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Encyclopedia > New Zealand
New Zealand
Aotearoa  (Māori)
Flag of New Zealand Coat of arms of New Zealand
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem"God Defend New Zealand"
"God Save the Queen"1
Capital Wellington
41°17′S 174°27′E / -41.283, 174.45
Largest city Auckland2
Official languages English (98%)3
Māori (4.2%)3
NZ Sign Language (0.6%)3
Demonym New Zealander, Kiwi (colloquial)
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  Head of State HM Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Anand Satyanand
 -  Prime Minister Helen Clark
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Dominion 26 September 19074 
 -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 (adopted 25 November 1947
 -  Constitution Act 1986 13 December 1986 
Area
 -  Total 268,680 km² (75th)
103,738 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.1
Population
 -  December 2007 estimate 4,252,0005 (122nd (2007))
 -  2006 census 4,143,2796 
 -  Density 15/km² (204th)
39/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 IMF estimate
 -  Total $117.696 billion7 (58th)
 -  Per capita $27,785 (28th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 IMF estimate
 -  Total $128.071 billion8 (53rd)
 -  Per capita $30,234 (27th)
Gini (1997) 36.2 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.943 (high) (19th)
Currency New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Time zone NZST9 (UTC+12)
 -  Summer (DST) NZDT (UTC+13)
(Sep to Apr)
Internet TLD .nz10
Calling code +64
1 "God Save the Queen" is officially a national anthem but is generally used only on regal and vice-regal occasions. [1][2]
2 Auckland is the largest urban area; Auckland City is the largest incorporated city.
3 Percentages do not add to 100% because some people speak more than one language. They exclude unusable responses and those who spoke no language (e.g. too young to talk).[3]
4 There is a multitude of dates that could be considered to mark independence (see Independence of New Zealand).
5 Estimated resident population of New Zealand on 31 December 2007  National Population Estimates: December 2007 quarter
6 New Zealand census 2006 final figures, including overseas visitors. [1]PDF (370 KiB)
7 IMF GDP PPP Report for selected countries.
8 IMF GDP report for selected countries.
9 The Chatham Islands have a separate time zone, 45 minutes ahead of the rest of New Zealand.
10 The territories of Niue, the Cook Islands and Tokelau have their own cctlds, .nu, .ck and .tk respectively.

New Zealand is a country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two large islands (the North Island and the South Island) and numerous smaller islands, most notably Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands. The indigenous Māori named New Zealand Aotearoa, which is usually translated into English as The Land of the Long White Cloud. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue, which are self-governing but in free association; Tokelau; and the Ross Dependency (New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica). There is more than one place called New Zealand. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_New_Zealand. ... The Flag of New Zealand is a defaced blue ensign with the Union Flag in the canton, and four red stars with white borders to the right. ... To the right is the Coat of Arms of New Zealand. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... God Defend New Zealand is one of the national anthems of New Zealand, together with God Save the Queen. Although they both have equal status, only God Defend New Zealand is used, and most New Zealanders would be unaware that the country has two national anthems. ... For the song by the Sex Pistols, see God Save the Queen (Sex Pistols song). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Species See text. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... The Governor-General of New Zealand is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently, Queen Elizabeth II). ... Anand Satyanand with Dame Silvia Cartwright Wikinews has news related to: New Governor-General of New Zealand announced Anand Satch[1] Satyanand, PCNZM (born 22 July 1944 in Auckland) is the Governor-General of New Zealand. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealands Constitution. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code NZD User(s) New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... On November 2, 1868, New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed nationally, and was perhaps the first country to do so. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... On November 2, 1868, New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed nationally, and was perhaps the first country to do so. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The New Zealand telephone numbering plan describes the allocation of telephone numbers in New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Auckland. ... The independence of New Zealand occurred gradually over the 20th century by a series of Royal proclamations, Imperial Conferences and Acts of the British and New Zealand Parliaments. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Chatham Islands from space. ... .nu is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) assigned to the island state of Niue. ... .ck is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Cook Islands. ... .tk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Tokelau, a territory of New Zealand located in the South Pacific. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... The South Island The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. ... New Zealand consists of a large number of islands. ... A Rakiura beach Stewart Island/Rakiura is the third largest island of New Zealand. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Aotearoa (disambiguation). ... The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ... An associated state is used to describe a free relationship between a territory and a larger nation. ... Political status Dependency of New Zealand Governor Anand Satyanand Area   – Total  450 000 km² (174 000 mi²) Population Scott Base: 10-80 seasonally McMurdo Station: 200-1000 seasonally Currency New Zealand dollar The Ross Dependency comprises an area of Antarctica (and other land masses in the Southern Ocean) claimed by... Territorial claims of Antarctica Antarctica territories Brazils Antarctica Territory Currently there are seven claimant nations who maintain a territorial claim on eight territories in Antarctica. ...


New Zealand is notable for its geographic isolation, being separated from Australia to the northwest by the Tasman Sea, approximately 2000 kilometres (1250 miles) across. Its closest neighbours to the north are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. In its long isolation New Zealand developed a distinctive fauna dominated by birds, many of which became extinct after the arrival of humans and the mammals they introduced. fuck you Map of the Tasman Sea Satellite photo of the Tasman Sea The Tasman Sea is the large body of water between Australia and New Zealand, some 2000 kilometres (1250 miles) across. ... The biodiversity of New Zealand, a large Pacific archipelago, is one of the most unusual on Earth, due to its long isolation from other continental landmasses. ... New Zealand birds were, until the arrival of the first humans, an extraordinarily diverse range of specialised birds. ... New Zealands short human history has resulted in a number of serious plant and animal pests. ...


The population is mostly of European descent, with the indigenous Māori being the largest minority. Asians and non-Maori Polynesians are also significant minorities, especially in the cities. Elizabeth II, as the Queen of New Zealand, is the Head of State and, in her absence, is represented by a non-partisan Governor-General. The Queen 'reigns but does not rule.' She has no real political influence, and her position is essentially symbolic. Political power is held by the democratically elected Parliament of New Zealand under the leadership of the Prime Minister, who is the Head of Government. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pākehā. (Discuss) It has been suggested that Pākehā be merged into this article or section. ... The indigenous peoples of Oceania are those peoples identified as indigenous peoples, as per the modern global definition of the term. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... A map showing the major cities and towns of New Zealand. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Governor-General of New Zealand is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently, Queen Elizabeth II). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ...

Contents

Etymology

It is unknown whether Māori had a name for New Zealand as a whole before the arrival of Europeans, although they referred to the North Island as Te Ika a Māui (the fish of Māui) and the South Island as Te Wai Pounamu (the waters of greenstone) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of Aoraki).[4] Until the early 20th century, the North Island was also referred to as Aotearoa (colloquially translated "land of the long white cloud");[5] in modern Māori usage, this name refers to the whole country. Aotearoa is also commonly used in this sense in New Zealand English. New Zealand place names derive mostly from Māori and British sources. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... In Māori mythology, Māui is a culture hero, famous for his exploits and his trickery. ... Te Wai Pounamu means The Greenstone Water (greenstone being jade) and is the Māori name for New Zealands South Island. ... For other uses, see Aotearoa (disambiguation). ... New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ...


The first European name for New Zealand was Staten Landt, the name given to it by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who in 1642 became the first European to see the islands. Tasman assumed it was part of a southern continent connected with land discovered in 1615 off the southern tip of South America by Jacob Le Maire. The name New Zealand originated with Dutch cartographers, who called the islands Nova Zeelandia, after the Dutch province of Zeeland.[6] No-one is certain exactly who first coined the term, but it first appeared in 1645 and may have been the choice of cartographer Johan Blaeu.[7] British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. There is no connection to the Danish Zealand. Portrait of Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - October 10, 1659), was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Jacob Le Maire (about 1585 to 1616) was a Dutch mariner, born in Antwerp, who circumnavigated the earth in 1615-16. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Joan Blaeu (1596 in Alkmaar - 1673 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch cartographer. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ...


History

New Zealand is one of the most recently settled major land masses. The first settlers of New Zealand were Eastern Polynesians who came to New Zealand, probably in a series of migrations, sometime between around AD 800 and 1300.[4] Over the next few centuries these settlers developed into a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into Iwi (tribes) and hapū (subtribes) which would co-operate, compete and sometimes fight with each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to the Chatham Islands where they developed their own distinct Moriori culture.[8][9] The history of New Zealand dates back at least seven hundred years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. ... Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Māori culture is a distinctive part of New Zealand culture. ... This article is about cooperation as used in the social sciences. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ...


The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman and his crew in 1642.[10] Several of the crew were killed by Māori and no Europeans returned to New Zealand until British explorer James Cook's voyage of 1768–71.[10] Cook reached New Zealand in 1769 and mapped almost all of the coastline. Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling, sealing and trading ships. They traded European food and goods, especially metal tools and weapons, for Māori timber, food, artefacts and water. On occasion, Europeans traded goods for sex.[11] Māori agriculture and warfare were transformed by the potato and the musket, although the resulting Musket Wars died out once the tribal imbalance of arms had been rectified. From the early nineteenth century, Christian missionaries began to settle New Zealand, eventually converting most of the Māori population, who had become disillusioned with their indigenous faith by the introduction of Western culture. The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Portrait of Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - October 10, 1659), was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Whale-Fishing. ... ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... The Musket Wars were a series of battles fought between various tribal groups of Maori in the early 1800s, primarily on the North Island in New Zealand. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...

Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi
Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi

Becoming aware of the lawless nature of European settlement and increasing interest in the territory by the French, the British government sent William Hobson to New Zealand to claim sovereignty and negotiate a treaty with Māori.[i] The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840. The drafting was done hastily and confusion and disagreement continues to surround the translation. The Treaty is regarded as New Zealand's foundation as a nation and is revered by Māori as a guarantee of their rights. Hobson initially selected Okiato as the capital in 1840, before moving the seat of government to Auckland in 1841. Image File history File links Waitangi_Treaty-1-.jpg‎ Summary taken from http://en. ... Image File history File links Waitangi_Treaty-1-.jpg‎ Summary taken from http://en. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... William Hobson (September 26, 1792 - September 10, 1842), was the first Governor of New Zealand and co-author of the Treaty of Waitangi. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... Russell, Bay of Islands. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Okiato or Old Russell is a small holiday spot in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, seven km south of present-day Russell. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ...


Under British rule, the islands of New Zealand had been part of the colony of New South Wales. In 1840 New Zealand became its own dominion, which signalled increasing numbers of European settlers particularly from the British Isles. At first, Māori were eager to trade with the 'Pakeha', as they called them, and many iwi (tribes) became wealthy. As settler numbers increased, conflicts over land led to the New Zealand Land Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, resulting in the loss of much Māori land. The detail and correct interpretation of European settlement and the acquisition of land from Māori remains controversial. NSW redirects here. ... To date, five periods of Immigration to New Zealand may be identified. ... Pakeha is a New Zealand English word for European New Zealanders, that is, New Zealanders of predominantly European descent. ... Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Representative government for the colony was provided for by the passing of the 1852 New Zealand Constitution Act by the United Kingdom. The 1st New Zealand Parliament met for the first time in 1854. In 1856 the colony became effectively self-governing with the grant of responsible government over all domestic matters other than native policy. Power in this respect would be transferred to the colonial administration in the 1860s. In 1863 Premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution that the capital transfer to a locality in Cook Strait, apparently due to concern the South Island could form a separate colony. Commissioners from Australia (chosen for their neutral status) advised Wellington as suitable because of its harbour and central location, and parliament officially sat there for the first time in 1865. In 1893, the country became the first nation in the world to grant women the right to vote. In 1907, New Zealand became an independent Dominion and a fully independent nation in 1947 when the Statute of Westminster (1931) was ratified, although in practice Britain had ceased to play any real role in the government of New Zealand much earlier than this. As New Zealand became more politically independent it became more dependent economically; in the 1890s, refrigerated shipping allowed New Zealand to base its entire economy on the export of meat and dairy products to Britain. Image File history File links VonTempsky's_death_cropped. ... Image File history File links VonTempsky's_death_cropped. ... Gustavus von Tempsky (1828-1868) was an East Prussian adventurer, artist, news paper correspondent and soldier. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... Alfred Domett, CMG (20 May 1811 – 2 November 1887) was an English colonial statesman and poet. ... A view from the summit of Mount Victoria, Wellington - Cook Strait stretches to the right (west). ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Womens suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue at the turn of the 19th century. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... The Dunedin in 1876, wearing the colours of Shaw Savill and Albion line of London (retained in 1882). ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ...


New Zealand was an enthusiastic member of the British Empire, fighting in the Boer War, World War I and World War II and supporting Britain in the Suez Crisis. The country was very much a part of the world economy and suffered as others did in the Great Depression of the 1930s. The depression led to the election of the first Labour government, which established a comprehensive welfare state and a protectionist economy. For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany at the start of the First World War, the New Zealand government followed without hesitation, despite its geographic isolation and small population. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The First Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1935 to 1949. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ...


New Zealand experienced increasing prosperity following World War II. However, some social problems were developing; Māori had begun to move to the cities in search of work and excitement rather than the traditional rural way of life. A Māori protest movement would eventually form, criticising Eurocentrism and seeking more recognition of Māori culture and the Treaty of Waitangi, which they felt had not been fully honoured. In 1975 a Waitangi Tribunal was set up to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty and in 1985 it was enabled to investigate historic grievances. In common with all other developed countries, social developments accelerated in the 1970s and social and political mores changed. By the 1970s, the traditional trade with Britain was threatened because of Britain's membership of the European Economic Community. Great economic and social changes took place in the 1980s under the 4th Labour government largely led by Finance Minister Roger Douglas, and commonly referred to as "Rogernomics." This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Although New Zealand today is widely regarded internationally as having fair relations with its indigenous Maori peoples compared to it’s immediate neighbours, and multiculturalism is considerd as a significant positive to it’s cultural identity and growing diverse communities; like most Indigenous peoples throughout the world Maoris have struggled... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... Wharenui, Ohinemutu village, Rotorua. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... David Lange led the Fourth Labour government for most of its time in power. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Sir Roger Douglas is a former New Zealand politician and senior Cabinet minister, best known for his leading role in the radical economic restructuring undertaken by the New Zealand Labour Party government in the 1980s. ... The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of Roger and economics, was created by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the economic policies followed by New Zealand Finance Minister Roger Douglas from his appointment in 1984. ...


Politics

Politics of New Zealand takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy. ...

Government

Helen Clark,Prime Minister
Helen Clark,
Prime Minister

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy.[12] Although it has no codified constitution, the Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealand's constitutional structure. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state and is titled Queen of New Zealand under the Royal Titles Act 1974. She is represented by the Governor-General, who she appoints on the exclusive advice of the Prime Minister. The current Governor-General is Anand Satyanand. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2060 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2060 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... Image File history File links 2005-Clark-PM.jpg‎ The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... Image File history File links 2005-Clark-PM.jpg‎ The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The Treaty of Waitangi is an increasingly important source of constitutional law in New Zealand The constitution of New Zealand consists of a collection of statutes (Acts of Parliament), Treaties, Orders-in-Council, Letters patent, decisions of the Courts and unwritten constitutional conventions. ... The Constitution Act of 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealands Constitution. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of 16 sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally, though she is more directly involved with the United Kingdom, where the Royal Family resides, and the Monarchy is historically indigenous. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... The Governor-General of New Zealand is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently, Queen Elizabeth II). ... Anand Satyanand with Dame Silvia Cartwright Wikinews has news related to: New Governor-General of New Zealand announced Anand Satch[1] Satyanand, PCNZM (born 22 July 1944 in Auckland) is the Governor-General of New Zealand. ...


The Governor-General exercises the Crown's prerogative powers, such as the power to appoint and dismiss ministers and to dissolve Parliament, and in rare situations, the reserve powers. The Governor-General also chairs the Executive Council, which is a formal committee consisting of all ministers of the Crown. Members of the Executive Council are required to be Members of Parliament, and most are also in Cabinet. Cabinet is the most senior policy-making body and is led by the Prime Minister, who is also, by convention, the Parliamentary leader of the governing party or coalition. The current Prime Minister is Helen Clark, the leader of the Labour Party. This article or section should be merged with Royal Prerogative Prerogative powers are those held by British government ministers and The Queen which have no legal justification or authority. ... A reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state of a country in certain exceptional circumstances. ... The Executive Council of New Zealand is the body which provides the formal basis for the Cabinet. ... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of New Zealand governments executive branch. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... A parliamentary leader is chosen in Canadian politics to lead a party in the House of Commons, or in the case of the provinces, in the legislature, when a party has seats in the legislative body but the leader does not or in other unusual circumstances. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ...


The New Zealand Parliament has only one chamber, the House of Representatives, which usually seats 120 Members of Parliament. Parliamentary general elections are held every three years under a form of proportional representation called Mixed Member Proportional. The 2005 General Election created an 'overhang' of one extra seat, occupied by the Māori Party, due to that party winning more seats in electorates than the number of seats its proportion of the party vote would have given it. The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, is chosen by nationwide election. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... Wikinews has news related to: Results of the 2005 New Zealand General Election The 2005 New Zealand general election took place on 17 September 2005 and determined the composition of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. ... Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ... The Māori Party, a political party in New Zealand based around Māori citizens, formed around Tariana Turia, a former Labour Party member who had been a New Zealand Cabinet minister in the current Labour-dominated coalition government. ...

Since October 17, 2005, Labour has been in formal coalition with Jim Anderton, the Progressive Party's only MP. In addition to the parties in formal coalition, New Zealand First and United Future provide confidence and supply in return for their leaders being ministers outside cabinet. A further arrangement has been made with the Green Party, which has given a commitment not to vote against the government on confidence and supply. Since early 2007, Labour has also had the proxy vote of Taito Phillip Field, a former Labour MP. These arrangements assure the government of a majority of seven MPs on confidence votes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1502x912, 222 KB) Summary New Zealand Parliament Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1502x912, 222 KB) Summary New Zealand Parliament Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... New Zealand functions as a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. ... The Beehive, Wellington This article is about the Beehive building. ... The Beehive (left) and Parliament House (right), Wellington New Zealand Parliament Buildings houses the New Zealand Parliament and is situated on a 45,000 square metre site in and around the northern end of Lambton Quay, Wellington. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Progressive Party is a political party in New Zealand. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... Current United Future logo United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with eight MPs-- seven list MPs, and one electorate MP, leader Peter Dunne (see MMP for the difference). ... In a parliamentary democracy confidence and supply are required for a government to hold power. ... Wikinews has related news: Greens Party refines Buy Kiwi Made scheme The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ... Taito Phillip Hans Field, a New Zealand politician, currently represents the Labour Party in the New Zealand Parliament. ...


The Leader of the Opposition is National Party leader John Key. The ACT party and the Māori Party are also in opposition. The Greens, New Zealand First and United Future each vote against the government on some legislation. The Leader of the Opposition in New Zealand is the politician who, at least in theory, leads the Opposition bloc in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of parliamentary seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... For the American politician, see John A. Key. ... ACT New Zealand is a free market liberal party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Māori Party, a political party in New Zealand based around Māori citizens, formed around Tariana Turia, a former Labour Party member who had been a New Zealand Cabinet minister in the current Labour-dominated coalition government. ... Wikinews has related news: Greens Party refines Buy Kiwi Made scheme The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with two MPs -- one electorate MP (leader Peter Dunne) and one list MP (Judy Turner (see MMP for the difference). ...


The highest court in New Zealand is the Supreme Court of New Zealand, which was established in 2004 following the passage of the Supreme Court Act 2003. The act also abolished the option to appeal to the Privy Council in London. The current Chief Justice is Dame Sian Elias. New Zealand's judiciary also includes the Court of Appeal; the High Court, which deals with serious criminal offences and civil matters at the trial level and with appeals from lower courts and tribunals; and subordinate courts. The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Dame Sian Seerpoohi Elias, GNZM, (born March 12, 1949) is the Chief Justice of New Zealand, and is therefore the most senior member of the countrys judiciary. ... The Court of Appeal of New Zealand, located in Wellington, is New Zealand’s principal intermediate appellate court. ... The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980. ...


New Zealand is the only country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land have been occupied simultaneously by women: Queen Elizabeth II, Governor-General Dame Silvia Cartwright, Prime Minister Helen Clark, Speaker of the House of Representatives Margaret Wilson and Chief Justice Dame Sian Elias were all in office between March 2005 and August 2006. Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Silvia Rose Cartwright, Governor-General of New Zealand Her Excellency Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright PCNZM DBE (née Poulter) (born November 7, 1943) is New Zealands second female Governor-General, and as the Queens representative, lives in Government House in the capital city of Wellington. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... In New Zealand the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the countrys legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives (often also referred to as Parliament). The Speaker fulfils a number of important functions in relation to the operation the House, which is based... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... Margaret Wilson could also refer to a writer, or a tennis player Margaret Wilson (20th May 1947 - ), a New Zealand politician, currently serves as Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... The Right Honourable Dame Sian Seerpoohi Elias, GNZM, (born March 12, 1949) is the Chief Justice of New Zealand, and is therefore the most senior member of the countrys judiciary. ...


Foreign relations and the military

The Anzac class frigate HMNZS Te Mana
The Anzac class frigate HMNZS Te Mana

New Zealand maintains a strong profile on environmental protection, human rights and free trade, particularly in agriculture. New Zealand’s foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. ... The military of New Zealand consists of three branches- the New Zealand Army; the Royal New Zealand Navy; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. ... The military history of New Zealand spans several hundred years. ... HMNZS Te Mana HMNZS Te Mana (F111) is an Anzac class frigate of the Royal New Zealand Navy. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


New Zealand is a member of the following geopolitical organisations: APEC, East Asia Summit, Commonwealth of Nations, OECD and the United Nations. It has signed up to a number of free trade agreements, of which the most important is Closer Economic Relations with Australia. APEC redirects here. ... The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asia forum held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with ASEAN in a leadership position. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... UN redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


For its first hundred years, New Zealand followed the United Kingdom's lead on foreign policy. In declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939, Prime Minister Michael Savage proclaimed, "Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand". After the war, however, the United States exerted an increased influence on culture and the New Zealand people gained a clearer sense of national identity. New Zealand joined with Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty in 1951, and later fought alongside the United States in both the Korean and the Vietnam Wars. In contrast, the United Kingdom became increasingly focused on its European interests following the Suez Crisis, and New Zealand was forced to develop new markets after the UK joined the EEC in 1973.[13] President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Joseph Savage (March 23, 1872 - March 27, 1940) was a New Zealand politician and the first Labour Prime Minister of New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...

New Zealand House, High Commission of New Zealand in London

New Zealand has traditionally worked closely with Australia, whose foreign policy followed a similar historical trend. In turn, many Pacific Islands such as Western Samoa have looked to New Zealand's lead. The American influence on New Zealand was weakened by the disappointment with the Vietnam War, the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior by France, and by disagreements over environmental and agricultural trade issues and New Zealand's nuclear-free policy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1006x1480, 263 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1006x1480, 263 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined). ... The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Operation Satanic[1], was a special operation by the action branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE), carried out on July 10, 1985. ...


While the ANZUS treaty was once fully mutual between Australia, New Zealand and the United States, this is no longer the case. In February 1985, New Zealand refused nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships access to its ports. New Zealand became a Nuclear-free zone in June 1987, the first Western-allied state to do so.[14][15][16] In 1986 the United States announced that it was suspending its treaty security obligations to New Zealand pending the restoration of port access. The New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987 prohibits the stationing of nuclear weapons on the territory of New Zealand and the entry into New Zealand waters of nuclear armed or propelled ships. This legislation remains a source of contention and the basis for the United States' continued suspension of treaty obligations to New Zealand. This article is about the year. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A nuclear-free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... The New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act is a New Zealand law passed by the Fourth Labour Government in 1987 to establish in New Zealand a Nuclear Free Zone, to promote and encourage an active and effective contribution by New Zealand to the essential process of...


Within New Zealand, there have been various wars between iwi, and between the British settlers and iwi. New Zealand has fought in the Second Boer War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency (and committed troops, fighters and bombers to the subsequent confrontation with Indonesia), the Vietnam War, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War. It has also sent a unit of army engineers to help rebuild Iraqi infrastructure for one year during the Iraq War. As of 2007, New Zealand forces are still active in Afghanistan. Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


The New Zealand Defence Force has three branches: the New Zealand Army, the Royal New Zealand Navy, and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. New Zealand considers its own national defence needs to be modest; it dismantled its air combat capability in 2001. New Zealand has contributed forces to recent regional and global peacekeeping missions, including those in Cyprus, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Sinai, Angola, Cambodia, the Iran/Iraq border, Bougainville, East Timor, and the Solomon Islands.[17] The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three branches: the New Zealand Army; the Royal New Zealand Navy; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. ... Ngāti Tumatauenga or New Zealand Army is the land armed force of the New Zealand military and comprises around 4,500 regular personnel and 2,500 non-regulars and civilians. ... The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ... The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) is the air force arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Bougainville, see Bougainville. ...


Local government and external territories

Major cities and towns in New Zealand
Major cities and towns in New Zealand

The early European settlers divided New Zealand into provinces. These were abolished in 1876 so that government could be centralised, for financial reasons. As a result, New Zealand has no separately represented subnational entities such as provinces, states or territories, apart from its local government. The spirit of the provinces, however, still lives on, and there is fierce rivalry exhibited in sporting and cultural events. Since 1876, local government has administered the various regions of New Zealand. In 1989, the government completely reorganised local government, implementing the current two-tier structure of regional councils and territorial authorities which are constituted under the revised Local Government Act 2002 (New Zealand). In 1991, the Resource Management Act 1991 replaced the Town and Country Planning Act as the main planning legislation for local government. The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... (For the current top-level subdivision of New Zealand, see Regions of New Zealand) Provinces in New Zealand were used from 1841 until the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on November 1, 1876. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... The Resource Management Act (RMA) is a significant and controversial Act of Parliament passed in 1991 in New Zealand. ...


Today, New Zealand has twelve regional councils for the administration of regional environmental and transport matters and seventy-three territorial authorities that administer roading, sewerage, building consents, and other local matters. The territorial authorities are sixteen city councils, fifty-seven district councils, and the Chatham Islands County Council. Four of the territorial councils (one city and three districts) and the Chatham Islands County Council also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are known as unitary authorities. Territorial authority districts are not subdivisions of regional council districts, and a few of them straddle regional council boundaries. Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ...

The regions are (asterisks denote unitary authorities): Northland, Auckland, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Gisborne*, Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, Manawatu-Wanganui, Wellington, Marlborough*, Nelson*, Tasman*, West Coast, Canterbury, Otago, Southland, Chatham Islands*. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 617 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 617 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... This article is about the Northland region of New Zealand. ... Auckland Region is a local government region in New Zealand. ... Waikato is the name of a region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Bay of Plenty, often abbreviated to BoP, is a region in the North Island of New Zealand situated around the body of water of the same name. ... Gisborne is the name of a unitary authority (in this case, a region and district) in New Zealand. ... Hawkes Bay is a region of New Zealand. ... View of Mount Taranaki or Mount Egmont from Stratford, facing west. ... Manawatu-Wanganui is a region situated in the lower half of the North Island of New Zealand, around the city of Palmerston North and the central city of Wanganui. ... The Wellington region of New Zealand occupies the southern end of the North Island. ... Marlborough is one of the regions of New Zealand, located in the northeast of the South Island. ... The City of Nelson is situated very close to the centre of New Zealand. ... Tasman District is a region of New Zealand. ... The West Coast is one of the administrative regions of New Zealand, located on the west coast of the South Island, and is one of the more remote and most sparsely populated areas of the country. ... The New Zealand region of Canterbury is mainly composed of the Canterbury Plains and the surrounding mountains. ... Otago (help· info) is one of the regions of New Zealand and lies in the south-east of the South Island. ...   Categories: New Zealand-related stubs | Southland, New Zealand | Territorial Authorities of New Zealand ... The Chatham Islands from space. ...


As a major South Pacific nation, New Zealand has a close working relationship with many Pacific Island nations, and continues a political association with the Cook Islands, Niue and Tokelau. New Zealand operates Scott Base in its Antarctic territory, the Ross Dependency. Other countries also use Christchurch to support their Antarctic bases and the city is sometimes known as the "Gateway to Antarctica". Pacific redirects here. ... The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number is unknown. ... Aerial photograph of Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica. ... For other uses, see Antarctica (disambiguation). ... Political status Dependency of New Zealand Governor Anand Satyanand Area   – Total  450 000 km² (174 000 mi²) Population Scott Base: 10-80 seasonally McMurdo Station: 200-1000 seasonally Currency New Zealand dollar The Ross Dependency comprises an area of Antarctica (and other land masses in the Southern Ocean) claimed by...

New Zealand is administratively divided into regions on the first level and territorial authorities on the second level. ... The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ... Political status Dependency of New Zealand Governor Anand Satyanand Area   – Total  450 000 km² (174 000 mi²) Population Scott Base: 10-80 seasonally McMurdo Station: 200-1000 seasonally Currency New Zealand dollar The Ross Dependency comprises an area of Antarctica (and other land masses in the Southern Ocean) claimed by... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Raoul Island from space The Kermadec Islands are an island arc in the South Pacific Ocean. ... Five groups of islands form the New Zealand sub-antarctic islands. ... Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Solander Island from northwest Map of the Solander Islands Overview map The Solander Islands are a small chain of uninhabited volcanic islets lying at , close to the western end of the Foveaux Strait in southern New Zealand. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An associated state is a territory that effectively has independence, but chooses to have constitutional links with another, larger, country that handles its external affairs, unless it decides to seek full independence. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...

Geography

Topography of New Zealand
Topography of New Zealand

New Zealand comprises two main islands (called the North and South Islands in English, Te Ika a Maui and Te Wai Pounamu in Māori) and a number of smaller islands located near the centre of the water hemisphere. The North and South Islands are separated by the Cook Strait, which is 20km wide at its narrowest point. The total land area, 268,680 square kilometres (103,738 sq mi), is a little less than that of Italy and Japan, and a little more than the United Kingdom. The country extends more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 miles) along its main, north-north-east axis, with approximately 15,134 km (9,404 mi) of coastline. The most significant of the smaller inhabited islands include Stewart Island/Rakiura; Waiheke Island, in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf; Great Barrier Island, east of the Hauraki Gulf; and the Chatham Islands, named Rēkohu by Moriori. The country has extensive marine resources, with the seventh-largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering over four million square kilometres (1.5 million sq mi), more than 15 times its land area.[18] Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia Geographic coordinates: 41°00′S 174°00′E Map references: Oceania Area: total: 268,680 km² note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island group, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands Area - comparative: about the size of the... Download high resolution version (540x696, 85 KB)Topography of New Zealand for image description see here for larger version see here Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of New Zealand Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (540x696, 85 KB)Topography of New Zealand for image description see here for larger version see here Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of New Zealand Categories: NASA images ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... New Zealand consists of a large number of islands. ... The water hemisphere, sometimes but not always capitalized as the Water Hemisphere, is a hemisphere on the earth centered on 47°13 S, 178°28 E. Its central point is in New Zealand. ... A view from the summit of Mount Victoria, Wellington - Cook Strait stretches to the right (west). ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... A Rakiura beach Stewart Island/Rakiura is the third largest island of New Zealand. ... An image of Waiheke Island using satellite data. ... A true-colour image showing Auckland city (left), the Hauraki Gulf (centre) and the Coromandel Peninsula (right). ... Great Barrier Island (Harataonga Bay) Location of Great Barrier Island Great Barrier Island is an island in the north of New Zealand, situated 88 km to the north-east of central Auckland in the outer Hauraki Gulf. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...

Aoraki/Mount Cook is the tallest mountain in New Zealand
Aoraki/Mount Cook is the tallest mountain in New Zealand

The South Island is the largest land mass of New Zealand, and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps, the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook at 3754 metres (12,320 ft). There are eighteen peaks over 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) in the South Island. The North Island is less mountainous than the South, but is marked by volcanism. The highest North Island mountain, Mount Ruapehu (2,797 m / 9,177 ft), is an active cone volcano. The dramatic and varied landscape of New Zealand has made it a popular location for the production of television programmes and films, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the The Last Samurai. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 718 KB) View of Aoraki/Mount Cook from valley of the River Hooker Author: Miguel A. Monjas Date: March, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: New Zealand User talk:SEWilcoBot/Clipboard1 Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 718 KB) View of Aoraki/Mount Cook from valley of the River Hooker Author: Miguel A. Monjas Date: March, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: New Zealand User talk:SEWilcoBot/Clipboard1 Metadata This file contains additional... “Mount Cook” redirects here. ... The South Island The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. ... A landmass is a large continuous area of land. ... The Southern Alps is a mountain range which runs along the western side of the South Island of New Zealand. ... “Mount Cook” redirects here. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... Composite satellite image of Ruapehu Mount Ruapehu, or just Ruapehu, is an active stratovolcano at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson films. ... The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ...


The country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a continent nearly half the size of Australia that is otherwise almost completely submerged. About 25 million years ago, a shift in plate tectonic movements began to pull Zealandia apart forcefully, with this now being most evident along the Alpine Fault and in the highly active Taupo volcanic zone. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... Topography of Zealandia. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... The Alpine Fault is clearly visible from space, running along the western edge of the Southern Alps from the southwestern coast towards the northeastern corner of the South Island. ... Thermally active area - Craters of the Moon, North Island, New Zealand. ...

New Zealand from space. The snow-capped Southern Alps dominate the South Island, while the North Island's Northland Peninsula stretches towards the subtropics
New Zealand from space. The snow-capped Southern Alps dominate the South Island, while the North Island's Northland Peninsula stretches towards the subtropics

New Zealand is culturally and linguistically part of Polynesia, and constitutes the south-western anchor of the Polynesian Triangle. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4400x5800, 3470 KB) Satellite image of New Zealand in December 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4400x5800, 3470 KB) Satellite image of New Zealand in December 2002. ... The Southern Alps is a mountain range which runs along the western side of the South Island of New Zealand. ... The North Auckland Peninsula, frequently referred to simply as the Northland Peninsula, is located in the far north of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Polynesian Triangle is a geographical region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by Hawaii, Rapa Nui and New Zealand. ...


Climate

The latitude of New Zealand (ranging from approximately 34 to 47°S) corresponds closely to that of Italy in the Northern Hemisphere. However, its isolation from continental influences and exposure to cold southerly winds and ocean currents gives the climate a much milder character. The climate throughout the country is mild and temperate, mainly maritime, with temperatures rarely falling below 0 °C (32 °F) or rising above 30 °C (86 °F) in populated areas. Temperature maxima and minima throughout the historical record are 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in Rangiora, Canterbury and -21.6 °C (-6.9 °F) in Ophir, Otago. [19] Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on the West Coast of the South Island to semi-arid (Köppen BSh) in the Mackenzie Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland. Of the main cities, Christchurch is the driest, receiving only 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year; Auckland, the wettest, receives almost twice that amount. Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly average in excess of 2000 hours of sunshine per annum. The southern and south-western parts of South Island have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1400-1600 sunshine hours per annum; whilst the northern and north-eastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas of the country and receive approximately 2400-2500 sunshine hours per annum [20] For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Local and global maxima and minima for cos(3Ï€x)/x, 0. ... Rangiora may refer to the following: Rangiora, an endemic New Zealand plant. ... The New Zealand region of Canterbury is mainly composed of the Canterbury Plains and the surrounding mountains. ... Ophir is a small town in Central Otago, New Zealand, located between Alexandra and Ranfurly beside the Manuherikia River. ... Otago (help· info) is one of the regions of New Zealand and lies in the south-east of the South Island. ... The West Coast is one of the administrative regions of New Zealand, located on the west coast of the South Island, and is one of the more remote and most sparsely populated areas of the country. ... The South Island The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. ... Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... The Mackenzie Basin, popularly and traditionally known as the Mackenzie Country, is a roughly elliptical and elevated area (700m/3000 ft above sea level) near the centre of the South Island of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand region of Canterbury is mainly composed of the Canterbury Plains and the surrounding mountains. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... The North Auckland Peninsula, frequently referred to simply as the Northland Peninsula, is located in the far north of the North Island of New Zealand. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Biodiversity

Pōhutukawa trees
Pōhutukawa trees

Because of its long isolation from the rest of the world and its island biogeography, New Zealand has extraordinary flora and fauna, descended from Gondwanan wildlife or since arriving by flying, swimming or being carried across the sea [21]. About 80% of New Zealand's flora is endemic, including 65 endemic genera.[22] The two main types of forest are those dominated by podocarps and/or the giant kauri, and in cooler climates the southern beech. The remaining vegetation types in New Zealand are grasslands of tussock and other grasses, usually in sub-alpine areas, and the low shrublands between grasslands and forests. The biodiversity of New Zealand, a large Pacific archipelago, is one of the most unusual on Earth, due to its long isolation from other continental landmasses. ... Binomial name Metrosideros excelsa Gaertn. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera Acmopyle Afrocarpus Dacrycarpus Dacrydium Falcatifolium Halocarpus Lagarostrobos Lepidothamnus Manoao Microcachrys Microstrobos Nageia Parasitaxus Phyllocladus Podocarpus Prumnopitys Retrophyllum Saxegothaea Sundacarpus A large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. ... Binomial name (D.Don) Loudon Agathis australis, commonly known as the kauri, is a coniferous tree found north of 38°S in the northern districts of New Zealands North Island. ... Species   Nothofagus alpina - Rauli Beech   Nothofagus antarctica - Antarctic Beech   Nothofagus betuloides - Magallanes Beech   Nothofagus cunninghamii - Myrtle Beech   Nothofagus dombeyi - Coigüe Beech   Nothofagus fusca - Red Beech   Nothofagus gunnii - Tanglefoot Beech   Nothofagus menziesii - Silver Beech   Nothofagus moorei - Negrohead Beech   Nothofagus obliqua - Roble Beech   Nothofagus pumilio - Lenga Beech   Nothofagus solanderi - Black Beech... Tusock grass can be any tall strong growing grass; one that grows in thick clumps or tussocks. ...

The endemic flightless kiwi is a national icon
The endemic flightless kiwi is a national icon

Until the arrival of humans, 80% of the land was forested. Until 2006, it was thought, barring three species of bat (one now extinct), there were no non-marine native mammals. However, in 2006, scientists discovered bones that belonged to a long-extinct, unique, mouse-sized land animal in the Otago region of the South Island.[23]. New Zealand's forests were inhabited by a diverse range of megafauna, including the flightless moas (now extinct), four species of kiwi, the kakapo and the takahē, all endangered by human actions. Unique birds capable of flight included the Haast's eagle, which was the world's largest bird of prey (now extinct), and the large kākā and kea parrots. Reptiles present in New Zealand include skinks, geckos and living fossil tuatara. There are four endemic species of primitive frogs. There are no snakes and there is only one venomous spider, the katipo, which is rare and restricted to coastal regions. However, there are many endemic species of insects, including the weta, one species of which may grow as large as a house mouse and is the heaviest insect in the world. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 1325 pixel, file size: 911 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Te Tuatahi a nui, a male kiwi on Maungatautari mountain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 1325 pixel, file size: 911 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Te Tuatahi a nui, a male kiwi on Maungatautari mountain. ... Species See text. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Otago (help· info) is one of the regions of New Zealand and lies in the south-east of the South Island. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... Flightless birds evolved from flying ancestors; there are about forty species in existence today. ... Genera Anomalopteryx(bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx(upland moa) Dinornis(giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to... Binomial name Porphyrio hochstetteri (A. B. Meyer, 1883) The TakahÄ“ or South Island TakahÄ“, Porphyrio hochstetteri is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand which belongs to the rail family. ... Binomial name Haast, 1872 Haasts Eagle (Harpagornis moorei), was a massive, now extinct eagle that once lived on the South Island of New Zealand. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... Binomial name Nestor meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) The Kākā, Nestor meridionalis, is a parrot native to the forests of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a highly unusual species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... This article is about the reptile. ... For other uses, see Gecko (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the experimental music band, see Tuatara (band). ... Species See text Leiopelmatidae, or New Zealand primitive frogs, belong to suborder archaeobatrachia. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... This article is about the toxin. ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 The katipo or red katipo (Latrodectus katipo) is a venomous spider from New Zealand. ... This article is about the insect. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The House Mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus commonly termed a mouse. ...


New Zealand has suffered a high rate of extinctions, including the moa species, the huia, laughing owl and flightless wrens (which formerly occupied the roles elsewhere occupied by mice). This is due to human activities such as hunting and pressure from introduced feral animals, such as weasels, stoats, cats, goats, deer and brushtailed possums. Five indigenous vascular plant species are now believed to be extinct, including Adam's mistletoe and a species of forget-me-not.[24] Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... // Binomial name Heteralocha acutirostris (Gould, 1837) Synonyms Neomorpha acutirostris Neomorpha crassirostris (male) Heteralocha gouldi The Huia (Heteralocha acutirostris) was a bird endemic to New Zealand. ... Binomial name Sceloglaux albifacies (Gray GR, 1845) The Laughing Owl (Sceloglaux albifacies), Whekau or White-faced Owl, was an endemic owl found in New Zealand, but is now extinct. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... Ermine redirects here. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Binomial name (Kerr, 1792) The Common Brushtail Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, from the Greek for furry tailed and the Latin for little fox) is the largest possum, and the Australian marsupial most often seen by city-dwellers, since it is one the very few that thrives in cities as well as...


However, New Zealand has led the world in island restoration projects where offshore islands are cleared of introduced mammalian pests and native species are reintroduced. Several islands located near to the three main islands are wildlife reserves where common pests such as possums and rodents have been eradicated to allow the reintroduction of endangered species to the islands. A more recent development is the mainland ecological island. Island restoration is the application of the principles of ecological restoration to islands and island groups. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... An Ecological Island is an area of land, isolated by natural or artificial means from the surrounding land, where: all non-native species (at least predator species) have been eradicated, native species are reintroduced and nurtured, the natural or artificial border is maintained to prevent reintroduction of non-native species. ...


Economy

Auckland, the economic centre of the country, with the Sky Tower in the background
Auckland, the economic centre of the country, with the Sky Tower in the background

New Zealand has a modern, prosperous, developed economy with an estimated nominal Gross domestic product (GDP) of US$128.1 billion (as of 2008). The country has a relatively high standard of living with an estimated GDP per capita of US$30,234 in 2008 which is comparable to Southern Europe; e.g. Spain US$33,385, but lower than the United States at US$46,820.[25] Since 2000 New Zealand has made substantial gains in median household income. New Zealand, along with Australia, largely escaped the early 2000s recession that impacted upon most other advanced countries. The combination of high growth in New Zealand, along with negative growth in United States,[26] has allowed New Zealand to reduce the income gap. As of 2006, New Zealand's median household income (PPP) was only 17% less than in the United States.[citation needed] The Economy of New Zealand is a small but prosperous free market economy, which is greatly dependent on international trade, mainly with Australia, the United States of America and Japan. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Looking up at the Sky Tower / Sky Tower lit up at night. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... GDP redirects here. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... 2006 Median household income (PPP, US$) Highlights Most people (90%) live in a state where the median household income is US$39,000. ... The Early 2000s recession was felt in mostly Western countries, affecting the European Union mostly during 2000 and 2001 and the United States mostly in 2002 and 2003. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ...


New Zealanders have a high level of life satisfaction as measured by international surveys; this is despite lower GDP per-head levels than many other OECD countries. The country was ranked 20th on the 2006 Human Development Index and 15th in The Economist's 2005 world-wide quality-of-life index.[27] The country was further ranked 1st in life satisfaction and 5th in overall prosperity in the 2007 Legatum Institute prosperity index.[28][29] In addition, the 2007 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Auckland on its 5th place and Wellington on the 12th place in the world.[30] The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Mercer Quality of Living Survey is a survey of living conditions conducted by Mercer Human Resource Consulting. ...


The tertiary sector is the largest sector in the economy (68.8% of GDP), followed by the secondary sector (26.9% of GDP) and the primary sector (4.3% of GDP).[31] The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... The secondary sector of industry includes those economic sectors that create a finished, usable product: manufacturing and construction. ... The primary sector of industry generally involves the changing process of natural resources into primary products. ...


New Zealand is a country heavily dependent on trade, particularly in agricultural products. Exports account for around 24% of its output,[31] which is a relatively high figure (it is around 50% for many smaller European countries).[ii] This makes New Zealand particularly vulnerable to international commodity prices and global economic slowdowns. Its principal export industries are agriculture, horticulture, fishing and forestry. These make up about half of the country's exports. Its major export partners are Australia 20.5%, US 13.1%, Japan 10.3%, China 5.4%, UK 4.9% (2006).[31] In macroeconomics, a recession is a decline in a countrys real gross domestic product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


Tourism plays a significant role in New Zealand's economy. Tourism contributes $12.8 billion (or 8.9%) to New Zealand’s total GDP and supports nearly 200,000 full-time equivalent jobs (9.9% of the total workforce in New Zealand).[32] Tourists to New Zealand are expected to increase at a rate of 4% annually up to 2013.[32] New Zealand receives two million tourists per year. ... Full-time equivalent (FTE) is a way to measure a workers productivity and/or involvement in a project. ...


Recent trends

Milford Sound, the New Zealand's most famous tourist destination
Milford Sound, the New Zealand's most famous tourist destination

Historically New Zealand enjoyed a high standard of living which relied on its strong relationship with the United Kingdom, and the resulting stable market for its commodity exports. New Zealand's economy was also built upon on a narrow range of primary products, such as wool, meat and dairy products. High demand for these products - such as the New Zealand wool boom of 1951 created sustained periods of economic prosperity. However, in 1973 the United Kingdom joined the European Community which effectively ended this particularly close economic relationship between the two countries. During the 1970's other factors such as the oil crises undermined the viability of the New Zealand economy; which for periods before 1973 had achieved levels of living standards exceeding both Australia and Western Europe.[33] But these events led to a protracted and very severe economic crisis, during which living standards in New Zealand fell behind those of Australia and Western Europe, and by 1982 New Zealand was the lowest in per-capita income of all the developed nations surveyed by the World Bank.[34] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Panorama of Milford Sound on a beautiful day. ... The New Zealand wool boom of 1951 was one of the greatest economic booms in the history of New Zealand, and the direct result of US policy in the 1950-53 Korean War. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... An Energy Crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy to an economy. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... In economics, crisis is an old term in business cycle theory, referring to the sharp transition to a recession. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ...


Since 1984, successive governments have engaged in major macroeconomic restructuring, transforming New Zealand from a highly protectionist and regulated economy to a liberalised free-trade economy. These changes are commonly known as Rogernomics and Ruthanasia after Finance Ministers Roger Douglas and Ruth Richardson. A recession began after the 1987 share market crash and caused unemployment to reach 10% in the early 1990s. However the economy recovered and New Zealand’s unemployment rate is now the second lowest of the twenty-seven OECD nations with comparable data (3.7%).[35] Macroeconomics is the study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, and the general behavior of prices. ... A South Korean container ship approaching the Bay Bridge in San Francisco Bay. ... The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of Roger and economics, was created by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the economic policies followed by New Zealand Finance Minister Roger Douglas from his appointment in 1984. ... Ruthanasia, a portmanteau of Ruth and euthanasia, is the pejorative name given to the period of free-market economic reform conducted under the auspices of the National Party government of New Zealand between 1990 and 1993. ... The Minister of Finance is a senior figure within the government of New Zealand. ... Sir Roger Douglas is a former New Zealand politician and senior Cabinet minister, best known for his leading role in the radical economic restructuring undertaken by the New Zealand Labour Party government in the 1980s. ... Ruth Richardson (born December 13, 1950) served as New Zealands Minister of Finance from 1990 to 1993, and is known for her strong pursuit of radical economic reforms (sometimes known as Ruthanasia). Early life Richardson was born in southern Taranaki on 13 December 1950. ... DJIA (19 July 1987 through 19 January 1988). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


The current government's economic objectives are centred on pursuing free-trade agreements and building a "knowledge economy". On April 7th 2008, New Zealand and China signed the New Zealand China Free Trade Agreement, the first such agreement China has signed with a developed country.[36] Ongoing economic challenges for New Zealand include a current account deficit of 7.9% of GDP,[37] slow development of non-commodity exports and tepid growth of labour productivity. New Zealand has experienced a series of "brain drains" since the 1970s[38] as well educated youth left permanently for Australia, Britain or the United States. "Kiwi lifestyle" and family/whanau factors motivates some of the expatriates to return, while career, culture, and economic factors tend to be predominantly 'push' components, keeping these people overseas.[39] In recent years, however, a brain gain brought in educated professionals from poor countries, as well as Europe, as permanent settlers.[40][41] Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A trade pact is a wide ranging tax, tariff and trade... A knowledge economy is either economy of knowledge focused on the economy of the producing and management of knowledge, or a knowledge-based economy. ... Blue = countries in current account surplus; Red = countries in current account deficit, 2005 The current account of the balance of payments is the sum of the balance of trade (exports less imports of goods and services), net factor income (such as interest and dividends) and net transfer payments (such as... This article is about the emigration term. ... Whanau is a Maori language word for extended family. ... A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals for other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflict or lack of opportunity or health hazards where they are living. ...


Agriculture

A Romney ewe with her two lambs.
A Romney ewe with her two lambs.

Agriculture has been and continues to be the main export industry in New Zealand. In the year to June 2007, dairy products accounted for 21% ($7.5 billion) of total merchandise exports,[42] and the largest company of the country, Fonterra, a dairy cooperative, controls almost one-third of the international dairy trade.[43] Other agricultural items were meat 13.2%, wood 6.3%, fruit 3.5% and fishing 3.3%. New Zealand also has a thriving wine industry. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x843, 462 KB)A Romney Ewe and lambs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x843, 462 KB)A Romney Ewe and lambs. ... A Romney ewe with its two lambs The Romney, also called the Romney Marsh or the Chip Romney, are an average size breed of British Longwool sheep originating in Romney Marsh, Kent. ... Fonterra Co-operative Group Ltd (generally referred to simply as Fonterra) is a large New Zealand dairy company. ... Co-op redirects here. ... A selection of New Zealand wines New Zealand wine is largely produced in ten major wine growing regions spanning latitudes 36° to 45° South and extending 1,600 km (1,000 miles). ...


Livestock are rarely housed, but feeding of small quantities of supplements such as hay and silage can occur, particularly in winter. Grass growth is seasonal, largely dependent on location and climatic fluctuations but normally occurs for between 8-12 months of the year. Stock are grazed in paddocks, often with moveable electric fencing around the farm. Lambing and calving are carefully managed to take full advantage of spring grass growth. Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... An electric fence is a barrier that uses painful or even lethal high-voltage electric shocks to deter animals or people from crossing a boundary. ...


Demographics

New Zealand's historical population (black) and projected growth (red).
New Zealand's historical population (black) and projected growth (red).

New Zealand has a population of about 4.2 million,[iv] of which approximately 78% identify with European ethnic groups. New Zealanders of European descent are collectively known as Pākehā; this term generally refers to New Zealanders of European descent but some Māori use it to refer to all non-Māori New Zealanders.[44] Most European New Zealanders are of British and Irish ancestry, although there has been significant Dutch, Dalmatian,[45] Italian, and German immigration together with indirect European immigration through Australia, North America, South America and South Africa.[46] According to the 2001 census projections, by 2021 European children will make up 63% of all New Zealand children, compared with 74% in 2001.[47] The birthrate is very high for a first-world country. The birthrate as of February 2008 was 2.2 per woman, compared to approximately 2 for the previous 30 years, with the total number of births higher than at any point since 1961. The life expectancy of a child born in 2008 was 81.9 years for a girl, and 77.9 years for a boy.[48] // Demographics of New Zealand, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... To date, five periods of Immigration to New Zealand may be identified. ... Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pākehā. (Discuss) It has been suggested that Pākehā be merged into this article or section. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Indigenous Māori people are the largest non-European ethnic group, accounting for 14.6% of the population in the 2006 census. While people could select more than one ethnic group, slightly more than half (53%) of all Māori residents identified solely as Māori.[49] People identifying with Asian ethnic groups account for 9.2% of the population, increasing from 6.6% in the 2001 census, while 6.9% of people are of Pacific Island origin.[50] This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number is unknown. ...


While the Demonym is New Zealander, New Zealanders informally call themselves Kiwi or Kiwis. For other uses, see Kiwi (disambiguation). ...


New Zealand is also a predominantly urban country, with 72.2% of the population living in 16 main urban areas and more than half living in the four largest cities of Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington and Christchurch.[51] Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Hamilton (Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealands fourth largest urban area, and is the countrys seventh largest city. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... This article is about the city in New Zealand. ...


New Zealand immigration policy is relatively open; its government is committed to increasing its population by about 1% annually. In 2004–05, a target of 45,000 was set by the New Zealand immigration Service.[52] Twenty three percent of the population was born overseas, one of the highest rates anywhere in the world. At present, immigrants from the United Kingdom and Ireland constitute the largest single group, accounting for 29% of those born overseas but immigrants are drawn from many nations, and increasingly from East Asia (mostly China, but with substantial numbers also from Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong).[53] To date, five periods of Immigration to New Zealand may be identified. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...

New Zealand religiosity
religion percent
Christianity
 
56%
No religion
 
35%
Others
 
5%


According to the 2006 census, Christianity is the predominant religion in New Zealand, held by 55.6% of the population, a decrease from 60.6% at the 2001 census. Another 34.7% indicated that they had no religion, up from 29.6% in 2001, and 5% affiliated with other religions. The main Christian denominations are Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism, Presbyterianism and Methodism. There are also significant numbers who identify themselves with Pentecostal and Baptist churches and with the LDS (Mormon) church. The New Zealand-based Ratana church has adherents among Māori. According to census figures, other significant minority religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.[54][55] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Holy Trinity Cathedral, Parnell, Auckland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Anglican Church in New Zealand and Polynesia The Anglican Church in New Zealand and Polynesia is a church of the Anglican Communion serving New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and the Cook Islands. ... The Catholic Church in New Zealand is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ) is the main Presbyterian church in the country of New Zealand. ... The Methodist Church of New Zealand - Te Hahi Weteriana O Aotearoa is a Methodist denomination headquartered in Christchurch, New Zealand. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The Baptist Union of New Zealand is an association of Baptist churches in the country of New Zealand. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Both a religion and a pan-tribal political force, the Ratana movement was founded by Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana (1873 - 1939) in early 20th century New Zealand. ... // Demographics of New Zealand, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Islam in New Zealand has grown with inward immigration to that country. ...



Until 1987, English was New Zealand's only official language, and remains predominant in most settings; Māori became an official language under the 1987 Māori Language Act and New Zealand Sign Language under the 2006 New Zealand Sign Language Act.[56] The two official languages are the most widely spoken; English by 98% of the population and Māori by 4.1%.[3] Samoan is the most widely spoken non-official language (2.3%),[v] and French, Hindi, Yue and Northern Chinese are also widely spoken.[55][3] The Māori Language Act 1987 was a piece of legislation passed by the New Zealand Parliament. ... New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand. ... New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand. ...


New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99%,[31] and 14.2% of the adult population has a bachelor's degree or higher.[57] For 30.4% of the population, some form of secondary qualification is their highest, while 22.4% of New Zealanders have no formal qualification.[57] A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ...


Culture

Late twentieth-century house-post depicting the navigator Kupe fighting two sea creatures
Late twentieth-century house-post depicting the navigator Kupe fighting two sea creatures
Twilight bagpipe band practice, Napier
Twilight bagpipe band practice, Napier
Chinese dancers welcome the new year in Dunedin
Chinese dancers welcome the new year in Dunedin

There is no one culture of New Zealand. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (389x1570, 614 KB) Summary The navigator Kupe of Maori legend and two sea creatures, depicted in a carved poupou (house post) from the meeting house Tanenuiarangi, Waipapa marae, University of Auckland, New Zealand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (389x1570, 614 KB) Summary The navigator Kupe of Maori legend and two sea creatures, depicted in a carved poupou (house post) from the meeting house Tanenuiarangi, Waipapa marae, University of Auckland, New Zealand. ... House carving showing Kupe (holding a paddle), with two sea creatures at his feet In the Māori mythology of some tribes, Kupe was involved in the Polynesian discovery of New Zealand. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (993x660, 229 KB) Summary Twilight bagpipe band practice (26 January 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (993x660, 229 KB) Summary Twilight bagpipe band practice (26 January 2005. ... Part of the celebration of the new Year of the Rooster (February 2005) in Dunedin, New Zealand File links The following pages link to this file: Chinatowns in Oceania Categories: GFDL images ... Part of the celebration of the new Year of the Rooster (February 2005) in Dunedin, New Zealand File links The following pages link to this file: Chinatowns in Oceania Categories: GFDL images ...

Overview

Much of contemporary New Zealand culture is derived from British roots. It also includes significant influences from American, Australian and Māori cultures, along with those of other European cultures and – more recently – non-Māori Polynesian and Asian cultures. Large festivals in celebration of Diwali and Chinese New Year are held in several of the larger centres. The world's largest Polynesian festival, Pasifika, is an annual event in Auckland. Cultural links between New Zealand and the United Kingdom and Ireland are maintained by a common language, sustained migration from the United Kingdom and Ireland, and many young New Zealanders spending time in the United Kingdom/Ireland on their "overseas experience" (OE). The music and cuisine of New Zealand are similar to that of Britain and the United States, although both have some distinct New Zealand and Pacific qualities. There is no one culture of New Zealand. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... The culture of Asia is the artificial aggregate of the cultural heritage of many nationalities, societies, religions, and ethnic groups in the region, traditionally called a continent from a Western-centric perspective, of Asia. ... Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... For other traditions of celebrating lunar new year, see Lunar New Year. ... For the rugby union team, see Pacific Islanders rugby union team. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Overseas experience (OE) is a term commonly used to describe an extended working holiday taken by travellers in a country other than their country of origin. ... New Zealand music is a vibrant expression of the culture of New Zealand. ... Characteristics & influences New Zealand cuisine is characterised by its freshness and diversity. ...


Māori culture has undergone considerable change since the arrival of Europeans; in particular the introduction of Christianity in the early 19th century brought about fundamental change in everyday life. Nonetheless the perception that most Māori now live similar lifestyles to their Pākehā neighbours is a superficial one. In fact, Māori culture has significant differences, for instance the important role which the marae and the extended family continues to play in communal and family life. As in traditional times, karakia are habitually performed by Māori today to ensure the favorable outcome of important undertakings, but today the prayers used are generally Christian. Māori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of personal identity, and Māori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. As part of the resurgence of Māori culture that came to the fore in the late 20th century, the tradition-based arts of kapa haka (song and dance), carving and weaving are now more widely practiced, and the architecture of the marae maintains strong links to traditional forms. Māori also value their connections to Polynesia, as attested by the increasing popularity of waka ama (outrigger canoe racing), which is now an international sport involving teams from all over the Pacific. Wharenui, Ohinemutu village, Rotorua. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Everyday life is the sum total of every aspect of common human life as it is routinely lived. ... Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ... Taputapuātea, an ancient marae at Raiātea in the Society Islands, restored in 1994. ... Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ... Hawaiian kinship (also referred to as the Generational system) is a kinship system used to define family. ... A Kapa haka is a group gathered to practise and perform the songs and dances of the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Outrigger Canoe Racing is a team paddling sport which utilises the outrigger canoe. ... // This article is about flatwater canoe racing. ...


Te Reo Māori

Use of the Māori language (Te Reo Māori) as a living, community language remained only in a few remote areas in the post-war years, but is currently undergoing a renaissance,[58] thanks in part to Māori language immersion schools and a Māori Television channel.[58] This is the only nationwide television channel to have the majority of its prime-time content delivered in Māori, primarily because only 4% of the population speak Te Reo Maori.[3] However, partly in recognition of the importance of Māori culture to New Zealand, the language was declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987.[58] Māori (or Maori or Te Reo) is the Polynesian language spoken in New Zealand, where it has official status. ... Māori television is a New Zealand TV station broadcasting programmes that make a significant contribution to the revitalisation of te reo and tikanga Māori. ... The term television channel generally refers to either a television station or its cable/satellite counterpart (both outlined below). ... Prime time is the block of programming on television during the middle of the evening. ...


Movies

Main article: Cinema of New Zealand

Although films have been made in New Zealand since the 1920s, it was only from the 1970s that New Zealand films began to be produced in significant numbers. Films such as Sleeping Dogs and Goodbye Pork Pie achieved local success and launched the careers of actors and directors including Sam Neill, Geoff Murphy and Roger Donaldson. In the early 1990s, New Zealand films such as Jane Campion's Academy Award-winning film The Piano, Lee Tamahori's Once Were Warriors and Peter Jackson's Heavenly Creatures began to garner international acclaim. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Jackson filmed The Lord of the Rings film trilogy in New Zealand, using a mostly New Zealand crew and many New Zealand actors in minor parts. Whale Rider, originally a novel by Witi Ihimaera, was produced in 2002 and received recognition from various festivals and awards. In 2007 Taika Waititi's comedy film "Eagle vs Shark" won 4 various festival awards. Many non-New Zealand productions, primarily from Hollywood but also from Bollywood, have been made in New Zealand. New Zealand cinema refers to films made by New Zealand-based production companies in New Zealand. ... New Zealand cinema refers to films made by New Zealand-based production companies in New Zealand. ... Goodbye Pork Pie is a 1981 (international release) film directed by Geoff Murphy and written by Ian Mune, with assistance from Geoff Murphy. ... Sam Neill, DCNZM, OBE (born 14 September 1947) is a New Zealand film and television actor. ... Geoff Murphy directed some significant New Zealand movies in the late 20th century. ... Roger Donaldson (born November 15, 1945) is an Australian-born New Zealand film producer, director and writer who has made numerous successful movies. ... Jane Campion (born April 30, 1954 in Wellington, New Zealand) is an Academy Award-winning film maker. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... This article is about the film. ... Lee Tamahori, born 1950 in Wellington, New Zealand, is best known as a film director although he got his start as a commercial artist and photographer in the late 1970s. ... Once Were Warriors is 1994 film based New Zealand author Alan Duffs bestselling 1990 first novel of the same name. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Heavenly Creatures is a 1994 fantasy thriller film directed by Peter Jackson and written with his partner Fran Walsh. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson films. ... Whale Rider is a 2002 movie directed by Niki Caro, based on the 1987 novel The Whale Rider by New Zealand Māori author Witi Ihimaera. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Taika Waititi is a New Zealand born film director, writer and actor of Maori descent who hails from the East Coast region of New Zealand. ... Eagle vs Shark is a New Zealand-made romantic comedy directed by Academy Award nominee Taika Waititi and financed by the New Zealand Film Commission. ... ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ...


Media

The New Zealand media industry is dominated by a small number of companies, most of which are foreign-owned.[iii] The Broadcasting Standards Authority and the New Zealand Press Council can investigate allegations of bias and inaccuracy in the broadcast and print media. This combined with New Zealand's harsh libel laws means that the New Zealand news media is fairly tame by international standards, but also reasonably fair and impartial. New Zealand television is dominated by American and British programming, with a small number of New Zealand shows. Foreign ownership refers to the complete or majority ownership/control of businesses or resources in a country, by individuals who are not citizens of that country, or by companies whose headquarters are not in that country. ... The Broadcasting Standards Authority (BSA) is a New Zealand Crown Entity created by the Broadcasting Act 1989 to develop and uphold standards of brodcasting for radio, free-to-air and pay television. ... The New Zealand Press Council is a Non Governmental Organisation which exists to uphold standards in the New Zealand print media and promote freedom of speech in New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Publishing (disambiguation). ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather then on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in New Zealand
The All Blacks perform a haka before a match against France in 2006
The All Blacks perform a haka before a match against France in 2006

Sport has a major role in New Zealand's culture, with the unofficial national sport of rugby union being particularly influential. Other popular participatory sports include cricket, bowls, netball, soccer, golf , swimming and tennis.[59] New Zealand has strong international teams in several sports including rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, and softball. New Zealand also does traditionally well in the sports of rowing, yachting and cycling. The country is internationally recognised for performing well on a medals-to-population ratio at Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games.[60][61] Sport in New Zealand largely reflects its British colonial heritage. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 245 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 313 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 245 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 313 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From http://www. ... First international Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand (15 August 1903) Largest win New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan (4 June 1995) Worst defeat Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 All Black redirects here. ... This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Bowl (disambiguation). ... A netball game in Australia Netball is a non contact sport similar to, and derived from, basketball. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... This article is about the game. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... Softball is a team sport popular especially in the United States. ... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... Yachting is a physical activity involving boats. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation and a sport. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ...


Rugby union, which is commonly referred to as simply rugby in New Zealand, is closely linked to the country's national identity. The national rugby team, the All Blacks, have the best win to loss record of any national team,[62] and are well known for the haka (a traditional Māori challenge) that they perform before the start of international matches.[63] New Zealand is also well known for its extreme sports and adventure tourism.[64] Its reputation in extreme sports extends from the establishment of the world's first commercial bungee jumping site at Queenstown in the South Island of New Zealand in November 1988;[65] its roots in adventure tourism can be traced all the way back to Sir Edmund Hillary, the first person to reach the summit of Mount Everest. The All Blacks playing the Wallabies. ... First international Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand (15 August 1903) Largest win New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan (4 June 1995) Worst defeat Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 All Black redirects here. ... The All Blacks, the international rugby union team of New Zealand, perform a haka (Māori traditional dance) immediately prior to international matches. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... This article is about various Extreme Sports. ... Adventure tourism is a type of niche tourism involving exploration or travel to remote areas, where the traveler should expect the unexpected. ... Bungee Jump in Normandy, France (Souleuvre Viaduct) Bungee jumping (or bungy jumping) is the sport that originated from New Zealand and was created by maverick daredevil A J Hackett, and his original jump from a bridge in Greenhithe, Auckland. ... Edmund Hillary on the New Zealand 5 dollar note Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born July 20, 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer, most famous for the first successful climb of Mount Everest. ... Everest redirects here. ...


See also

  • List of New Zealand's international rankings

Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... // New Zealand Main Articles: Main article on New Zealand, New Zealand Wikiportal and Category:New Zealand Main Articles Māori History of New Zealand Politics of New Zealand Geography of New Zealand Māori culture Economy of New Zealand Demographics of New Zealand Culture of New Zealand New Zealand English... The history of New Zealand dates back at least seven hundred years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. ... This is a timeline of the History of New Zealand. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The military history of New Zealand spans several hundred years. ... This is a timeline of the History of New Zealands involvement with Antarctica. ... On November 2, 1868, New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed nationally, and was perhaps the first country to do so. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... New Zealand has a total of nineteen marine reserves spread around the North and South Islands, and two on outlying island groups. ... Lake Wakatipu This is a list of lakes in New Zealand. ... This is a list of all waterways named as rivers in New Zealand. ... The following is a list of some of the more well known caves and caverns in New Zealand. ... A map showing the major cities and towns of New Zealand. ... This is a list of towns in New Zealand. ... The biodiversity of New Zealand, a large Pacific archipelago, is one of the most unusual on Earth, due to its long isolation from other continental landmasses. ... Politics of New Zealand takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy. ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive party system. ... Members of New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, normally gain their parliamentary seats through nationwide general elections, or (less frequently) in by-elections. ... The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... New Zealand’s foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. ... The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of Roger and economics, was created by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the economic policies followed by New Zealand Finance Minister Roger Douglas from his appointment in 1984. ... New Zealand receives two million tourists per year. ... This is a list of companies based in New Zealand. ... Communications in New Zealand are fairly typical for an industrialized nation. ... There is no one culture of New Zealand. ... Wharenui, Ohinemutu village, Rotorua. ... New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... New Zealand music is a vibrant expression of the culture of New Zealand. ... Holidays in New Zealand can refer to publicly observed holidays or to a vacation period. ... A map showing the major cities and towns of New Zealand. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in New Zealand. ... Hamilton (Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealands fourth largest urban area, and is the countrys seventh largest city. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... The T & G Building (Atkin & Mitchell, Wellington, 1936) Napier (Ahuriri in Māori) is an important port city in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. ... Hastings is the administrative centre of the Hastings District in the Hawkes Bay Region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Tauranga (population 109,100 — 2006 census) is the largest city of the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... // New Zealand Main Articles: Main article on New Zealand, New Zealand Wikiportal and Category:New Zealand Main Articles Māori History of New Zealand Politics of New Zealand Geography of New Zealand Māori culture Economy of New Zealand Demographics of New Zealand Culture of New Zealand New Zealand English... Queen Elizabeth II wearing the sash and the star of the New Zealand Order of Merit, as well as the badges on her shoulder of the Order of New Zealand and the Queens Service Order. ... // Demographics of New Zealand, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ...

References

Notes

^i :From 1788 until 1840 the islands of New Zealand were formally part of New South Wales; see animated map of Australian states and territories.
^ii :For example see Finland
^iii :New Zealand's dominant media organisations are TVNZ (two free-to-air television channels); MediaWorks NZ (two free-to-air channels and a radio network); Fairfax Media (numerous newspapers and magazines); APN News & Media (several newspapers and radio stations); and Sky Network Television (a pay TV network and a free-to-air TV station).
^iv :An online population clock is accessible via Statistics New Zealand at http://www.stats.govt.nz/populationclock.htm.
^v :Of the 85,428 people that replied they spoke Samoan in the 2006 Census, 57,828 lived in the Auckland region.[55]

NSW redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Current TVNZ logo Television New Zealand (TVNZ) is the main broadcaster of television in New Zealand, established in 1980 through the merger of Television One and TV2 (formerly South Pacific Television). ... Free-to-air is a phrase used to describe television and radio broadcasts which are available without subscription and without decryption (pay-TV). ... MediaWorks NZ is a company based in New Zealand and listed on the New Zealand Stock Market. ... A radio network is a network system which distributes programming to multiple stations simultaneously, or slightly delayed, for the purpose of extending total coverage beyond the limits of a single broadcast signal. ... It has been suggested that John Fairfax Holdings be merged into this article or section. ... APN News And Media (ASX: APN, NZX: APN) is an Australian media company. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... SKY Network Television Limited (ASX: ; NZX: SKT), often trading as SKY, is a New Zealand pay television service. ... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ... This article is about a television transmitting location or company. ...

Citations

  1. ^ New Zealand's National Anthems. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  2. ^ Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  3. ^ a b c d Language spoken (total responses) for the census usually resident population count, 2006. Statistics New Zealand (2006-12-21). Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  4. ^ a b Mein Smith (2005) pg 6.
  5. ^ King (2003) pg 41.
  6. ^ Wilson, John (2007-09-21). Tasman’s achievement. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
  7. ^ Mackay (1986) pg 52–54.
  8. ^ Clark (1994) pg 123–135
  9. ^ Davis, Denise (2007-09-11). Moriori The impact of new arrivals. Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  10. ^ a b Mein Smith (2005), pg 23.
  11. ^ King (2003) pg 122.
  12. ^ Over the course of her reign The Queen has been a regular visitor to New Zealand, paying 10 visits. The Monarchy Today. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  13. ^ Patman (2005) pg 8.
  14. ^ Lange (1990).
  15. ^ Dewes, Kate. Legal challenges to nuclear weapons from AOTEAROA/NewZealand. disarmsecure.org. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  16. ^ Green, Robert. The Naked Nuclear Emperor — Debunking Nuclear Deterrence. disarmsecure.org. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  17. ^ New Zealand Defence Force Overseas Operations. nzdf.mil.nz (2008-01-22). Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  18. ^ (2005) Offshore Options: Managing Environmental Effects in New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment. ISBN 0-478-25916-6. 
  19. ^ Summary of New Zealand climate extremes. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  20. ^ Mean monthly sunshine hours (XLS). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research.
  21. ^ Lindsey (2000) pg 14.
  22. ^ NZPCN (2006). New Zealand indigenous vascular plant checklist. ISBN 0-473-11306-6. Written by P.J. de Lange, J.W.D. Sawyer and J.R. Rolfe
  23. ^ Tiny Bones Rewrite Textbooks, first New Zealand land mammal fossil. University of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 2007-05-31.
  24. ^ NZPCN (2006). New Zealand indigenous vascular plant checklist. ISBN 0-473-11306-6. Written by P.J. de Lange, J.W.D. Sawyer and J.R. Rolfe
  25. ^ 5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. IMF. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  26. ^ Factsheet from the joint Senate economic committee on median household income. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  27. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index (PDF). The World in 2005 4. The Economist. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  28. ^ "Kiwis world's most satisfied", National Business Review, 5 July 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. 
  29. ^ The 2007 Legatum Prosperity Index. LIGD. prosperity.org. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  30. ^ Highlights from the 2007 Quality of Living Survey. Mercer (2007-04-07). Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
  31. ^ a b c d The World Factbook - New Zealand. CIA (2007-11-15). Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  32. ^ a b Key Tourism Statistics (pdf). Ministry of Tourism (February 2008). Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
  33. ^ 1966 Encyclopedia of New Zealand - standard of living comparison table
  34. ^ Up from down under; National Review article
  35. ^ 20 most requested statistics
  36. ^ Fran O'Sullivan with NZPA. "Trade agreement just the start - Clark", The New Zealand Herald, 7 April 2008. 
  37. ^ NZPA. "December quarter current account deficit better than expected", The New Zealand Herald, 27 March 2008. 
  38. ^ Davenport (2004).
  39. ^ Inkson (2004).
  40. ^ Winkelmann (2000).
  41. ^ Bain (2006) pg 44.
  42. ^ New Zealand External Trade Statistics (PDF) p 9. Statistics New Zealand (June 2007).
  43. ^ Frequently Asked Questions (from the official company website. Accessed 2008-02-20.)
  44. ^ Ranford, Jodie. 'Pakeha', Its Origin and Meaning. maorinews.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  45. ^ Walrond (2007).
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  47. ^ Projections Overview. Statistics New Zealand (2007-12-04). Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
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  49. ^ Māori Ethnic Population / Te Momo Iwi Māori. QuickStats About Māori, Census 2006. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  50. ^ Cultural diversity. 2006 Census QuickStats National highlights. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  51. ^ Subnational population estimates June 2007. Statistics New Zealand (2007-06-30). Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  52. ^ Hoadley, Stephen (2004). "Our immigration policy: rationality, stability, and politics: Stephen Hoadley discusses New Zealand's approach to the vexed question of immigration controls". New Zealand International Review 29 (2). Retrieved on 2008-02-20. 
  53. ^ For the percentages: QuickStats About Culture and Identity - Birthplace and people born overseas. 2006 Census. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
    For further detail within East Asia: Birthplace for the census usually resident population count, 2006 (XLS). Classification counts, 2006 Census. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  54. ^ Quick Stats About culture and Identity— 2006 Census (pdf). Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  55. ^ a b c Religious Affiliation (XLS). 2006 Census Table 28. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  56. ^ New Zealand Sign Language Act. Office for Disability Issues. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  57. ^ a b Educational attainment of the population (xls). Education Counts (2006). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  58. ^ a b c Māori Language Week - Te Wiki o Te Reo Maori (from the 'nzhistory.net.nz' website, operated by the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Accessed 2008-02-22.)
  59. ^ Top sports and physical activities. sparc.org.nz (2007-10-17). Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  60. ^ ABS medal tally: Australia finishes third. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2004-08-30). Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  61. ^ Per Capita Olympic Medal Table. users.skynet.be/hermandw/olymp/. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  62. ^ Zavos (2007).
  63. ^ The Haka. tourism.net.nz. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
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  65. ^ Kawarau Bridge Bungee. bungy.co.nz. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, commonly abbreviated to NIWA, and known in the Māori language as Taihoro Nukurangi, is a Crown Research Institute of New Zealand. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, commonly abbreviated to NIWA, and known in the Māori language as Taihoro Nukurangi, is a Crown Research Institute of New Zealand. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Business Review is a weekly New Zealand newspaper aimed at the business sector. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the officer of arms, see New Zealand Herald Extraordinary. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For the officer of arms, see New Zealand Herald Extraordinary. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics New Zealand (Te Tari Tatau) is a New Zealand government department, and the source of the countrys official statistics. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, is an online encyclopedia created by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage of the New Zealand Government. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics New Zealand (Te Tari Tatau) is a New Zealand government department, and the source of the countrys official statistics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics New Zealand (Te Tari Tatau) is a New Zealand government department, and the source of the countrys official statistics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics New Zealand (Te Tari Tatau) is a New Zealand government department, and the source of the countrys official statistics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics New Zealand (Te Tari Tatau) is a New Zealand government department, and the source of the countrys official statistics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics New Zealand (Te Tari Tatau) is a New Zealand government department, and the source of the countrys official statistics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Allan, H.H. (1982) Indigenous Tracheophyta - Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledons, Flora of New Zealand Volume I. Botany Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
  • Bain, Carolyn (2006). New Zealand. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1741045355. 
  • Clark, R. (1994) Moriori and Māori: The Linguistic Evidence. In Sutton, Douglas G. (Ed.) (1994), The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
  • Davenport, Sally. "Panic and panacea: brain drain and science and technology human capital policy" Research Policy 33 (2004) 617–630. Accessed 2007-04-24.
  • Jackson, Duncan J.R. (2005). "Exploring the Dynamics of New Zealand's Talent Flow". New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 
  • Inkson, K (2004). "The New Zealand Brain Drain: Expatriate views". University of Auckland Business Review 6 (2): 29–39. 
  • King, Michael (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. New Zealand: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780143018674. 
  • Lange, David (1990). Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way. New Zealand: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140145192. 
  • Lindsey, Terence & Morris, Rod (2000), Collins Field Guide to New Zealand Wildlife, HarperCollins (New Zealand) Limited 
  • Mackay, D. (1986) The Search For The Southern Land. In Fraser, B. (Ed.) (1986), The New Zealand Book Of Events. Auckland: Reed Methuen.
  • Mein Smith, Philippa (2005). A Concise History of New Zealand. Australia: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521542286. 
  • Robert G. Patman (2005). Globalisation, Sovereignty, and the Transformation of New Zealand Foreign Policy (PDF). Working Paper 21/05 8. Centre for Strategic Studies, Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  • Walrond, Carl (2007-09-21). Dalmatians. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  • Winkelmann, R. (2000). "The labour market performance of European immigrants in New Zealand in the 1980s and 1990s". The International Migration Review 33: 33–58. 
  • Zavos, Spiro. "How to beat the All Blacks", The Sun Herald (supplement), 2007-09-02, p. 54. 

This page relates to the flora of New Zealand. ... The University of Auckland (Māori: Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is New Zealands largest research-based university. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr Michael King OBE (15 December 1945 - 30 March 2004) was a widely respected Pakeha New Zealand historian, author and biographer. ... David Russell Lange (who pronounced his name long-ee IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, is an online encyclopedia created by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage of the New Zealand Government. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market and dynamics for labour. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • David Bateman, ed. Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia (2005)
  • Keith Sinclair and Raewyn Dalziel. A History of New Zealand (2000)
  • A. H. McLintock, ed. Encyclopedia of New Zealand 3 vol (1966)
  • New Zealand Official Yearbook (annual)

Sir Keith Sinclair Sir Keith Sinclair KBE (December 5, 1922—June 20, 1993) was a poet and noted historian of New Zealand. ...

External links

New Zealand Portal
Find more about New Zealand on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Te Ara, The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
  • New Zealand Plant Conservation Network website for information about the indigenous flora and species of introduced weed and animal pest
  • Ministry for Culture and Heritage - includes information on flag, anthems and coat of arms
  • New Zealand Government portal
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding New Zealand
  • New Zealand weather
  • NZHistory.net.nz New Zealand history website
  • New Zealand in Profile 2007, by Statistics New Zealand
  • Tourism New Zealand

The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Image File history File links Personal_flag_of_Queen_Elizabeth_II.svg Personal flag used by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom when outside the Commonwealth Realms. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Polynesian Triangle is a geographical region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by Hawaii, Rapa Nui and New Zealand. ... The Austral Islands are the southernmost group of islands in French Polynesia, sometimes also called the Tubuai Islands, after one of the main islands. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... The Gambier Islands (French: ÃŽles Gambier or Archipel des Gambier) are a small group of islands in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... The Loyalty Islands. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... Isla Sala y Gómez (Rapa Nui: Motu Motiro Hiva) is a small uninhabited island lying in the eastern Pacific at 26°27′ S 105°28′ W. It is part of Chiles Easter Island province. ... Samoa Islands may refer to: Samoa, a country in the South Pacific American Samoa, a U.S. territory, also in the South Pacific This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Society Islands One of the islands. ... A Satellite photo of the Acteon Group, 4 atolls in the southeastern Tuamotus. ... Motto: n/a Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Mata-Utu Official languages French Uvean, Futunan Government Overseas territory of France  -  President of France Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Administrateur supérieur Richard Didier  -  President of the Territorial Assembly Pesamino Taputai  -  Kings (traditionally three) King of Uvea (none at present) Soane Patita... Polynesian outliers are a number of Polynesian islands which lie in Melanesia and Micronesia. ... Anuta is a small high island in the southeastern part of the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. ... Emae (coordinates ) is an island in the Shepherds Islands, Shefa, Vanuatu. ... Futuna is an island in the Tafea province of Vanuatu. ... Kapingamarangi is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... Mele Island also known as Hideaway Island is a Polynesian outlier and islet in Vanuatu. ... Nuguria or the Nuguria Islands are a Polynesian outlier and islands of Papua New Guinea. ... The Nukumanu Islands, part of Papua New Guinea are located in the path of the Polynesian migration to Oceania some 5,000 years ago, the Nukumanu Islands were settled by the Polynesians and retained their Polynesian character as part of the Melanesian Archipelago of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon... Nukuoro is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... Ontong Java Atoll is the northernmost tract of land in the Solomon Islands and an outlying part of the province of Malaita. ... Ouvéa from space, November 1990 Ouvea may refer to: Ouvéa, an island in the Loyalty Islands of New Caledonia. ... Pileni is a culturally important island in the Reef Islands, in the northern part of the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. ... Rennell and Bellona Province is one of the provinces of the Solomon Islands. ... Rotuma is a Fijian Dependency, consisting of the island of Rotuma and the nearby islets of Hatana, Hofliua, Solkope, Solnohu and Uea. ... Sikaiana formerly called Stewart Islands is a small atoll 212 km NE of Malaita. ... A village scene on Takuu Takuu (also Tauu or Mortlock Islands) is a small, isolated atoll off the east coast of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. ... Tikopia is the southernmost of the Santa Cruz Islands, located in the province of Temotu. ... This is an alphabetical list of Oceanian countries and dependencies. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1096x744, 47 KB)Australasia ecozone re-drawn from French wiki by MPF Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Copyright 2004 Affordable Solutions Pty Ltd Aust. ... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... Maluku redirects here. ... Image File history File links Micronesia. ... Image File history File links Polynesia. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


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