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Encyclopedia > New York Dialect

The New York dialect of the English language is spoken by most European Americans who were raised in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including the lower Hudson Valley, western Long Island, and in northeastern New Jersey. It is often considered to be one of the most recognizable accents within American English[1]. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Metropolitan statistical areas and divisions of New Jersey; counties shaded in blue hues are in the New York City metro; counties shaded in green hues are in the Philadelphia metro. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ...


The English spoken in northern New Jersey, although often confused with that of New York City, is distinct from the New York City dialect (Labov et al. 2006), though the New York dialect is spoken in some parts of New Jersey with close proximity to New York. Similarly, a variety of unrelated dialects are spoken in those parts of New York State outside the metropolitan area. For a small state, New Jersey is dialectally quite diverse, with two regions of the state overlapping with other dialect areas, New York and Philadelphia, and several autochthonous dialects. ...

Contents

Macrosocial extensions

Geographic factors

The New York dialect is closely confined to the geographically small but densely populated New York City Dialect Region, which consists of the city's five Boroughs, the western half of Long Island, and the cities of Newark and Jersey City in New Jersey. However, the terms “New York English” and “New York dialect” are, strictly speaking, misnomers. The classic New York dialect is centered on middle and working class European Americans, and this ethnic cluster now accounts for less than half of the city’s population. Nevertheless, the White Flight that reduced their numbers in the city has led to expansion of the dialect in the outlying areas to which they moved. Now, the most secure strongholds of the New York dialect are arguably the suburban areas of Nassau County, western Suffolk County, Westchester County, northeastern and southwestern Queens, and Staten Island, although many strong New York dialect speakers remain in urban sections of Queens, the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan. Finally, it is worth noting that despite common references to "a Bronx accent," or "a Brooklyn accent," no published study has found any feature that varies internally beyond local names. Impressions that the dialect varies geographically may be a byproduct of class and/or ethnic variation. The Five Boroughs of New York City The Five Boroughs is a colloquialism often used by residents of New York City to unambiguously refer to the city itself, as opposed to any particular borough or to the greater metropolitan area. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... Location of Jersey City within Hudson County Coordinates: , Country State County Hudson Government  - Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy  - Business Administrator Brian P. OReilly Area  - City 21. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... Nassau County is a suburban city county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Westchester County is a suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ... For other uses, see Queens (disambiguation) and Queen. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... For other uses, see Queens (disambiguation) and Queen. ... For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ...


Ethnic and racial factors

The variations of the New York accent are a result of the layering of ethnic speech from the waves of immigrants that settled in the city, from the earliest settlement by the Dutch and English, followed in the 1800s by the Irish and Midwesterners (typically of French, German, Irish, Scandinavian, and Scottish descent). Over time these collective influences combined to give New York its distinctive accent. [1] From the turn of the century until about 1930, predominantly Italian and Eastern European Jewish immigrants, but also later Irish and others, arrived and further affected the region's speech. Sociolinguistic research, which is ongoing, suggests some differentiation between these last groups' speech may exist. For example, William Labov, found of differences in the rate and degree of the tensing and raising of (oh) and (aeh) of Italian American versus Jewish American New Yorkers.[2] In the NPR interview linked below, Labov talks about Irish origin features being the most stigmatized. Still, Labov argues that these differences are relatively minor, more of degree than kind. All European American groups share the relevant features. Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


One area that is likely to reveal robust patterns is usage among Orthodox Jews, sometimes referred to as Yeshivish, for the parochial high schools members of this community attend. Such features include fully released final stops and certain Yiddish contact features, such as topicalizations of direct objects, (e.g., constructions such as Esther, she saw! or A dozen knishes, you bought!) There is also substantial use of Yiddish and particularly Hebrew words. It could be argued that such features are not characteristic of New York dialect because they exist among Orthodox Jews in other dialect regions. Still, in combination with other New York dialect features they are characteristic of a specific local ethno-religious community. There is no research, however, establishing these facts in the New York Dialect literature. Yeshivish is an adjective/adverb used to describe the societal, cultural and linguistic norms and mannerisms of those who attend a yeshiva. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


African American New Yorkers often speak African American Vernacular English (AAVE), though with some New York Dialect features, as do most children of Black Caribbean immigrants. Many Latinos speak another distinct ethnolect, New York Latino English, characterized by a varying mix of traditional New York dialect and AAVE features along with features of Spanish origin.[3] There is a tendency for middle and upper middle class members of both groups to use more New York dialect features and lower income residents to use fewer. Many East Asian American and Middle Eastern New Yorkers may also speak a recognizable variety, though one much closer to standard American English. Thus, within the dialect region, the dialect is predominantly, though not exclusively, European American. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Nuyorican English is a name sometimes applied to New York Latino English, a form of New York dialect historically spoken by Puerto Rican immigrants and their follwowing generations in the New York dialect region but now by many Hispanic-Americans of diverse national heritages in the New York metropolitan area... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Social class factors

Not all European American New Yorkers are New York Dialect speakers. Many upper-middle class European Americans from educated backgrounds often speak with less conspicuous accents; in particular, many, though hardly all, use rhotic pronunciations instead of the less prestigious non-rhotic pronunciations while maintaining some less stigmatized features such as the low back chain shift and the short a split (see below). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Similarly, the children of professional white migrants from other parts of the US frequently do not have many New York dialect features, and as these two populations come to dominate the southern half of Manhattan and neighboring parts of Brooklyn, the dialect is retreating from their neighborhoods. Many teens attending expensive private prep schools are barely linguistically recognizable as New Yorkers. Nevertheless, many New Yorkers, particularly those of Southern and Eastern European descent from the middle- and working-class maintain this dialect.


History

The origins of the dialect are diverse, and the source of many features is probably not recoverable. Labov has pointed out that the short a split is found in southern England as mentioned above. He also claims that the vocalization and subsequent loss of (r) was copied from the prestigious London pronunciation, and so it started among the upper classes in New York and only later moved down the socioeconomic scale. This aristocratic r-lessness can be heard, for instance, in recordings of Franklin Roosevelt. After WWII, the r-ful pronunciation became the prestige norm, and what was once the upper class pronunciation became a vernacular one.


Other vernacular pronunciations, such as the dental (d)'s and (t)'s may come from contact with languages such as Italian and Yiddish. Grammatical structures, such as the lack of inversion in indirect questions, have the flavor of contact with an immigrant language. As stated above, many words common in New York are of immigrant roots.


Beyond New York

As a result of both a history of social and commercial contact between the two cities, as well as the influx of similar immigrant groups, the traditional dialect of New Orleans, Louisiana, known locally as Yat, bears numerous distinctive traces of influence from the New York dialect, including palatalization of the /ɝ/ vowel, a similar split in the "short a" system, and fortition of /θ/. (See below for more information on these features.) Albany, New York and, to a lesser extent, Cincinnati, Ohio also display influence from the New York City dialect. NOLA redirects here. ... Yat refers to a unique collection of dialects of English spoken in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ...


Some Jewish-Americans, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic, throughout the United States have some features of a New York accent. This is the case even among some Jewish-Americans who have never lived in New York or New Jersey. This phenomenon is somewhat parallel to the spread of African American Vernacular English to the rest of the United States from its original location in the American South. Because so many Jewish-Americans have a New York-sounding accent, some people may mistakenly believe that a New York accent is a "Jewish accent," when actually, non-Jewish White New Yorkers generally speak with the same accent. Similarly, many Mafia films, most of them set in the 1940s, show many characters speaking English with a New York accent. A Jewish American (also commonly American Jew) is an American (a citizen of the United States) of Jewish descent who maintains a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practicing Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... Film may refer to: photographic film a motion picture in academics, the study of motion pictures as an art form a thin skin or membrane, or any covering or coating, whether transparent or opaque a thin layer of liquid, either on a solid or liquid surface or free-standing Film... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ...


Linguistic features

Pronunciation

See the article International Phonetic Alphabet for explanations of the phonetic symbols used, as indicated between square brackets []. These represent actual pronunciations. The symbols in curved parentheses () are variables, in this case historical word classes that have different realizations between and within dialects. This system was developed by William Labov. A link to a site with an example text read in various accents, including New York, can be found under external links. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


New York Dialect is predominantly characterized by the following sounds and speech patterns:


Vowels

  • The low back chain shift The [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American. This vowel is typically above [ɔ], the corresponding vowel in General American; in the most extreme New York accents, it is even higher and possesses an inglide: [ʊə]. [ɑ] in father and [ɑr] in car are tensed and move to a position abandoned by [ɔ]. The result is that car is often similar to core in parts of New England. Some words not originally from this word class, such as God, on and Bob join the [ɑ] group. This shift is robust and has spread to many non-European American New Yorkers.
  • The short a split There is a class of words, with a historical "short a" vowel, including plan, class, and bad, where the historical [æ] has undergone [æ]-tensing to [eə], or, in the most extreme accents, [ɪə], accompanied by an inglide. This class is similar to, but larger than, the class of words in which Received Pronunciation uses the so-called broad A. Other words, such as plaque, clatter, and bat, indicated as [æ], remain lax, with the result that bad and bat have different vowels. A similar (but distinct) split has occurred in the dialect of Philadelphia.
  • pre-r distinctions New York accents lack most of the mergers before medial [ɹ] that many other modern American accents possess:
    • The vowels in marry [mæɹi], merry [mɛɹi], and Mary [meəɹi] are distinct.
    • The vowels in furry [fɝi] and hurry [hʌɹi] are distinct
    • Words like orange and forest are pronounced [ɑɹəndʒ] and [fɑɹəst] with the same stressed vowel as pot, not with the same vowel as port as in much of the rest of the United States.
  • The General American [ɝ] and [ɔɪ] : In the most old-fashioned and extreme New York–area accents, the vowel sounds of words like girl and of words like oil both become a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a "reversal" of the "er" and "oy" sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey) and "terlet" (toilet). This particular speech pattern is no longer very prevalent; the character Archie Bunker from the 1970s show All in the Family was a good example of a speaker who had this feature. Younger New Yorkers (born since about 1950) are likely to use a rhotic [ɝ] in bird even if they use nonrhotic pronunciations of beard, bared, bard, board, boor, and butter. Similarly, the line-loin merger is sporadically heard in New York.

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... // Trap-bath split The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English (including Received Pronunciation), in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened... The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English, in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged... City Hall The Philadelphia Dialect is the accent of English spoken in Philadelphia and extending into Philadelphias suburbs in the Delaware Valley and southern New Jersey. ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Information Gender Male Age 50 (in 1974) Date of birth 1924 Date of death Unknown (still alive as of 1983) Occupation Blue Collar (19??-1978) Bar Owner (1979-????) Family Michael Stivic (son-in-law) Joey Stivic (grandson) Alfred Bunker (brother) Barbara Lee Billie Bunker (niece) Katherine Bunker (sister-in-law... All in the Family is an acclaimed American situation comedy that was originally broadcast on the CBS television network from January 12, 1971 to April 8, 1979. ...   In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue... The phonological history of the English vowels involves a large number of diachronic sound changes, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers. ...

Consonants

While the following consonantal features are central to the common stereotype of a "New York accent", they are not nearly as ubiquitous in New York as many might assume. By contrast, the vocalic (vowel) variations in pronunciation as described above are far more typical of New York area speakers than the consonantal features listed below, which carry a much greater stigma than do the dialect's vocalic variations:

  • r-lessness The traditional New York–area accent is non-rhotic; in other words, the sound [ɹ] does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant. Thus, there is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɔːk] (with vowel raised due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. This feature is slowly losing ground, as discussed above. Non-rhoticity now happens sometimes in New Yorkers with otherwise rhotic speech if r 's are located in unaccented syllables particularly in pre-vocalic position. Non-rhotic speakers usually exhibit an intrusive or linking r, similar to other non-rhotic dialect speakers.
  • Dark (l) onsets This feature has rarely been commented on but it is robust. A dark variant of (l) is used before vowels like the (l) used in most English after vowels. In other words, in New York dialect, the (l) is made before vowels with the tongue bunched towards the back of the mouth as it is after vowels. In much US English, the prevowel version has a light variant, with the tongue bunched more towards the front. In effect, this means that the beginning sound of lull and level approximates the final one.
  • Dentalization (t) and (d) are often pronounced with the tongue tip touching the teeth rather than the alveolar ridge (just above the teeth), as is typical in most varieties of English. Also, these sounds become affricates (sounds with a burst and then a substantial frication, like [tʃ] (the sound frequently represented orthographically by <ch>) before r.
  • (dh/th) fortition Some speakers replace the dental fricatives [θ, ð] with dental variants of stops [t, d], so that words like thing and this sound similar to "ting" and "dis". This feature is highly stigmatized and is becoming less and less frequent. However affricate pronunciations are common.
  • Intrusive g. In most varieties of English, the velar nasal [ŋ], written as <ng> is pronounced as [ŋ] rather than [ŋɡ]. However, in strong versions of New York dialect, the [ɡ] is variably pronounced before a vowel as a velar stop. This leads to the stereotype of ‘’Long Island’’ being pronounced as [lʊɘŋˈɡɑɪ.lɘnd] popularly written, Lawn Guyland. Another very frequent pronunciation which does omit the [ɡ] is [lɒ͡ɐˈŋai.lənd̪] with the stress on the first syllable in Island and beginning with [ŋ], as though it were Law Ngisland.

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The linking R, also known as the intrusive R, is a phenomenon found in certain dialects of English, such as Estuary English and Eastern New England English, whereby an R sound is inserted to separate two words which would otherwise run together, rather than make use of a glottal stop. ... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have in the occurred in the history of English that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ... Dental fricative can refer to: voiceless dental fricative voiced dental fricative Category: ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ...

Syntax

  • Indirect questions. Word order of the original question is preserved in indirect questions, at least those introduced by wh-words, for example: He wanted to know when will he come instead of He wanted to know when he will come; or, She asked why don’t you want any instead of the standard She asked why you don’t want any.

Lexicon

There are numerous words used mainly in New York, mostly associated with immigrant languages. For instance, a "stoop" (from Dutch), is the front steps of a building entrance. A curious split in usage, reflective of the city's racial differences, involves the word punk. In the African American and Latino communities, the word tends to be used as a synonym for weak, someone unwilling or unable to defend himself or perhaps loser. That usage appears to descend from the AAVE meaning of male receptive participant in anal sex, a meaning which, in turn, may be largely lost among youth. Although this loser sense is expanding to younger European American and perhaps Asian American speakers with considerable contact with AAVE culture, an older usage, in which the term means youthful delinquent is probably still more common. Thus a newspaper article that refers to, say, some arrested muggers, as punks can have two different meanings to two different readers. Of course, the term also unambiguously means the follower of a particular musical and fashion peer cultural style (i.e. Punk rock). Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ...


One curious example of New York English is that New Yorkers stand "on line", whereas most other American English speakers stand "in line". Some New Yorkers may say that they made a mistake "on accident," as opposed to "by accident". This feature is very common in all New York Dialect speakers, even among those who do not use many of the dialect's older, more stigmatized features.


Small convenience stores are widely referred to as "bodegas," a Spanish term literally meaning "a liquor storehouse or a convenience store; corner store."



Glossary of NY words:


Pocketbook for purse


Notable Speakers with the Accent

The following famous people or characters are often seen as speaking with features typical of a New York accent. Most, but not all, are native New Yorkers (see also 'Beyond New York' above):

Alan Alda (born January 28, 1936) is a five-time Emmy Award-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, Academy Award-nominated American actor. ... Jason Alexander (born Jason Scott Greenspan on September 23, 1959) is a Jewish American television, cinema and musical theatre actor, best known for his role as George Costanza on the hit television series Seinfeld. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Bruce Arena (born September 21, 1951 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American soccer coach, former Head Coach and Sporting Director for Red Bull New York of Major League Soccer and the former coach of the United States mens national soccer team. ... Alexander Rae Alec Baldwin III (born April 3, 1958) is an Emmy- and Academy Award-nominated, and Golden Globe Award-winning, American actor. ... For other persons named Tony Bennett, see Tony Bennett (disambiguation). ... Bogart redirects here. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... Bugs Bunny is an animated hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... George Denis Patrick Carlin[15] (born May 12, 1937) is a Grammy-winning American stand-up comedian, actor, and author. ... Arthur William Matthew Carney (November 4, 1918 – November 9, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American actor in film, stage, television, and radio. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... For the American political commentator, see William Kristol. ... Rodney Dangerfield (November 22, 1921 – October 5, 2004), born Jacob Cohen, was an American comedian and actor, best known for the catchphrase I dont get no respect and his monologues on that theme. ... Robert Mario De Niro, Jr. ... Daniel Michael DeVito Jr. ... Francine Joy Drescher (born September 30, 1957) is an American film and television actress. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Frank Falenczyk is a fictional Polish-American mobster hero in the Mafia Comedy thriller, You Kill Me. ... Harvey Forbes Fierstein (born June 6, 1952 in Brooklyn, New York) is a Jewish Tony Award-winning and Emmy Award-winning [1] American actor, playwright, and screenwriter. ... Vito John Fossella, Jr. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... Herbert John Jackie Gleason (February 26, 1916 – June 24, 1987) was an American comedian, actor, and musician. ... Gilbert Gottfried (born February 28, 1955 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American stand-up comedian. ... Joseph Greenberg Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915–May 7, 2001) was a prominent and controversial linguist, known for his work in both language classification and typology. ... Sean Patrick Hannity (born December 30, 1961, in New York City, New York) is an Irish American, conservative broadcaster and political pundit. ... Paul Heyman (born September 11, 1965 in Scarsdale, New York) is a professional wrestling manager, on-air talent, and former promoter formerly employed by World Wrestling Entertainment. ... Dustin Lee Hoffman (born August 8, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning, BAFTA-winning, and five-time Golden Globe-winning American method actor. ... William Joseph Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American singer, pianist, songwriter, composer and musician. ... Wendy Kaufman (b. ... Well-known people called Peter King include: Peter King, 1st Baron King (c. ... William Bill Kristol (born December 23, 1952 in New York City) is an American conservative pundit, inspired in part by the ideas of Leo Strauss. ... Roman Krzeminski is a Polish-American mobster hero from the 2007 Mafia Comedy thriller, You Kill Me. ... Cynthia Ann Stephanie Cyndi Lauper (born June 22, 1953) is an American Grammy Award- winning singer, MTV VMA-winning video and Emmy Award-winning film, television and theatre actress. ... Barry Manilow (born June 17, 1943) is an American singer and songwriter best known for such recordings as I Write the Songs, Mandy, Weekend in New England and Copacabana. ... See Marx brothers (fencing) for the 16th century German brotherhood. ... John Carroll OConnor (August 2, 1924 – June 21, 2001) was an Irish American actor, most famous for his portrayal of the character Archie Bunker in the television sitcoms All in the Family (1971-1979) and Archie Bunkers Place (1979-1983). ... Information Gender Male Age 50 (in 1974) Date of birth 1924 Date of death Unknown (still alive as of 1983) Occupation Blue Collar (19??-1978) Bar Owner (1979-????) Family Michael Stivic (son-in-law) Joey Stivic (grandson) Alfred Bunker (brother) Barbara Lee Billie Bunker (niece) Katherine Bunker (sister-in-law... Rosie ODonnell (born March 21, 1962 in Bayside, Queens, New York) is an 11-time Emmy Award-winning American talk show host, television personality, comedienne, film, television, and stage actress. ... Edward OLeary is a fictional Irish-American mobster villain in the 2007 Mafia Comedy thriller, You Kill Me. ... It has been suggested that Bill OReilly political beliefs and points of view be merged into this article or section. ... Jerome Bernard Orbach (October 20, 1935 – December 28, 2004) was an American actor best known for his starring role as wisecracking Detective Lennie Briscoe in the Law & Order television series and for his musical theater roles. ... Alfredo James Pacino (born April 25, 1940) is an Academy, Golden Globe, Tony, BAFTA, Emmy, and SAG award winning American actor who is best known for playing the roles of Tony Montana in the 1983 film Scarface and Michael Corleone in The Godfather Trilogy . ... Joseph Vincent Paterno (born December 21, 1926, in Brooklyn, New York), nicknamed JoePa, is the head coach of Pennsylvania State Universitys college football team, a position he has held since 1966. ... Rhea Perlman at the 1988 Emmy Awards. ... Joseph Frank Pesci (born February 9, 1943), commonly known as Joe Pesci, is an American Academy Award-winning actor, comedian and singer. ... Colin Quinn (born June 6, 1959 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American comedian, best known for his five years in the cast of Saturday Night Live. ... Regis Francis Xavier Philbin (born August 25, 1931) is an Emmy Award-winning American television personality best known for his roles as a talk show host, game show host, and presenter at various events. ... Charles Bernard Rangel Charles Bernard Rangel (born June 11, American politician. ... Michael David Rapaport (born March 20, 1970) is an American actor and a comedian. ... Sanji ) is a fictional character in the anime and manga One Piece. ... Charles Ellis Chuck Schumer (born November 23, 1950) is the senior U.S. Senator from the state of New York, serving since 1999. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (b. ... This article is about the comedian. ... Monroe Silver was an American actor and singer who was recognized as the best Jewish Dialect-accent performer. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Dee Snider (on right) David Daniel Dee Snider (born March 15, 1955) is an American musician, radio personality, and actor. ... Barbra Streisand (pronounced STRY-sand, IPA: ; born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, theatre and film actress, composer, liberal political activist, film producer and director. ... The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy act of the mid 20th century best known for their numerous short subject films. ... Marisa Tomei (born December 4, 1964) is an Academy Award-winning American film and stage actress. ... My Cousin Vinny is a 1992 American movie, released on Friday, 13 March, starring Joe Pesci and Marisa Tomei. ... Joseph Paul Torre (born July 18, 1940 in Brooklyn, New York) is a former Major League Baseball player and the current manager of the Los Angeles Dodgers. ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer, best known for his leading roles in films such as Saturday Night Fever, Grease and Pulp Fiction. ... Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946 in Queens, New York, New York) is an American business executive, entrepreneur, television and radio personality and author. ... John Michael Turturro (born February 28, 1957) is an Emmy Award-winning American actor noted for his performances in To Live and Die in L.A. (1985), The Color of Money (1986), Five Corners (1987), Men of Respect (1991), Quiz Show (1994), Monday Night Mayhem (1999), Secret Window (2004), The... Christopher Walken (born March 31, 1943) is an Academy Award-winning American film and theatre actor. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ...

See also

This article deals with lexical differences within American English; see American English regional differences for differences in phonology and grammar. ...

External links

  • Varieties of English: New York City phonology from the University of Arizona's Language Samples Project
  • William Labov's webpage There are links to many sites related to dialects, including references to his early work on New York dialect and the Atlas of North American English.
  • [2] A paper by Labov on dialect diversity, including information on NY dialect phonology.
  • The New York Latino English Project The site of the New York Latino English project, which studies the native English spoken by New York Latinos.
  • [3] A site with samples of speech in various dialects, including New York.

The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ...

References

  • Labov, William (1982) The social stratification of English in New York City Center for Applied Linguistics ISBN 0-87281-149-2
  • Labov, William (1973) Sociolinguistic Patterns U. of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 0-8122-1052-2*
  • Labov, William (1994) Principles of Linguistic Change: Volume 1: Internal Factors Blackwell ISBN 0-631-17914-3
  • Labov, William (2001) Principles of Linguistic Change: Volume 2: Social Factors Blackwell ISBN 0-631-17916-X
  • Labov, William (2007) "Transmission and Diffusion", Language June 2007
  • Labov, William, Sharon Ash, & Charles Boberg (2006) Atlas of North American English DeGruyter ISBN 3-11-016746-8
  • Newman, Michael (2005) "New York Talk" in American Voices Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward (eds). p.82-87 Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-2109-2
  • Slomanson, Peter & Michael Newman (2004) “Peer Group Identification and Variation in New York Latino English Laterals” English Worldwide, 25 (2) pp. 199-216 (http://www.benjamins.com/cgi-bin/t_seriesview.cgi?series=EWW)
  • Wolfram, Walt & Nancy Schilling Estes (2006) American English 2nd edition Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-1265-4
  • Wolfram, Walt & Ward, Ben (2005) American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-2109-2

 
 

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