denis. "Anti-semitism is back", The Guardian, September 7, 2006.
  • McGeal, Chris. "The 'new' anti-semitism: is Europe in grip of worst bout of hatred since the Holocaust?", The Guardian, November 25, 2003
  • Minerbi, Sergio I. "Neo Anti-Semitism in Today's Italy", Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Fall 2003.
  • Nirenstein, Fiamma. Terror: The New Anti-Semitism And The War Against The West, 2005. ISBN 1-57525-377-1
  • Pfeifer, Karl. "Antisemitism unites left and right extremists", Scholars for Peace in the Middle East.
  • Pipes, Daniel. The New Anti-Semitism.
  • Rosenblum, April. "If Not Together, How?".
  • Rosenthal, John. "Leftist myths and leftist responsibility", Policy Review Online, retrieved August 29, 2006.
  • Sacks, Jonathan. A New Antisemitism?, June 2002.
  • Samuels, Shimon. Applying the Lessons of the Holocaust: from Particularism to Universalism and Back.
  • Sharansky, Natan. On Hating the Jews, Commentary, November 2003.
  • Sharansky, Natan. The New Antisemitism, January 1, 2002.
  • Smith, Lewis. "Jews criticise lecturer boycott", The Times, April 18, 2005
  • Whine, Michael. "Islamist recruitment and antisemitism on British campuses" (DOC file), Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies.
  • Zuckerman, Mortimer B. "Graffiti On History's Walls", US News and World Report, March 11, 2003.
  • " Drawing the line: the 'new anti-Semitism' versus legitimate criticism of Israel", "Make your point", Haaretz, July 18, 2004.
  • "The New Anti-Semitism in Western Europe", American Jewish Committee.
  • "The New Anti-Semitism", Christian Action for Israel.
  • "Audit finds anti-Semitism rising across Canada", CTV News, March 6, 2003.
  • "Anti-Semitism in the Church?", BeitShalom.org
  • "Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism", Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, retrieved September 7, 2006.
  • Large collection of quotes by Hindu philosophers and writers against Anti-Semitism
  • "The New Face of Antisemitism", Department for Jewish Zionist Education, The Jewish Agency for Israel.

Reports David Aaronovitch (born July 8, 1954) is a British journalist, broadcaster, and author. ... Uri Avnery (Hebrew: אורי אבנרי), born September 10, 1923 in Beckum (Germany) as Helmut Ostermann, is an Israeli journalist and controversial peace activist. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Julie Burchill (born July 3, 1959 in Frenchay, Bristol) is a British journalist and author, renowned for her invective and often contentious prose. ... Benjamin Cohen is a British journalist based in London. ... Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ... Nick Cohen is a British journalist, author, and political commentator. ... Nick Cohen is a British journalist, author, and political commentator. ... Jonathan Cook Jonathan Cook (born in 1965 in in Buckinghamshire, England) is a British freelance journalist based in Nazareth in Israel, who has published in The Guardian, The Observer, Al Jazeera, ZNet and Electronic Intifada, CounterPunch (newsletter), Information Clearing House and published the book Blood and Religion: The Unmasking of... Antiwar. ... Irwin Cotler, PC , MP , OC , BA , BCL , LL.D , Ph. ... Abraham H. Foxman (b. ... The current version of this biographical article or section reads like a résumé. Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld (1937 - ) is currently (since 2000) the Chairman of the Board of Fellows at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, a Jerusalem based think tank. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... The current version of this biographical article or section reads like a résumé. Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld (1937 - ) is currently (since 2000) the Chairman of the Board of Fellows at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, a Jerusalem based think tank. ... Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ... The current version of this biographical article or section reads like a résumé. Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld (1937 - ) is currently (since 2000) the Chairman of the Board of Fellows at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, a Jerusalem based think tank. ... Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ... The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ... January/February 2007 issue Tikkun is a bi-monthly English-language magazine published in the United States. ... George Jonas (1935–) is a Hungarian-born conservative Canadian writer, poet and journalist, a self-described classical liberal. ... Dr. Josef Joffe Josef Joffe is editor and publisher of Die Zeit, a weekly German newspaper, the Marc and Anita Abramowitz Fellow in International Relations at the Hoover Institution, a fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and adjunct professor of political science at Stanford University, and an... Jewish Currents is a progressive, secular Jewish bimonthly magazine that carries on the insurgent tradition of the Jewish left through independent journalism, political commentary, and a countercultural approach to Jewish arts and literature. ... Naomi Klein (born May 5, 1970 [1]) is a Canadian journalist, author and activist. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... Prof. ... Dr. Denis MacShane (born May 21, 1948) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... Scholars for Peace in the Middle East (SPME) is a non-profit, advocacy organization. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Sir Jonathan Henry Sacks (born 1948, London) is the Chief Rabbi of the United Synagogue, the United Kingdoms main body of Orthodox synagogues. ... Natan Sharansky (Hebrew: נתן שרנסקי, Russian: Натан Борисович Щаранский; born January 20, 1948) is a notable former Soviet anticommunist, Zionist, Israeli politician and writer. ... Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ... Natan Sharansky (Hebrew: נתן שרנסקי, Russian: Натан Борисович Щаранский; born January 20, 1948) is a notable former Soviet anticommunist, Zionist, Israeli politician and writer. ... Mort Zuckerman Mortimer Benjamin (Mort) Zuckerman (born 1937, in Montreal, Canada) is a self-made American billionaire magazine editor, publisher, and real estate tycoon. ... Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ...

  • From government and inter-governmental sources
    • (U.S.) State Department report on Anti-Semitism: Europe and Eurasia, excerpted from a longer piece, and covering the period of July 1, 2003 – December 15, 2004].
    • "Manifestations of Anti-Semitism in the European Union"PDF (751 KiB) Unpublished EU report from 2003
    • Annual Report on Racism and Antisemitism published by French National Consultative Commission of Human Rights 2004
  • From the Anti-Defamation League
    • "Antisemitic and anti-Israeli slogans in anti-war protests in the USA", Anti-Defamation League
    • "Deceptive Web Site Attempts to Lure Anti-Globalization Activists to Neo-Nazi Movement", Anti-Defamation League, July 11, 2002
    • Map of Attitudes Toward Jews in 12 European Countries based on a 2005 ADL Survey.
    • The New Anti-Semitism in Europe and The Middle East: Threat is "Potent and Very Real" ADL Leader Says in Major Address.
    • "ANSWER, Antiwar Rallies and Support for Terror Organizations", Anti-Defamation League, August 22, 2006.
    • "Anti-Semitism on Display", Anti-Defamation League, January 28, 2003.
  • From the American Jewish Committee
    • Anti-Zionism in Great Britain and Beyond: A "Respectable" Anti-Semitism? December 21, 2003
    • Progressive Jewish Thought and the New Antisemitism, December 2006
    • Antisemitism Made in Iran: Against Al Quds Day, June 2006
  • From Zionism on the Web
    • The New antisemitism forum at [3]
    • Anglicans have betrayed the Jews
    • Background to Islamic antisemitism

Organizations that fight anti-Semitism Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The stated Mission of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) is to safeguard the welfare and security of Jews in the United States, in Israel, and throughout the world; to strengthen the basic principles of pluralism around the world, as the best defense against anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry...

  • The American Jewish Committee
  • The American Jewish Congress
  • The Anti-Defamation League
  • The Coordination Forum for Countering Anti-Semitism
  • Ilka Schroder
  • International Catholic-Jewish Liaison Committee
  • The Simon Wiesenthal Center
  • Tribuna Israelita, Mexican Jewish Centre
  • Engage

  Results from FactBites:
 
New Israeli Monitoring Group (1761 words)
He explained that until now dealing with antisemitism had meant "counting episodes, but now "the new antisemitism" is different in that it is organized in "campaigns," and the episodes are the result of "hate campaigns".
The aim of the new antisemitism is the demonization of the State of Israel.
The new antisemitism has given the old antisemitism its "legitimacy" back, and now we are witness to the fusion of the two, The Deputy Foreign Minister provided several recent examples.
New anti-Semitism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7813 words)
New anti-Semitism is the concept of an international resurgence of anti-Jewish incidents and attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of anti-Semitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, which is held to be associated with certain left-wing political views.
The new anti-Semitism is regarded by proponents as a phenomenon that began to form, particularly in Europe, around the time of the Second Intifada in 2000 and the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001.
Critics of the concept of new anti-Semitism argue that, insofar as there is a resurgence of anti-Semitism, it is an outbreak of classical anti-Semitism, rather than a new form.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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