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Encyclopedia > New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


New Zealand English - often colloquially referred to as Newzild - is close to Australian English in pronunciation, but has several subtle differences often overlooked by people from outside these countries. Some of these differences show New Zealand English to have more affinity with the English of southern England than Australian English does. Several of the differences also show the influence of Māori speech. The most striking difference from Australian and other forms of English (although shared partly with South African English) is the flattened i of New Zealand English. The New Zealand accent also has some Scottish influences, particularly in the southern regions of the South Island - a result of the large number of early Scottish settlers who arrived in the 19th century. Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ...

Contents

Pronunciation

Short vowels
IPA Examples
ɘ sit, about, winner
i city
e bed
ɛ lad, cat, ran
ɐ run, enough
ɒ not, wasp
ʊ put, wood
Long vowels
IPA Examples
ɐː father, arm
see
ɵː bird
law, caught
ʉː soon, through
Diphthongs
IPA Examples
æe day, pain
ɑe my, wise
oe boy
ɐʉ no, tow
æo now
ɪə near, here
hair, there
ʉɐ tour

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...

Historical development

A distinct New Zealand variant of the English language has been in existence since at least 1912, when Frank Swinnerton described it as a "carefully modulated murmur," though it probably goes back further than that. From the beginning of British settlement on the islands, a new dialect began to form due to the need to adopt Māori words to describe the flora and fauna of New Zealand, for which English did not have any words of its own.[1] Frank Arthur Swinnerton (1884 - 1982) was an English critic and novelist. ...


Spelling

Where there is a distinct difference between British and US spelling (such as colour/color and travelled/traveled), the British spelling is universally found in New Zealand - New Zealand English sticks very closely to British English in spelling. Some Americanisms have begun to creep in through their exposure in mass media (such as "thru" for "through" in informal contexts), though these spellings are non-standard. Similarly, the British standard name for the last letter of the alphabet, zed, is standard within New Zealand (which is itself occasionally referred to as "Enzed"), though the American zee is occasionally heard.


-ise

Possibly the most significant difference between New Zealand and British spelling is in the ending -ise or -ize. Although -ise is the more popular ending in both countries, some British dictionaries and style manuals prefer the -ize ending. New Zealand dictionaries and style manuals use the -ise ending almost exclusively.


Fiord

New Zealand is perhaps unique among English-speaking countries in its spelling of the word fjord, favouring the spelling fiord. This is particularly apparent in the name of Fiordland, a rugged region in the country's southwest. Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ... Fiordland is a region of New Zealand that is situated on the south-western corner of the South Island. ...


Māori influence

Main article: Māori influence on New Zealand English

Many local everyday words have been borrowed from the Māori language, including words for local flora, fauna, and the natural environment. See Māori influence on New Zealand English. According to New Zealand English specialist Elizabeth Gordon, many Māori loanwords, mainly bird, plant and place names, entered New Zealand English in the 19th century, but the flow stopped abruptly around the beginning of the 20th century. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... According to New Zealand English specialist Elizabeth Gordon, many Māori loanwords, mainly bird, plant and place names, entered New Zealand English in the 19th century, but the flow stopped abruptly around the beginning of the 20th century. ...


The dominant influence of Māori on New Zealand English is lexical. A 1999 estimate based on the Wellington corpora of written and spoken New Zealand English put the proportion of words of Māori origin at approximately 0.6%, mostly place and personal names.


Māori is also ever-present and has a significant conceptual influence in the legislature, government, and community agencies (e.g. health and education), where legislation requires that proceedings and documents are translated into Māori (under certain circumstances, and when requested). Political discussion and analysis of issues of sovereignty, environmental management, health, and social well-being thus rely on Māori at least in part. Māori as a spoken language is particularly important wherever community consultation occurs.


Pronunciation of Māori place names

Many Māori place names suffered from an ungainly Anglicisation for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but since the 1980s increased consciousness of Māori has led to a shift back to correct pronunciations. The Anglicisations have persisted most among natives of the towns in question, so it has become something of a shibboleth, with correct pronunciation marking someone as non-local. This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


As with many languages only recently written using the Roman/Latin alphabet, the pronunciation of Māori uses Italian (Latin) phonetics. 'a' is pronounced ah, 'i' is pronounced 'ee', etc. 'r' is rolled, similar to the softened 'd' in "shuddup" or "siddown" or "ta-dah!!". Māori spelling therefore has a nearly perfect one-to-one letter-to-phoneme correspondence.

Examples
Taumarunui taum-ranui tau-ma-ru-nu-i
Paraparaumu para-pram or pa-ram pa-ra-pa-ra-u-mu
Pauatahanui part-a-noo-ee pau-a-ta-ha-nu-i
Oakura oa-kra o-a-ku-ra
Hawera hara ha-we-ra
Te Awamutu tee-awa-moot or tee-a-mootu te-a-wa-mu-tu
Waikouaiti wacker-wite or weka-what wai-kou-a-i-ti
Katikati Kati-kat ka-ti-ka-ti
Otorohanga Oh-tra-hung-a or Oh-tra-hong-a o-to-ra-ha-nga
Papatoetoe Papp-a-toh-e pa-pa-to-e-to-e

To further confuse matters, many southern Māori words, which have a distinctive pronunciation that differs from standard Māori (one example being Mount Cook, which is Aorangi in standard Māori but Aoraki in southern Māori), are frequently mistaken for Anglicisations and "corrected". These include the pronunciation of Oamaru as Om-a-roo and of Kawarau as Ka-warra. Aoraki/Mount Cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand. ...


A mixture of southern Māori speech patterns and Anglicisation leads to a third trend, the removal of the final vowel of place names, or the reduction of final vowels to a schwa. This is particularly common in the southern South Island. This pattern also results in local shibboleths, and result in pronunciations such as Wakatip for Lake Wakatipu, and o-taag-uh for Otago.


New Zealand English vocabulary

Look up Category:New Zealand English in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

There are also a number of dialectical words and phrases used in New Zealand English, although most of these are regarded as very informal, and are far more common in speech than writing. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...


Differences from British English

Phonemic differentiation is the phenomenon of a phoneme in a language splitting into two phonemes over time, a process known as a phonemic split. ...

Front vowels and the flattened 'i'

A vowel shift has occurred in New Zealand English. Front vowels, with one exception, are pronounced higher in the mouth than in England English. RP /ɪ/, the unrounded near-close near-front lax vowel, has moved to [ə] (schwa). Some non-NZ speakers mistakenly assert that, when New Zealanders say "fish and chips" they say "fush and chups". This may be asserted because of the lack of a letter for schwa. Below the latter word is how the former word may sound to the ears of a non-New Zealander: A vowel shift is a systematic change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...

  • pan → pen
  • pen → pin
  • pin → pun
  • pair → peer

As always when discussing accent differences, others may misinterpret the speech of New Zealanders because they pronounce their vowels differently due to their accent.


Additional schwa

As in Australian English, some New Zealanders will insert the schwa to words such as grown, thrown and mown, resulting in grow-en, throw-en and mo-wen. However, groan, throne and moan are all unaffected, meaning these word pairs can be distinguished by ear, unlike in English English. This characteristic may be inherited from Lincolnshire English. The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ...


This has also been heard (rarely) in the pronunciation of the word three, where the schwa appears between the 'th' and the 'r', creating a two-syllable word, and in words such as dwarf and Dwane/Duane where the shwa appears between the 'd' and the 'w' (or 'u'), leading to puns like "Duosyllablic Duane".


Distinction between /eə/ and /ɪə/

In thicker New Zealand accents, words like "chair" and "cheer", (/tʃeə/, /tʃɪə/) are pronounced the same way (/tʃɪə/, that is the same way as "cheer" in British or Australian English). The same occurs with "share" and "shear" (both pronounced /ʃɪə/), bear and beer, spare and spear. This pronunciation is not universal, and many New Zealanders do distinguish these words (IPA used for phonetic transcriptions). Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Younger speakers tend to merge toward /ɪə/, while middle-aged speakers tend to merge toward /eə/. This merging has been seen in some other varieties of English, but notably not in Australian English.


Lack of distinction between /ɒ/ and /ɐ/

There is a tendency for some words in New Zealand English to be pronounced with /ɒ/ rather than the /ɐ/ found in Southern British English, especially in those cases where the vowel with this particular sound is a stressed "a". Thus words like "warrior" and "worrier" are harder to differentiate in New Zealand English than in many forms of English.


Lack of distinction between ferry and fairy

For many speakers of New Zealand English, the vowel in ferry is raised and becomes indistinguishable from fairy. The vowel length distinction, however, is almost always retained.


Use of mixed vowels

The common New Zealand pronunciation of the trans- prefix rhymes with "ants" and is likely to be a result of American English influence.[citation needed] This produces mixed pronunciation of the as in words like "transplant" whereas in northern (but not southern) British English the same vowel is used in both syllables.


Rising inflection

New Zealanders will often reply to a question with a statement spoken with a rising inflection on the last couple of words (known in linguistics as a high rising terminal). This often has the effect of making their statement sound like another question. This effect is heightened by the common local practice of adding "eh" to the end of sentences ( ie "It was choice[great] eh", "I got a job eh" ). There is enough awareness of this that it is seen in exaggerated form in comedy parody of working class/uneducated New Zealanders. This rising inflection can also be heard at the end of statements which are not in response to a question but to which the speaker wishes to add emphasis. High rising terminals are also heard in various other regional forms of English. The High Rising Terminal (HRT), also known as uptalk, upspeak or High Rising Intonation (HRT), is a feature of some accents of English where statements have a rising intonation pattern in the final syllable or syllables of the utterance. ...


Use of she as third person neuter

In informal speech some New Zealanders use the third person feminine she in place of the third person neuter it as the subject of a sentence, especially when the subject is the first word of the sentence. The most common use of this is in the phrase "She'll be right" meaning either "It will be okay" or "It is close enough to what is required". This is similar to Australian English.


Differences from Australian English

Although foreigners can find it hard to distinguish the New Zealand dialect from the Australian, there are differences in the pronunciation of vowel sounds, which are considerably more clipped in New Zealand English. (Canadians, similarly, are easily mistaken for U.S. Americans and vice versa by non-North Americans.)


The main distinguishing sounds are the short 'i' and 'e', as well as words like "chance", as described below.


Short 'i'

The short 'i' in New Zealand English is pronounced as a schwa /ə/. In Australian English, the short 'u' is often thought to be the vowel closest to the New Zealand pronunciation. So Australians frequently joke about New Zealanders having "fush and chups" instead of "fish and chips". However, it is really closer to an almost dropped vowel, so it's more like "f'sh and ch'ps". The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... Fish and chips in modern packaging Fish and chips or fish n chips, is a popular British take-away food, which consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried potatoes, traditionally sold wrapped in newspaper. ...


Conversely, the closest sound in New Zealand English to the Australian short 'i' /ɪ/ is 'ee' /i/, so New Zealanders may hear Australians talking about the "Seedney Harbour Breedge". The 'i' in Australian English is lengthened relative to England English, possibly as a result of the influence of Italian immigrants. So New Zealanders frequently joke about Australians having "feesh and cheeps". Documentary films from the first half of the 20th century featuring both Australian and New Zealand voices show that the accents were more similar before the second world war and diverged mostly after the 1950s. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is the main crossing of Sydney Harbour carrying rail, vehicular, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore. ...


Recent linguistic research has suggested that the short, flat 'i' heard in New Zealand comes from dialects of English spoken by lower-class English people in the late nineteenth century, though why it persisted in New Zealand while disappearing from Australia is not known.[citation needed] It is, however, also encountered in Scottish English, and given the relatively higher level of Scottish emigration to New Zealand than Australia, this may also be an influence. The pronunciation of English vowels by native Māori speakers may also have influenced the New Zealand accent. There is a Māori/Polynesian accent distinct from the accent of native English speakers. Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ...


Short 'e'

The short 'e' in New Zealand English has moved to fill in the space left by 'i', and sounds like a short 'i' itself to other English speakers. For example, you may hear New Zealanders talk about having "iggs for brickfast" or hear an airline attendant asking to "kollikt your hid-sits" (collect your head-sets).


Chance, dance, prance, advance etc.

The New Zealand pronunciation of words like "dance" typically uses the same vowel sound as the "a" in "car", in other words /daːns/, resembling the broad A of southern British English; whereas in Australia, it can also be more similar to the North American /dæns/. However, /dæns/ is not universal in Australia, and it is also found in Southland (Bartlett 1992). The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English, in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...


Fool, pool, etc.

Less known than dance/chance, but more diagnostic, is the pronunciation of /u/ followed by /-l/, as in fool and pool. /u/ is usually centralised, but is moved back and lowered, so that the vowel sounds more like "good" /ʊ/. Thus "fool" and "pool" sound like "full" and "pull" respectively. In contrast, Australian English retains the central position, and often adds a diphthong /əʉ/.


Bird, nurse, etc.

Another diagnostic pronunciation difference in /ɜ/ (e.g., bird and nurse). In New Zealand, it is fronted and slightly round /ɵ/, whereas in Australia it is further back.


Schwa in unstressed syllables

New Zealanders tend to be more likely to turn a vowel in an unstressed syllable into a schwa, although this is far from a universal trait. A clear example of this trait is shown in the pronunciation of Queensland, which in IPA terms would be /'kwinzlənd/ to a New Zealander (rhyming with "seasoned"), but /'kwinzˌlænd/ to an Australian (rhyming with "freehand"). However, both pronunciations occur in Australia.


Letter 'h'

Pronunciation of the name of the letter 'h' is usually /eɪtʃ/, as in Great Britain and North America, but can be the aspirated /heɪtʃ/ of Hiberno-English origin found in Australian English. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ...


Letter 'l'

Pronunciation of the letter 'l' at the end of a word such as kill, is sometimes voiced as a 'w'.


This is further found in provincial cities and towns. Some speakers will not differentiate the sound of the word 'bill' from 'bull', and both will have the final 'l' sound changed to a 'w'. Even words such as 'build' will be affected and will sound like 'buwd'. A common use of this is the word 'milk' usually said 'muwk' (rhyming with 'bull(k)' to a speaker outside of New Zealand). Although this varies greatly in different areas and between different socio-economic groups within New Zealand itself. Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ...


Vocabulary differences

Other differences in the dialects relate to words used to refer to common items, often based on major brands:

NZ Australia Explanation
Cellphone / mobile / mobile phone (cell) Mobile phone
(mobile)
A portable telephone.
Chilly bin Esky Insulated container for keeping drinks and food cool.
Dairy Milk bar
Delicatessen
convenience store
Equivalent to convenience store, although the term usage is gradually displaced by convenience store in larger cities as many newer shops are owned by immigrants from countries influenced by American English. Note that the term delicatessen is used in New Zealand for a somewhat different purpose, referring to a section of a supermarket serving specialist foods such as salamis, fine cheeses, and the like (just as it is in most states of Australia).
Domain, field Oval An area normally used for recreational purposes, usually grass/earth.
Duvet Doona A padded quilt.
Jandals Thongs Backless sandals (otherwise known as "flip-flops" or "Japanese sandals").
Judder bar Speed bump Humps or the like in urban or suburban roads, designed to limit the speed of traffic. Speed bump is also a common term in New Zealand
No exit No through road A road with a dead end; a cul-de-sac.
Private bag Locked bag
(also "private mail bag")
Special mail delivery for large organisations.
Oil skin Driza-Bone
Oil skin
(also "oil skin parka")
Country raincoat.
Togs Bathers
Swimmers
Cozzies
Togsa
Swimwear (see Australian words for swimwear)
Trolley
Trundler
Shopping trolley A device, usually four-wheeled, for transporting shopping within supermarket precincts.
Trundler Shopping jeep A two-wheeled device for transporting shopping from local shops (now rarely seen).
Tramp Bush walk Bush-walking or hiking.
Twink White-Out Correction fluid.
Vivid Texta A marker pen.
a Used mainly in Queensland and northern New South Wales.

In New Zealand, the word "milk bar" refers only to the milk bar of the 1950s and 1960s, a place that served non-alcoholic drinks, primarily milkshakes, tea and sometimes coffee. Ice creams were also served. One of the many styles of Esky The Nylex logo Esky is an Australian brand of coolers manufactured by Nylex. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about food stores. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up domain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A double duvet. ... Jandals Jandals are the stripped down essence of foot wear - essentially a thin rubber sole with two simple straps running in a Y from the sides of the foot the join between the big toe. ... Speed bump made of asphalt A speed bump (British English a speed or road hump, sometimes colloquially a sleeping policeman) is a traffic calming tool designed to slow traffic or reduce through traffic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... According to stereotype, spoken Australian English is thought to be highly colloquial, possibly more so than other spoken variants. ... A shopping cart/trolley A shopping cart (also called a buggy, or a trolley in British English; sometimes referred to as a carriage or shopping carriage in the U.S. region of New England) is a cart supplied by a shop, especially a supermarket, for use by customers inside the... A bottle of correction fluid Correction fluid is an opaque, white fluid applied to paper to mask errors in text. ... A marker pen, or marker, is a term used to refer to various kinds of pen which have their own ink-source and usually a tip made of some porous material. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... “NSW” redirects here. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


A traditional difference, between the New Zealand "varsity" and the Australian "uni" (for "university"), is rapidly disappearing with the adoption of "uni" into New Zealand vocabulary. For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


Dialects within New Zealand English

Most Kiwis speak New Zealand English "as she is spoke": geographical variations appear slight, and mainly confined to individual special local words.


However, one group of speakers is recognised as having a distinct way of talking: the south of the South Island (Murihiku) harbours a "Celtic fringe" of people speaking with a "Southland burr" in which a trilled 'r' appears prominently. This dialect is also rhotic; that is, speakers pronounce the 'r' in "bird", "work" as the 'r' sound is said at the beginning of a word, and so on, while other New Zealanders do not. This southern area formed a traditional repository of immigration from Scotland. Several words and phrases common in Scots or Scottish English still persist in this area as well. Some examples of this include the use of wee to mean "small", and phrases such as to do the messages meaning "to go shopping". Many of the region's place names also reflect their Scottish origin, such as those of the region's two main cities (Invercargill and Dunedin) which both have Scots Gaelic origins.   Categories: New Zealand-related stubs | Southland, New Zealand | Territorial Authorities of New Zealand ... English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r) is pronounced. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Cnr of Esk and Dee Streets, looking up Esk st, one of the main shopping streets of Invercargill. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


The trilled 'r' is also used by some Māori speakers, who may also pronounce 't' and 'k' sounds almost as 'd' and 'g', especially in the south of the country (see Māori language for more details). This is also encountered in South African English, especially among Afrikaans speakers. The Māori 'r', though, is more like a short 'd'. Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some speakers from the West Coast of the South Island retain a half Australian accent from the region's 19th century goldrush settlers. The West Coast is one of the administrative regions of New Zealand, located on the west coast of the South Island, and is one of the more remote and most sparsely populated areas of the country. ...


Dictionaries of New Zealand English

The first comprehensive dictionary dedicated to New Zealand English was probably the Heinemann New Zealand dictionary, published in 1979. Edited by Harry Orsman, it is a comprehensive 1,300-page book, with information relating to the usage and pronunciation of terms that were both widely accepted throughout the English-speaking world and those peculiar to New Zealand. It includes a one-page list of the approximate date of entry into common parlance of many terms found in New Zealand English but not elsewhere, such as "haka" (1827), "Boohai" (1920), and "bach" (1905).


In 1997, Oxford University Press produced the Dictionary of New Zealand English, which it claimed was based on over forty years of research. This research started with Orsman's 1951 thesis and continued with his editing this dictionary. To assist with and maintain this work, the New Zealand Dictionary Centre was founded in 1997. Since then it has published several more dictionaries of New Zealand English, culminating in the publication of The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary in 2004. Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...


A more light-hearted look at English as spoken in New Zealand, A personal Kiwi-Yankee dictionary, was written by American-born Otago University psychology lecturer Louis Leland in 1980. This slim but entertaining volume lists many of the potentially confusing and/or misleading terms for Americans visiting or migrating to New Zealand. A second edition was published during the 1990s.


See also

Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... There is no one culture of New Zealand. ... According to New Zealand English specialist Elizabeth Gordon, many Māori loanwords, mainly bird, plant and place names, entered New Zealand English in the 19th century, but the flow stopped abruptly around the beginning of the 20th century. ... New Zealand humour bears some similarities to the body of humour of many other English-speaking countries. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

References

  1. ^ The Story of English by Robert McCrum, William Cran, and Robert MacNeil. BBC Publications and Faber and Faber: London, 1986.

Further reading

  • Cryer, Max. (2002). Curious Kiwi Words. Auckland, NZ: HarperCollinsPublishers (NZ) Ltd.
  • Deverson, Tony and Graeme Kennedy (eds.) (2005). The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  • Grant, L.E., and Devlin, G.A. (eds.) (1999). In other words: A dictionary of expressions used in New Zealand. Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.
  • Leland, Louis S., jr. (1980). A personal Kiwi-Yankee dictionary. Dunedin, NZ: John McIndoe Ltd.
  • Orsman, H.W., (ed.) (1997). The Dictionary of New Zealand English: a dictionary of New Zealandisms on historical principles. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
  • Orsman, H.W., (ed.) (1979). Heinemann New Zealand dictionary. Auckland, NZ: Heinemann Educational Books (NZ) Ltd.

External links

  • Origins of New Zealand English
  • New Zealand Dictionary Centre
    • New Zealand English in the 21st century
  • Kiwi Words & Phrases

  Results from FactBites:
 
New Zealand English - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (4407 words)
New Zealand English is close to Australian English in pronunciation, but has several subtle differences often overlooked by people from outside these countries.
New Zealanders will often reply to a question with a statement spoken with a rising inflection on the last couple of words (known in linguistics as a high rising terminal).
New Zealanders, in informal speech, will often use the third person feminine she in place of the third person neuter it as the subject of a sentence, especially when the subject is the first word of the sentence.
New Zealand English at AllExperts (2608 words)
New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand.
New Zealand is perhaps unique among English speaking countries in its spelling of the word fjord, favouring the spelling fiord.
In informal speech some New Zealanders use the third person feminine she in place of the third person neuter it as the subject of a sentence, especially when the subject is the first word of the sentence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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