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Encyclopedia > New York Harbor

New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. This is sometimes construed in the sense "the Ports of New York and New Jersey". More narrowly, the term occasionally refers only to "Upper New York Bay". The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is the northern area of New York Harbor inside the Narrows. ...

Manhattan, across the harbor from the New Jersey shore at Liberty Park.
Manhattan, across the harbor from the New Jersey shore at Liberty Park.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2531x1886, 1325 KB) Summary Upper New York Bay from the New Jersey shore at the Statue of Liberty park. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2531x1886, 1325 KB) Summary Upper New York Bay from the New Jersey shore at the Statue of Liberty park. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Statue of Liberty and Liberty Island Liberty Enlightening the World (French: La liberté éclairant le monde), known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté), is a statue given to the United States by the Paris based Union Franco-Américaine (Franco-American Union) in 1876, standing...

Geography

In the broad sense, the term includes the following bodies of water and their waterfronts: Upper New York Bay, Lower New York Bay, North River (i.e. the lowest part of the Hudson River), East River, Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay, Arthur Kill, The Narrows, Jamaica Bay, Raritan Bay, and Harlem River. This includes about 1200 square miles, with over a 1000 miles of shoreline. At peak it contained 650 miles of developed waterfront in 11 individual, active ports in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, Staten Island, Perth Amboy, Elizabeth, Bayonne, Newark, Jersey City, Hoboken, and Weehawken. Although the U.S. Board of Geographic Names does not include the term, New York Harbor has important historical, governmental, commercial, and ecological usages. New York Harbor waterways (numbered): 1. ... Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is the northern area of New York Harbor inside the Narrows. ... Lower New York Bay is the section of New York Bay outside of the Narrows and open directly to the Atlantic Ocean. ... The North River is shown in red, between New Jersey and Manhattan, using the modern commercial definition North River describes the southernmost portion of the Hudson River, between the states of New Jersey and New York in the United States of America. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... The Kill Van Kull is a tidal strait approximately 3 miles long and 1000 feet wide separating Staten Island and Bayonne, New Jersey, USA. The name kill comes from an old Dutch word for water channel It connects Newark Bay with Upper New York Bay. ... Newark Bay, as seen from the waterfront of Bayonne, New Jersey Newark Bay is shown highlighted on a TERRA image of New York Harbor Newark Bay is a body of water, a tiday back bay of New York Harbor formed at the confluence of the Passaic and Hackensack rivers. ... The Arthur Kill, seen from Staten Island, with Carteret, New Jersey in the background. ... New York Harbor, as seen in a TERRA satellite image. ... Jamaica Bay is a bay that lies in the shadow of New York Citys skyscrapers and is adjacent to one of the nations busiest airports. ... Raritan Bay is a triangular bay in the western portion of Lower New York Bay, between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey. ... The Harlem River, shown in red, between the Bronx and Manhattan in New York City The Harlem River is a tidal strait in New York City, USA that flows 8 miles (13 km) between the East River and the Hudson River, separating the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow This article is about the New York City borough. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... Staten Island, in yellow, lies to the southwest of the rest of New York City. ... Perth Amboy is a city located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ... Map of Elizabeth in Union County Union County Court House Elizabeth is a City in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... Seal of Bayonne Bayonne is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. ... Nickname: The Brick City Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area    - City 67. ... The skyline of Jersey City, as seen from Lower New York Bay. ... Map of New Jersey highlighting Hoboken Image of Hoboken taken by NASA (red line shows where Hoboken is). ... Weehawken Township is a township located in Hudson County, New Jersey. ... The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is an American federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the U.S. government. ...


Harbor history

Before the Erie Canal

New Amsterdam, Lower Manhattan: Early East River docks along left bottom; protective wall against the British on right. West is at top. (Castello Plan, 1660.)
New Amsterdam, Lower Manhattan: Early East River docks along left bottom; protective wall against the British on right. West is at top. (Castello Plan, 1660.)

The aboriginal population of the seventeenth century New York Harbor, the Lenape were linguistically tied to the Algonquians, and used the waterways for fishing and travel. They greeted the first recorded European in the Harbor, Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. In 1624 the first permanent European settlement was started in Manhattan, and eight years later in Brooklyn; soon these were connected by ferry operation.[1] The colonial Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant ordered construction of the first wharf on the Manhattan bank of the lower East River sheltered from winds and ice, which was completed late in 1648 and called Schreyers Hook Dock (near what is now Pearl and Broad Streets). This prepared New York as a leading port for the British colonies and then within the newly independent United States.[2] In 1686 the British colonial officials gave the municipality control over the waterfront. Image File history File links Castelloplan. ... Image File history File links Castelloplan. ... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century town which grew outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1674) which was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic since 1624. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American peoples. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland (Nieuw Nederland in Dutch) in North America. ... Peter Stuyvesant circa 1660 Peter Stuyvesant (circa 1600 – August 1672) served as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... NY redirects here. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...

 A U.S sailor's album snapshot of a railroad car float in the Harbor, 1919.‎
A U.S sailor's album snapshot of a railroad car float in the Harbor, 1919.‎

Image File history File links NYH_carfloat. ... Image File history File links NYH_carfloat. ... A railroad car float is an unpowered barge with rail tracks mounted on its deck. ...

The Erie Canal and its consequences

In 1824 the first American drydock was completed on the East River. Because of its location and depth, the Port grew rapidly with the introduction of steamships; and then with the completion in 1825 of the Erie Canal New York became the most important transhipping port between the American interior and Europe as well as coastwise[3] destinations. By about 1840, more passengers and a greater tonnage of cargo came through the port of New York than all other major harbors in the country combined and by 1900 it was one of the great international ports.[4] The main immigrant port of entry at Ellis Island had 12 million arrivals from 1892 to 1954.[5] U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Transshipment is the shipment of goods to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination. ... For the similarly named rock band, see TransAtlantic. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main immigration port for immigrants entering the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


In 1870 the city established the Department of Docks to systematize waterfront development, with George B. McClellan as the first engineer in chief. George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ...


Before the major road improvements allowed efficient trucking, rail freight was ferried to Manhattan from New Jersey, meaning railroads had small fleets of towboats, barges, and 323 car floats, specially designed barges with rails so cars could be rolled on.[6] New York subsidized this service which undercut rival ports.[7] The towboat Angelina pushes a barge in New Orleans. ... A railroad car float is an unpowered barge with rail tracks mounted on its deck. ...

 Convoy out of Brooklyn, February 1942, probably bound for Belfast. Photograph from a blimp from NAS Lakehurst.
Convoy out of Brooklyn, February 1942, probably bound for Belfast. Photograph from a blimp from NAS Lakehurst.

Image File history File links G2411_troopship_convoy_1942. ... Image File history File links G2411_troopship_convoy_1942. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland. ... Blimp is an informal term typically applied to non-rigid airships. ... Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst (NAES Lakehurst), (IATA: NEL, ICAO: KNEL) New Jersey, formerly the Lakehurst Naval Air Station then the Naval Air Engineering Center Lakehurst. ...

World War II and later

After the United States entered World War II operation Drumbeat loosed the top U-Boat aces against the merchant fleet in U.S. territorial waters in January 1942, starting the Second happy time. The U-Boat captains were able to silhouette target ships against the glow of city lights, and attacked with relative impunity, in spite of U.S. Naval concentrations within the Harbor. Casualties included the tankers Coimbria off Sandy Hook and Norness off Long Island. New York Harbor, as the major convoy embarkation point for the U.S., was effectively a staging area in the Second Battle of the Atlantic, with the U.S. Merchant Marine losses of 1 of 26 was similar to those of the other U.S. forces.[8] Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States France Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Charles de Gaulle Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hirohito Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic...


The Harbor reached its peak activity in March 1943, during World War II, with 543 ships at anchor, awaiting assignment to convoy or berthing (with as many as 425 seagoing vessel already at one of the 750 piers or docks). 1100 warehouses with nearly 1.5 square miles of enclosed space served freight along with 575 tugboats and 39 active shipyards (perhaps most importantly New York Naval Shipyard founded 1801). With a staggering inventory of heavy equipment, this made New York Harbor the busiest in the world.[9] Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States France Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Charles de Gaulle Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hirohito Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Inside Green Logistics Co. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... The New York Naval Shipyard (NYNSY), also known as the Brooklyn Navy Yard , the New York Navy Yard and United States Navy Yard, New York, is located 1. ...


Maritime

Nautically, the Harbor consists of a complex of about 240 miles of shipping channels (requiring pilotage), as well as anchorages and port facilities, centered on the Upper New York Bay.[10] Larger vessels require tugboat assistance for the sharper channel turns, for example from Kill van Kull into Port Newark. The Harbor has the main entrance from the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, between the Rockaway Point and Sandy Hook; it has another entrance via the Long Island Sound from the northeast at the outlet of the East River. The Harbor extends to the southwest to the mouth of the Raritan River, to the northwest at Port Newark and to the north to the George Washington Bridge.[11] Other vehicular routes cross the Harbor include the PATH tunnel and lower down the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. This article is in need of attention. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Canal. ... left|Signal flag H(Hotel) - Pilot on Board Boarding is tricky, as both vessels are moving and cannot afford to slow down. ... Look up Anchorage, anchorage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is the northern area of New York Harbor inside the Narrows. ... The Le Four manoeuvering in Brest harbour A tugboat, or tug, is a boat used to manoeuvre, primarily by towing or pushing other vessels (see shipping) in harbours, over the open sea or through rivers and canals. ... A Rockaway Peninsula street scene. ... Image of Sandy Hook taken by NASA. Sandy Hook is a narrow coastal spit of land, approximately 12 mi (19 km) in length and 0. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... The Raritan River is a major river of central New Jersey in the United States. ... Container port facilities at Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, seen from Bayonne, New Jersey. ... For the bridge in New York that crosses the Harlem River, see Washington Bridge. ... Hoboken- and Newark-bound platform at Exchange Place station in Jersey City. ... The Verrazano Narrows Bridge (properly written as the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge) is a suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City at the Narrows, the reach connecting the relatively protected upper bay with the larger lower bay. ...

A lightly loaded Post-Panamax container vessel transits the north end of the Anchorage Channel between Liberty and Governors Island.
A lightly loaded Post-Panamax container vessel transits the north end of the Anchorage Channel between Liberty and Governors Island.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x852, 146 KB) Briefing on NY/NJ Harbor Estuary Deepening Projects and Opportunities for Consolidation of Deepening Activities, US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x852, 146 KB) Briefing on NY/NJ Harbor Estuary Deepening Projects and Opportunities for Consolidation of Deepening Activities, US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, 2002. ... Ships classified as Panamax are of the maximum dimensions that will fit through the locks of the Panama Canal, each of which is 1000 ft long by 110 ft wide and 85 ft deep. ...

Port

As the port facilities of New York and New Jersey it is the largest oil importing port and second largest container port in the nation.[12] Although the phrase has always implied the commercial activity of the port of New York City, including the waterfronts of the five boroughs and nearby cities in New Jersey, only since 1972 has this been formalized under a single bi-state Port Authority.[13] Since the 1950s, the New York and Brooklyn commercial port has been almost completely eclipsed by the container ship facility at nearby Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal in Newark Bay, which is the largest such port on the Eastern Seaboard. The port has diminished in importance to passenger travel, but the Port Authority operates all three major airports in New York (La Guardia, 1939 and JFK/Idlewild, 1948) and Newark (1928).[14] New York City is still serviced by several cruise lines, commuter ferries, and tourist excursion boats. A new passenger facility has recently opened in Red Hook, Brooklyn. Although most ferry service is private, the Staten Island Ferry is operated by the New York City Department of Transportation. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a bi-state agency (operated pursuant to an interstate compact) that runs most of the regional transportation infrastructure including the bridges, tunnels, airports and seaports within the New York-New Jersey Port District. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... The Five Boroughs of New York City The Five Boroughs is a colloquialism often used by residents of New York City to unambiguously refer to the city itself, as opposed to any particular borough or to the greater metropolitan area. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen; note crew standing on deck, and stacks of containers on shore. ... Container port facilities at Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, seen from Bayonne, New Jersey. ... Newark Bay, as seen from the waterfront of Bayonne, New Jersey Newark Bay is shown highlighted on a TERRA image of New York Harbor Newark Bay is a body of water, a tiday back bay of New York Harbor formed at the confluence of the Passaic and Hackensack rivers. ... Categories: US geography stubs ... A cruise line is a company that operates cruise ships. ... The Pride of Rotterdam, One of the P&O Ferriess Flagships operating the Hull-Rotterdam Route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and sometimes their vehicles, on scheduled services. ... A Holland-Style Factory Building in Red Hook Red Hook circa 1875 Red Hook is a neighborhood of the Borough of Brooklyn, New York, USA. Before annexation into Brooklyn, Red Hook was a separate village. ... Lower Manhattan skyline from the deck of the Ferry, 2003 Main article: Transportation in New York City The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger ferry operated by the New York City Department of Transportation between Whitehall Street at the southernmost tip of Manhattan near Battery Park (South Ferry) and St. ... The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT or DOT) is responsible for the management of much of New York Citys transportation infrastructure. ...


Channel maintenance

Responsibilities within the Harbor are divided among all levels of government, from municipal to federal. Port facilities are controlled by bi-state Port Authority, but actual channel depth control is under the US Army Corps of Engineers, which has been involved in the Harbor since about 1826 when Congress passed an omnibus rivers and harbors act.[15][16] The natural depth of New York Harbor is about 17 feet, but it has been deepened over the years, to about 24 feet controlling depth in 1880.[17] By 1891 the Main Ship Channel was minimally 30 feet. In 1914 Ambrose Channel became the main entrance to the Harbor, at 40 feet deep and 2000 feet wide. During World War II the main channel was dredged to 45 feet depth to accommodate larger ships up to Panamax size. Currently the Corps of Engineers is contracting out deepening to 50 feet, to accommodate Post-Panamax container vessels, which can pass through the Suez Canal.[18][19] This has been a source of environmental concern along channels connecting the container facilities in Port Newark to the Atlantic. PCBs and other pollutants lay in a blaket just underneath the soil. [20] In many areas the sandy bottom has been excavated down to rock and now requires blasting. Dredging equipment then picks up the rock and disposes of it. At one point in 2005 there were 70 pieces of dredging equipment in the harbor working to deepen the harbor, the largest fleet of dredging equipment anywhere in the world. The work occasionally causes noise and vibration that can be felt by residents on Staten Island. Excavators alert residents when blasting is underway. United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: ‎, translit: ), is a large artificial maritime canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... Staten Island, in yellow, lies to the southwest of the rest of New York City. ...


Safety and Security

The Coast Guard has waterways management, including spills, vessel rescues, and counter-terrorism.[21] Deterrence and investigation of criminal activity, especially relating to organized crime, is also responsibility of the bi-state Waterfront Commission.[22] The Commission was set up in 1953 (a year before the movie On the Waterfront), to combat labor racketeering. It is held that the Gambino crime family controlled the New York waterfront and the Genovese crime family controlled the New Jersey side.[23] In 1984 the Teamsters local was put under RICO trusteeship, and in 2005 a similar suit was brought against the International Longshoremen's Association local.[24] The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense, among other duties of coast guards elsewhere. ... The Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor (WCNYH) is a inter-state government entity of the States of New York and New Jersey, which was established in August of 1953. ... On the Waterfront is an American 1954 film about mob violence and corruption among longshoremen, and it has become a standard of its kind. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... The Gambino Crime Family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities based in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or La Cosa Nostra). ... The Genovese crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT), formerly known by the name International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, is one of the largest labor unions in the United States. ... For The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, a United States law which provides for extended penalties for criminal acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization, see: RICO (law) For Rico the Border Collie, see: Rico (Border Collie). ... The International Longshoremens Association is a labor union representing longshore workers along the East Coast of the United States and Canada, the Gulf Coast, the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico, and inland waterways. ...


In March 2006, the Port passenger facility was to be transferred to Dubai Ports World. There was considerable security controversy over the ownership by a foreign, particularly Arab, of a U.S. port operation, this in spite of the fact the current operator was the British based P&O Ports,[25] and the fact that Orient Overseas Investment Limited, a company dominated by a Chinese Communist official, has the operating contract for Howland Hook Marine Terminal.[26] An additional concern is the U.S. Customs "green lane" program, in which trusted shippers have fewer containers inspected, providing easier access for contraband materiel.[27] DP World is a company owned by the government of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Howland Hook Marine Terminal is a container port facility located in northwestern Staten Island in New York City, . It is situated on the east side of the Arthur Kill, at the entrance to Newark Bay, just north of the Goethals Bridge. ...

New York Harbor near Jersey City, New Jersey.
New York Harbor near Jersey City, New Jersey.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1290x764, 170 KB)New York Harbor, looking towards Jersey City, New Jersey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1290x764, 170 KB)New York Harbor, looking towards Jersey City, New Jersey. ... Location of Jersey City within New Jersey. ...

Harbor Ecology

A persistent misconception holds that the Harbor is largely devoid of marine life. In reality, it supports a great variety of thriving estuarine aquatic species. Indeed tidal flow occurs as far north as Troy, over 100 miles north.[28] The Marine life of New York Harbor refers to variety of aquatic plant and animal species in New York Harbor in the vicinity of New York City. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits. ... Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earths ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the Earth. ... Looking west down Broadway at downtown Troy. ...


The National Park Service now maintains the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, Governors Island, Castle Clinton, Gateway National Recreation Area, and Grant's Tomb.[29] The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ... Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton is a circular sandstone fort and national monument in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan, New York City. ... Gateway National Recreation Area is a 26,607 acre (105 km²) recreation area owned by the United States government in the New York City metropolitan area. ... Grants Tomb, circa 1909 Grants tomb 2004 Grants Tomb is a mausoleum containing the bodies of Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), an American Civil War General and the 18th President of the United States, and his wife, Julia Dent Grant (1826-1902). ...




See also

The Marine life of New York Harbor refers to variety of aquatic plant and animal species in New York Harbor in the vicinity of New York City. ... New York Harbor waterways (numbered): 1. ... // Main article: History of New York City (prehistory-1664) Prehistory in the area began with the geological formation of the peculiar territory of what is today New York City. ... The NASDAQ MarketSite in Times Square. ... The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a bi-state agency (operated pursuant to an interstate compact) that runs most of the regional transportation infrastructure including the bridges, tunnels, airports and seaports within the New York-New Jersey Port District. ... The Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor (WCNYH) is a inter-state government entity of the States of New York and New Jersey, which was established in August of 1953. ... Lower Manhattan skyline from the deck of the Ferry, 2003 Main article: Transportation in New York City The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger ferry operated by the New York City Department of Transportation between Whitehall Street at the southernmost tip of Manhattan near Battery Park (South Ferry) and St. ... NY Waterway is a private firm that provides commuter ferry service and tourist excursions in New York Harbor, with service between several points in Manhattan and New Jersey, including Hoboken Terminal. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK) is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in south-eastern New York City on the edge of Jamaica Bay. ... Newark Liberty International Airport (IATA: EWR, ICAO: KEWR), formerly known as Newark International Airport, is an international airport within the city limits of both Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States. ... FAA diagram of LaGuardia Airport (LGA) LaGuardia Airport (IATA: LGA, ICAO: KLGA) is an airport serving New York City, United States, located on the waterfront of Flushing in the borough of Queens. ... A colorized depiction of the Hudson Canyon off the coast of New York and New Jersey at the outlet of the Hudson River. ... Raritan Bay is a triangular bay in the western portion of Lower New York Bay, between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey. ... The Arthur Kill, seen from Staten Island, with Carteret, New Jersey in the background. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main immigration port for immigrants entering the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Liberty Island Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloes Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States, best known as the location of the Statue of Liberty. ... This is the Ambrose Lightstation, built in 1999 after the lighthouse was damaged in 1996 by the tanker vessel Aegeo. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... SUNY Maritime College Seal SUNY Maritime College The State University of New York Maritime College is located in the Bronx, New York City in historic Fort Schuyler on the Throggs Neck peninsula where the East River meets Long Island Sound. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The New York Waterfront: Evolution and Building Culture of the Port and Harbor, edited by Kevin Bone, The Monacelli Press, 1997. (ISBN 1-885254-54-7}
  2. ^ New York's Port, Beyond Dubai,Gotham Gazette March 2006.
  3. ^ see also Maritime geography#Brown water
  4. ^ The Erie Canal: A Brief History, New York State Canal Corporation (2001).
  5. ^ Ellis Island History, The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc., 2000 (source NPS).
  6. ^ *New York in the Forties, Andreas Feininger, Dover Books.(ISBN 0-486-23585-8)
  7. ^ Lighterage Controversy,Louis L. Jaffe, Mercer Beasley Law Review, v. 2, no. 2, p.136-170, 1933.
  8. ^ U.S. Merchant Marine in World War II, U.S. Maritime Service Veterans, 1998-2006.
  9. ^ "Port in a Storm: The Port of New York in World War II", Joseph F. Meany Jr. & al.,NY State Museum, 1992-1998.
  10. ^ Chapter 11, New York Harbor and Approaches, Coast Pilot 2, 35th Edition, 2006, Office of Coast Survey, NOAA.
  11. ^ New York Harbor, NOAA Nautical chart 12327, Atlantic Coast charts online, Office of Coast Survey, NOAA.
  12. ^ PANYNJ seaport facilities.
  13. ^ The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
  14. ^ Guide to Civil Engineering Projects in and around New York City, Metropolitan Section, American Society of Engineers, 1997, available from ASCE Met Section.
  15. ^ Controlling Depth Reports for navigation channels, USACE
  16. ^ Chapter 3,River and Harbor Improvement, History of the Waterways of the Atlantic Coast of the United States, Publication Number NWS 83-10, January 1983, USACE.
  17. ^ Interview with Kate Ascher on her book The Works: Anatomy of a City, in Gotham Gazette, Feb. 2006.
  18. ^ Why Deepen the Port?, USACE.
  19. ^ Dredging Fleet Deepening NY/NJ Harbor, PortViews, Vol. 2, No. 3 October 2003, PANYNJ.
  20. ^ Dredging In New York Harbor -- Economy vs. Environment?, Gotham Gazette, April 2006.
  21. ^ *U.S. Coast Guard Sector New York Homepage.
  22. ^ Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor (WCNYH).
  23. ^ Watching the Waterfront, The New Yorker, June 19, 2006. (synopsis).
  24. ^ The RICO Trusteeships after Twenty Years, 2004, ABA, republished by Laborers for JUSTICE. US v. Local 560, et al.,Civil Action No. 82-689, US District of New Jersey, February 8, 1984.
  25. ^ Fact Sheet on Acquisition of P&O Ports by DP World, American Association of Port Authorities, 2006.
  26. ^ OOIL in Howland Hook NPR, March 1, 2006.
  27. ^ The Docks of New York, The New Yorker, June 19, 2006.
  28. ^ Hudson Estuary Basics Dept. of Environmental Conservation, NY State.
  29. ^ National Parks of New York Harbor NPS.

The four kinds of navigable water in the Gulf of Mexico. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Portion of chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...

External links

  • New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program Partnership to protect and restore the Harbor Estuary.
  • New York and New Jersey Harbor USACE, New York District.
  • digging deeper in New York, Mechanical Engineering Magazine, Nov. 2003.
  • Public Parks, Recreational Access, and the Post-Industrial Harbor of New York, Gotham Gazette, 2000.
  • Cornell NY harbor tour summary,September 24, 2005.
  • The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey by Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, 1998-2006.
  • The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey: Global Changes, Regional Gains and Local Challenges in Port Development, Jean-Paul Rodrigue Department of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, February 2004.
  • Convoy Routing Codes World War II
  • Allied Convoys 1939-1945 map and tables by year of convoys (in German).

United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...

Further reading

  • The Works: Anatomy of a City, Kate Ascher, researcher Wendy Marech, designer Alexander Isley Inc. Penguin Press, New York, 2005. (ISBN 1-59420-071-8)
  • The Rise of New York Port (1815-1860),Robert G. Albion with the collaboration of Jennie Barnes Pope, Northeastern University Press, 1967. (ISBN 0-7153-5196-6)
  • South Street: A Maritime History of New York, Richard McKay, 1934 and 1971. (ISBN 0-8383-1280-2)
  • Maritime History of New York, WPA Writers Project, 1941; reissued by Going Coastal, Inc. 2004. (ISBN 972980318)
  • On the Waterfront, Malcolm Johnson, ("Crime on the Waterfront," New York Sun in 24 parts, 1948; Pulitzer Prize, 1949); additional material, Budd Schulberg; introduction, Haynes Johnson; Chamberlain Bros. 2005.(ISBN 1-59609-013-8)
  • Great Ships in New York Harbor: 175 Historic Photographs, 1935-2005, William H. Miller, Jr.,Dover Books.(ISBN 0-486-44609-3)
  • Operation Drumbeat, Micheal Gannon, Harper and Row, 1991.(ISBN 0-06-092088-2)

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