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Encyclopedia > New York City Fire Department
Fire Department of New York
Motto: "New York's Bravest" (EMS' "New York's Best") [1]
Established 1898
Staffing Career
Strength 14,226 (11,600 Firefighters, 2626 EMT/Paramedics)
Stations 221
Engines 204
Trucks 142
Squads 7
Rescues 5
EMS Level CFR-ALS
Fire chief Chief of Department Salvatore Cassano
Commissioner Nicholas Scoppetta

The New York City Fire Department or the Fire Department of New York (FDNY) has the responsibility for protecting the citizens and property of New York City's five boroughs from fires and fire hazards, providing emergency medical services, technical rescue as well as providing first response to biological, chemical and radioactive hazards. Image File history File links New_York_City_Fire_Department_Emblem. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into human resources. ... This article is about the profession. ... Fire station in Kostroma, Russia (1823-26). ... For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ... For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ... In the fire service a Squad is a Engine Company with a compliment of rescue tools. ... A heavy rescue vehicle, often referred to as a rescue company, rescue squad, or simply heavy rescue, is a type of specialty firefighting apparatus. ... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... Fire Chief is a top executive rank in a fire department, either elected or appointed. ... Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ... Image:Nicholas Scoppetta2. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Five Boroughs redirects here. ... A repair locker hose team aboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67) combats a controlled fire on the mobile aircraft firefighting training device May 2, 2006. ...


The Fire Department of New York is the largest municipal fire department in the world with approximately 11,400 uniformed officers and firefighters. It faces an extraordinarily varied challenge. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are the many bridges and tunnels, large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to major brush fires, and the largest subway system on the planet. These challenges add yet another level of firefighting complexity and have led to the creation of the motto for FDNY firefighters of New York’s Bravest. Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... High-rise is a 1975 novel by J. G. Ballard. ...

Contents

History

1648 - 1865

The origins of the New York City Fire Deparmtment trace back to 1648 when the first fire ordinance was adopted in what then was the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam. Hooks, ladders and buckets were financed through the collection of fines for dirty chimneys and a fire watch was established consisting of eight wardens which were drawn from the male population. An organization known as the prowlers but given the nickname the rattle watch patrolled the streets with buckets, ladders and hooks from nine in the evening until dawn looking for fires. Leather shoe buckets, 250 in all, were manufactured by local Dutch shoemakers in 1658, and these bucket brigades are regarded as the beginning of the New York Fire Department.[2] A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ...


In 1664 New Amsterdam became a British settlement and was renamed New York.[3] The first New York fire brigade entered service in 1731 equipped with two hand-drawn pumpers which had been transported from London, England. These two pumpers formed Engine Company 1 and Engine Company 2. These were the first fire engines to be used in the American colonies, and all able-bodied citizens were required respond to a fire alarm and to participate in the extinguishing under the supervision of the Aldermen.[4] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A map of the Province of New York. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ...


The city's first firehouse was built in 1736 in front of City Hall on Broad Street. A year later, on December 16, 1737, the colony's General Assembly created the New York Fire Volunteer Fire Department, appointing 30 men who would remain on call in exchange for exemption from jury and militia duty. The city's first official firemen were required to be "able, discreet, and sober men who shall be known as Firemen of the City of New York, to be ready for service by night and by day and be diligent, industrious and vigilant."[4] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ...


1865 - 1898

Original sheet celebrating the official formation of the Metropolitan Fire Department, 1866.
Original sheet celebrating the official formation of the Metropolitan Fire Department, 1866.

In 1865 a state act was passed to create the Metropolitan Fire District and the Metropolitan Fire Department (MFD). The MFD lasted until 1870 when the Tweed Charter ended state control in the city. As a result, a new Board of Fire Commissioners was created and the establishment of the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) came into existence. The change met with a mixed reaction from the citizens, and some of the eliminated volunteers became bitter and resentful which resulted in both political battles and street fights. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1050x764, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): New York City Fire Department Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1050x764, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): New York City Fire Department Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William M. Boss Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878) was an American politician and head of Tammany Hall, the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the history of 19th century New York City politics. ...


Subsequently, the volunteers declared that they would accept the decision and, despite their disappointment, continue to function until properly relieved by paid units. Volunteer fire fighters were also given preference when the paid department recruited its members. With the introduction of the steam engine the need for volunteers to pump water disappeared, and the introduction of horses to draw the engines eliminated the problem of hauling fire engines by hand. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ...

Former headquarters of the Brooklyn Fire Department, near MetroTech Center, before its consolidation with NYC in 1898. Designed by architect Frank Freeman; built 1892.
Former headquarters of the Brooklyn Fire Department, near MetroTech Center, before its consolidation with NYC in 1898. Designed by architect Frank Freeman; built 1892.

Initially, the paid fire service only covered New York City (present day Manhattan), until the act of 1865 which united Brooklyn with New York to form the Metropolitan District. The same year the fire department consisted of 13 Chief Officers and 552 Company Officers and firemen. The officers and firemen worked a continuous tour of duty, with 3 hours a day off for meals and one day off a month, and were paid salaries according to their rank or grade. 1865 also saw the first adoption of regulations, although they were fairly strict and straitlaced. Image File history File linksMetadata Brooklyn_fire_headquarters. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brooklyn_fire_headquarters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


Following several large fires in 1866 which resulted in excessive fire losses and a rise in insurance rates, the fire department was reorganized under the command of General Alexander Schaler, and with military discipline the paid department reached its full potential which resulted in a general reduction in fire losses. In 1870 the merit system of promotion in the Fire Department was established. 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... One of the defining features of a professional military is a strict and sometimes elaborate code of courtesy. ... The merit system is the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections. ...


Southwestern Westchester County (which would later become the western Bronx) was annexed by New York in 1874 and the volunteers there were phased out and replaced by the paid department. This pattern was repeated as City services expanded elsewhere. One volunteer unit in the Bronx and five in Queens are still in operation, including Broad Channel VFD which has 102 years in service. Westchester County is a suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ... For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


1898 - 2001

On January 1, 1898 the different areas of New York were consolidated, which ushered the Fire Department into a new era. All the fire forces in the various sections were brought under the unified command of the first Commissioner in the history of the Fire Department. This same year Richmond (now Staten Island) became a part of the City of New York, but the volunteers units there remained in place until they were gradually replaced by paid units in 1915, 1928, 1932 and 1937 when only two volunteers units remained. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The unification of the Fire Department, which took place in 1898, would pave the way for many changes. In 1909 the Fire Department received its first piece of motorized fire engine. On March 25, 1911 a fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company killed 146 workers, most of whom where young female immigrants. Later the same year the fire college was formed to train new fire fighters, and in 1912 the Bureau of Fire Prevention was created. Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, causing the death of 146 garment workers who either died from the fire or jumped to their deaths. ...


In 1919 the Uniformed Firefighters Association was formed. Tower ladders and the Superpumper System (a fireboat on wheels) were introduced in 1965. Major apparatus of the Superpumper System (the Superpumper and the Supertender) was phased out in 1982, in favor of the Maxi-Water Unit. But the 5 Satellite Units of the system, together with the Maxi-Water Unit (known as Satellite 6 since 1999) are still actively used as of 2007 for multiple alarm fires and certain other incidents. These are now called the Satellite Water System. Other technical advances included the introduction of high pressure water systems, the creation of a Marine fleet, adoption of vastly improved working conditions and the utilization of improved radio communications. In 1982 the first female firefighters joined the ranks of the Fire Department, and on March 17, 1996 Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani merged the emergency medical services of the NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation into the FDNY. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Uniformed Firefighters Association is the main union of firefighters in the Fire Department of New York (FDNY). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


September 11, 2001 attacks

On September 11, 2001 terrorists associated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger aircraft and used these as weapons in order to attack targets in New York and Washington, DC during the September 11, 2001 attacks. Two aircraft, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 were flown by the terrorists into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, causing massive damage both during impact, when the jet fuel was consumed by fire, and finally when the buildings collapsed.[5] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... This article is about the state. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Flight 11 redirects here. ... United Airlines Flight 175 was a morning flight that regularly flew from Logan International Airport in East Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in Los Angeles, California. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ...


New York City firefighters were deployed to the World Trade Center minutes after the first aircraft struck the north tower. Chief officers set up a command center in the lobby as firefighters climbed up the stairs. A mobile command center was also set-up outside on Vesey Street, but was destroyed when the buildings collapsed. A command post was then set-up at a firehouse in Greenwich Village. The FDNY deployed 200 units to the site, with more than 400 firefighters on the scene when the buildings collapsed.[6] The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ...


Many firefighters arrived at the World Trade Center without meeting at the command centers. Problems with radio communication caused commanders to lose contact with many of the firefighters who went into the buildings; those firefighters were unable to hear evacuation orders. [7] There was practically no communication with the police, who had helicopters at the scene. When the towers collapsed, hundreds were killed or trapped within. Three hundred forty-three FDNY firefighters and paramedics who responded to the attacks on September 11, 2001 lost their lives, and countless others were injured. The casualties included First Deputy Commissioner William M. Feehan, Chief of Department Peter Ganci[6] and Department Chaplain Mychal Judge.[8] First Deputy Commissioner William M. Feehan (1929 - September 11, 2001) was a highly respected and admired member of the FDNY when he was killed in the line of duty at the age of 72 in the collapse of the World Trade Center in the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack. ... Peter J. Ganci, Jr. ... Father Mychal was the first official victim of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ...


Meanwhile, average response times to fires elsewhere in the city that day only rose by one minute, to 5.5 minutes.[9] Many of the surviving firefighters continued to work alternating 24-hour shifts. Firefighters and EMTs came from hundreds of miles around New York City, including numerous career and volunteer units in Upstate New York, Long Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.


2002 -

The quarters of Engine 205 and Truck 118 depict a mural dedicated to 9/11.
The quarters of Engine 205 and Truck 118 depict a mural dedicated to 9/11.

In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks the Fire Department has rebuilt itself and continues to serve the people of New York. During the 2003 North American blackout, FDNY was called on to rescue hundreds of people from stranded elevators in approximately 800 Manhattan high-rise office and apartment buildings. The entire fire department was called in to handle the many fires which resulted, reportedly from people using candles for light.[10] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... // A map of provinces and states that had areas of blackout, including minor ones. ...


At the beginning of the 21st century, there are 11,400 uniformed fire officers and firefighters under the command of the Chief of Department. The New York City Fire Department also includes 2800 Emergency Medical Technicians, Paramedics and Supervisors assigned to Department's EMS Command, and 1200 civilian employees.[2] The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... This article is about the Atlas Supervisor computer program. ...


Ideology and core competencies

Ladder 21 - "The Pride of Hell's Kitchen".
Ladder 21 - "The Pride of Hell's Kitchen".

The FDNY derives its name from the Tweed Charter which created the Fire Department of the City of New York. This is in contrast to most other fire departments in the U.S. where the name of the city precedes the word fire department.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 674 KB) Summary A fire truck in New York City Taken by me Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): New York City Fire Department Seagrave... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 674 KB) Summary A fire truck in New York City Taken by me Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): New York City Fire Department Seagrave... View from between 47th and 48th street on Ninth Avenue looking north toward Time Warner Center and Hearst Tower Hells Kitchen, also known as Clinton and Midtown West, is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City that includes roughly the area between 34th Street and 57th Street, from... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ...


Ideology

  • The FDNY ideology of aggressive interior fire attack grew naturally out of the building and population density that characterize the city. [12]
  • The contribution of Irish Americans to the FDNY dates back to the formation of the paid fire department. During the Civil War New York's Irish firefighters were the backbone of the New York Fire Zouaves (or 11th New York Volunteer Infantry), a highly decorated unit.[13] [14]
  • In addition to firefighting, rescue and HAZMAT, FDNY stations ambulances throughout the city and supplies paramedics and EMTs. Together with ambulances run by certain participating hospitals (or locally known as voluntaries, not to be confused with Volunteers) and private companies, it is known as the FDNY EMS Command, which is the largest pre-hospital care provider in the world, responding to over 1.3 million calls each year. All of the FDNY EMS Command members are also trained to the HAZMAT Operations level. Some EMS units are trained to the Haz Mat Technician level allowing them to provide emergency medical care and decontamination in a hazardous environment, in addition to their normal 911 duties.[15]
  • Members of the FDNY have the nickname "New York's Bravest".[16]
  • Members of the FDNY EMS have the nickname "New York's Best".[17]

Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... . ... HAZMAT is an abbreviation of “Hazardous Material”. Hazardous materials are any substances (solids, liquids, or gases) that are dangerous to the well-being of humans, animals, or the environment. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... Decontamination of humans is usually done by a three step procedure, separated by sex: removal of clothing, washing, and reclothing. ... This article is about the year 911 A.D.. For the emergency telephone number, see 9-1-1. ...

Core competencies

  • Saving of life and property
  • Fire suppression
  • Search and rescue
  • Structural evacuation
  • CBRNE/HAZMAT life safety and mass decontamination
  • Arson investigation. FDNY has a rank of fire marshal, between that of firefighter and fire lieutenant. NYC Fire Marshals work out of the Bureau of Fire Investigation, and may also assigned to the NYPD-FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF). All NYC Fire Marshals, having graduated from the FDNY Fire Academy as probationary firefighters, must attend the NYPD Police Academy for training in basic law enforcement, criminal investigation and the use of firearms. The marshals of the FDNY have statewide status of full-time police officers, carry firearms both on and off duty (optional), and make arrests for fire department related and occasionally non fire department related crimes. They may also be asked to do internal affairs investigations in the FDNY if criminal activity is suspected.
  • Fire protection inspections
  • Pre-hospital emergency medical care

Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism EMS in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency. ...

Statistics

Fire calls for 2006

For the period 1 January 2006, to 31 December 2006 the FDNY dealt with the following number of calls:[18]

  • Structural fires: 27,817
  • Non-structural fires: 20,702
  • Non-fire emergencies: 198,202
  • Medical emergencies: 209,397
  • Malicious false alarms: 28,836

There were 2,971 serious fires in 2006, defined as those declared 'all hands' or above in severity. Response times to incidents were roughly between two and a half, to six minutes from the time of call, depending on total activity and boro, with the quickest responses being in the Bronx, Manhattan and Brooklyn, and the slowest in Queens and Staten Island.


How incidents are received and transmitted

Ladder 21, a Seagrave apparatus.
Ladder 21, a Seagrave apparatus.

There are five ways in which fires can be reported in New York City: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1179 KB) personnal photograph. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1179 KB) personnal photograph. ... Seagrave Fire Apparatus LLC is a manufacturer of fire apparatus that specializes in pumper and rescue units, as well as aerial towers. ...

  • 1. TELEPHONE ALARMS - This is the most common method in which a civilian uses a telephone to dial one of the following:
      • (a) "9-1-1" (...where the call is routed through the N.Y.P.D.);
      • (b) a special, "7-digit telephone number" published in each borough for the specific purpose of reporting fires;
      • (c) "0" [i.e., zero] (...where the call is routed through a telephone company "operator").
  • 2. ALARM BOXES - The second most common method is by means of F.D.N.Y. alarm boxes in the street and in certain public buildings [e.g., schools, hospitals, etc.] as well as highways, bridges, etc. These consist of the following types:
      • (a) "mechanical" boxes (...also commonly called "pull-boxes" or "telegraph boxes"...) in which a spring-wound mechanism alternately opens and closes an electrical circuit thereby rendering a coded number linked to the specific location of the box; (Until the advent of the STARFIRE "C.A.D.S." [i.e., "Computer-Assisted Dispatch System"], dispatchers had to physically count the "taps" from mechanical boxes when they were received in the central offices. For a time, a "paper punch" system was also used, but it proved ineffective as the number and frequency of alarms from mechanical boxes increased significantly in the 1960s and '70s. Today, a "B.A.R.S." [i.e., "Box Alarm Readout System"] display handles that aspect of the job.)
      • (b) "E.R.S." [i.e., "Emergency Reporting System"] boxes that are equipped with both FDNY (Red Color) and NYPD (Blue Color) buttons allowing either department's dispatcher to have direct voice communication with a reporting party; (E.R.S. boxes began to replace mechanical boxes [...the earliest examples of which date back to the 1800s...] in many areas of the City beginning in the 1970s.)
  • 3. "CLASS 3" ALARMS - Less common than the other two means of reporting fires are so-called "Class 3"s which are routed through commercial alarm companies. These firms monitor sprinkler systems, standpipes, smoke detectors and internal pull-stations in non-public spaces such as factories, warehouses, stores, office buildings and the like. When alarms are received from such accounts, these outfits pass the information along to the F.D.N.Y. central offices usually by dedicated telephone circuits. (F.D.N.Y. "special building boxes" are also called "Class 3"s, but are relegated to public buildings, highways, etc., as noted above.)
  • 4. VERBAL ALARMS - It refers to an instance in which a civilian "verbally" reports a fire directly to a firehouse. The personnel in the station will attempt to investigate, or immediately respond to the incident. The house-watch (firefighter on front desk duty) will call the borough dispatcher to advise that they are going out on a "verbal" and will describe the nature of the incident as reported. The dispatchers will then transmit an appropriate response for the incident based on the description from the firehouse.
  • 5. RADIO ALARMS - This is an alarm given over FDNY radio to dispatchers from any member of the uniform force of the fire department, be it a firefighter or the Fire Commissioner. Most often these come from engines, ladders and battalion chiefs who are in the field, but they have been called in by fire marshals, chaplains and on at least one occasion, by the late Fire Commissioner and Chief of Department, John T. O'Hagan. The most recent major radio alarm was given by Engine 21 for the 2007 Con Edison Steampipe Explosion in Manhattan that went to six (6) alarms.

When a member of the public dials "911" they speak with an NYPD 911 operator who assigns the call to where it needs to go based on the information provided.

  • If it is police related, the information is sent to an NYPD radio dispatcher for the precinct or special unit concerned.
  • If it is on an interstate bridge or in a port or other body of water, the Port Authority of NY and NJ is notified.
  • If it is a fire, hazmat, or rescue incident, the NYPD 911 operator transfers the call by dedicated phone line to the appropriate FDNY borough fire alarm office. The FDNY also answers a few direct EMS calls, but most go by telephone directly to the FDNY EMS central office. EMS alarms that require a first responder will be computer switched to the appropriate borough fire alarm office, for an appropriate apparatus response.

Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... HAZMAT is an abbreviation of “Hazardous Material”. Hazardous materials are any substances (solids, liquids, or gases) that are dangerous to the well-being of humans, animals, or the environment. ... Rescue refers to operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury. ...

FDNY Bureau of Fire Communications Offices

Presently there are five (5) Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices, one for each of the five boroughs (counties) that make up New York City.


The initial call to an FDNY communications office is taken by the Alarm Receipt Dispatcher (ARD) who speaks with the caller in order to determine the nature of the emergency. The ARD enters the information by keyboard into the Starfire computer system, which gives a recommended response based on the information provided. This information is automatically sent to the Decision Dispatcher (DD)and the "Tour Supervising Dispatcher". Starfire can refer to a number of things: The F-94 Starfire is an American jet fighter plane A science-fiction novel by Charles Sheffield Starfire, the DC Comics superhero An office of the future prototype by Sun Microsystems A science fiction strategy game called Starfire, it is owned by...


When the Decision Dispatcher has made a decision as to what units will actually be assigned to the incident, unless the supervisor intervenes, he or she pushes the "release" button and the alarm is routed to the assigned companies, either in their firehouses or to the mobile data terminals (MDT) if their apparatus is in the field, depending on where the Starfire computer shows them to be situated. If a unit in a fire station does not acknowledge the run within 30 seconds, the computer will notify the voice alarm dispatcher who will call that unit in the station by the dedicated intercom system. One minute after the alarm is released, it will appear on the computer screen of the radio dispatcher, who will announce the alarm and the response two times and ask for acknowledgement from any units assigned who have not done so by radio, voice alarm or MDT. The radio dispatcher has a special keyboard called the Status Entry Panel "SEP" which he uses to update the status of units based on information he receives by radio.


The entire process from initial notification until a unit is dispatched can take up to two (2) minutes, depending on the complexity of the call, the information provided by the caller(s) and the degree of other alarm activity in the office. If a borough alarm office is so busy that its incoming telephone alarm lines are all busy or not answered within 30 seconds, the call is automatic transferred to another borough fire alarm office. If an ERS box is not answered with 60 seconds, usually because all of the Alarm receipt Consoles are in use, the computer automatically dispatches an engine company to the box location.


Any fire alarm office in NYC can take a fire or emergency call by telephone for any borough and upon completion of information taking, the incident will automatically be routed by the Starfire computer to the Decision Dispatcher (DD) for the borough in which the incident is reported.


Box Numbers

Each address in the city is assigned a box number, based on the closest street, special building or highway box. This gives the companies en route cross streets for the alarm. Box numbers can duplicate in different boroughs, which is why they are always identified by borough name or numerical prefix on the computer (66 for Bronx and Manhattan, 77 for Brooklyn, 88 for Staten Island and 99 for Queens). If there is also a street address given to the dispatchers, the responding apparatus will get this information in the firehouse, over the air, and via their mobile data terminals in the rigs. At present there are about 16,000 physical street boxes in New York City, with many additional special building boxes and highway boxes, as well as "dummy boxes" used for special response assignments. In addition there are two airport crash boxes, one in the LaGuardia Tower (Queens Box 37) and one in the JFK Tower (Queens Box 269), which can only be activated by the personnel in these towers. When either box is sounded it brings an automatic second alarm (2-2) response of equipment, along with various special units.


Critical Information Dispatch System

CIDS stands for Critical Information Dispatch System, and is pronounced by the dispatcher as "Sids". CIDS information which is transmitted to units in the firehouse and en route is information that is collected on a building during inspections and by public input, which would have an impact on fire-fighting operations. Such things as:

  • warehoused apartments,
  • type and length of line stretch (or hose),
  • number of apartments per floor,
  • unsafe conditions, standpipe conditions, and
  • anything else the Bureau of Fire Communications or the FDNY Staff Chiefs deem important

This information is printed on the fire ticket and can be read by the dispatcher if requested. This information is also read automatically when a signal 10-75 (working fire)or higher signal is given or when the supervising dispatcher deems it is important for the units to have it before arrival at an incident.


Alarm Levels

A Signal 10-75 is transmitted by the first arriving fire company for a working fire or other incident where it appears that the assigned companies will likely all be put to work at a fire or other emergency. Contrary to belief a 10-75 can be transmitted where the emergency is non-fire related but appears to require a full first alarm assignment. When a 10-75 is given a Rescue Company and a Squad Company are automatically assigned, unless they went on the box. In addition a third and fourth engine company and a F.A.S.T. truck (ladder company) are assigned, along with an additional battalion chief. Notification is made to the deputy (division) chief for the district, and he almost always asks for a fire ticket and starts his response.


When All Companies are put to work, the Signal 7-5 is transmitted over the Starfire computer system, but on the radio the listener will simply hear the terms "All Hands" or "All Companies at Work (or Working)". If the All Hands is in a subway or railroad facility, or any other location where communications might be difficult, a Field Communications Units is sent. A Deputy Chief is mandatorily assigned on transmission of the Signal 7-5, but he almost always has responded on the 10-75 signal.


Special calls for additional units above a Signal 7-5 are by number and type of unit. A Dispatcher's greater alarm, formerly used to fill out special call requests during busy periods of fire activity, has been eliminated from dispatch procedures.


Higher alarms bring additional ladders, engines and special equipment, depending on location and type of incident. Greater alarms are a Second (Signal 2-2), a Third (3-3) and Fourth (4-4) and a Fifth (5-5). Technically there are no alarms greater than a Fifth Alarm and no computer signals exists for them. If a chief asks for a sixth or higher alarm, it has to be written out as such in the computer and companies are assigned by the Supervising Dispatcher of the Tour. Borough calls and simultaneous calls, previously used for incidents that required more than a five alarm assignment, have been eliminated from dispatch procedures.


There are also certain special signals given for unique incidents.


A 10-76 is a signal for a working fire in a high-rise (more than 7 stories) commercial building or hotel.


A 10-77 signal is used if the high-rise is a residential building.


Both of these signals brings large numbers of special units to the scene.


A 10-60 is a signal for a major incident (such as the Manhattan Steampipe Explosion) that brings a major response of equipment to the scene.


A 10-66, the newest signal, is used for missing firefighters at an incident. It was first used at the August 2007 fatal fire in the Deutsche Bank Building, where a number of firefighters got lost in an illegal maze of demolition and asbestos removal structures, and where two veteran firemen were killed.


A 10-80 signal, which has a number of different levels, is used for Hazmat incidents and brings a variety of special units, depending on the level.


Any or all of these signals (10-76, 10-77, 10-60, 10-66 and 10-80) can be used in conjunction with a 10-75, and All Hands or a greater alarm, depending on circumstances. For example, at the aforementioned Deutsche Bank Building Fatal Fire in 2007, Seven Alarms were struck in addition to the use of the 10-76, 10-66 and 10-80 signals. The 2007 Manhattan Steampipe explosion utilized Six alarms, plus the 10-60 and 10-80 signals.


Organization

An FDNY deputy chief attempts to clear his eyes of soot during rescue efforts at the World Trade Center following the September 11, 2001 attacks.
An FDNY deputy chief attempts to clear his eyes of soot during rescue efforts at the World Trade Center following the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Like most fire department in the United States, the New York City Fire Department is organized in a paramilitary fashion.[19] The departments executive staff is divided into two areas including a civilian fire commissioner who is in charge of the department and a Fire Chief who is the operational lead. The current fire commissioner is Nicholas Scoppetta and the current fire chief is Salvatore Cassano. The 32-member executive staff includes the civilian fire commissioners who are responsible for bureaus within the Department, along with the Chief of Department, Chief of Fire Operations, Chief of EMS, the Chief Fire Marshal and the nine staff chiefs. Staff chiefs include the seven citywide tour commanders, the Chief of Safety, and the Chief of Fire Prevention.[20] The Fire Department of New York, like most fire departments around the world, is organized in a paramilitary fashion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1312x2000, 2085 KB) New York, N.Y. (Sept. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1312x2000, 2085 KB) New York, N.Y. (Sept. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The FDNY Commissioner is the head administrator for the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY). ... Image:Nicholas Scoppetta2. ...


Operationally and geographically, the department are nominally organised into five borough commands for the five traditional boroughs of New York. Within those Borough Commandsis exist nine divisions, each headed by a Deputy Chief. Within each division operate four to seven battalions, led a Battalion Chief and typically consisting of 180-200 firefighters and officers. Each battalion consists of four to eight companies, with a company being led by a Captain. He or she commands three lieutenants and 25 firefighters. Lastly, the unit consisting of the members of the company on call during a given shift.


Union representation

The Department's fire officers are represented by the Uniformed Fire Officers Association while firefighters and Fire Marshals are represented by the Uniformed Firefighters Association.[21] Fire Alarm Dispatchers are represented by the Fire Alarm Dispatchers Benevolent Association. EMTs and Paramedics are represented by the Uniformed EMTs & Paramedics and EMS officers are represented by the Uniform EMS Officers Union.[22] Uniformed Fire Officers Association is a union for fire officers in the Fire Department of New York. ... The Uniformed Firefighters Association is the main union of firefighters in the Fire Department of New York (FDNY). ...


FDNY EMS

Emergency medical services in New York City today are operated as a civilian, uniformed force within the New York City Fire Department and is the largest public, non-profit ambulance partnership in the world.[23] Before March 17, 1996, they were operated as NYC EMS by the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation. After that date, they became the Bureau of EMS (FDNY EMS), an operational unit of the FDNY which operates under the Chief of EMS, who in turn reports to the Chief of Department. is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. ...


The emergency medical technicians and paramedics of FDNY EMS respond to more than 1.2 million medical emergencies per year, or 3,300 per day.[23] Although prehospital care in New York City is controlled and dispatched by the Fire Department, approximately one third of the ambulances in the system are provided by the non-profit hospitals in New York City, the majority of these being in Manhattan and Queens. Although some hospitals have provided emergency ambulances for over 125 years, since the 1990s, dozens of hospitals have joined the 911 system, with many subcontracting actual ambulance operations to private ambulance providers.[24] The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


The New York City prehospital care system consists of three distinct levels. Certified First Responder engine companies, staffed by firefighters providing first aid, CPR, and defibrillation; basic life support ambulances, whose two EMTs provide first aid, defibrillation, and limited medication administration; and advanced life support ambulances, whose two paramedics provide critical care. Each level of response is divided into overlapping grids, with the closest FDNY first responder engine company responding to life-threatening emergencies, and the appropriate level of ambulance responding.[25] First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ...


While EMT's and paramedics work well professionally with the firefighters of New York City, there have been occasional "culture clashes" between EMS and Fire, for instance, a plan in 2006 to move ambulances into a firehouse in Queens drew an outcry from both the unions of the firefighters and EMS workers and was ultimately scrapped by the city.[26] This is due to several factors, the relative little attention paid to the sacrifices and achievements of EMS workers by the public in relation to that paid to firefighters, as well as the separate mindset that each respective job entails; firefighters must operate as a team and strictly and swiftly execute the orders they are given by their officers to achieve their goals, while EMT's and paramedics are expected to act overall independently without a great deal, if any, direct supervision or direction due to the nature of the job, and limited EMS resources.[citation needed]


Apparatus

FDNY Engine 6, an older Seagrave pumper which replaced the newer apparatus which was destroyed on 9/11/2001. The names of the four Engine 6 firefighters lost that day are written on the front door.
FDNY Engine 6, an older Seagrave pumper which replaced the newer apparatus which was destroyed on 9/11/2001. The names of the four Engine 6 firefighters lost that day are written on the front door.

In recent years, FDNY has used several fire apparatus manufacturers nearly exclusively. Beginning in the late 1970s, Mack and American LaFrance made most of the pumpers and ladder trucks in the FDNY fleet. In the late 1980s, Mack made only chassis and not apparatus bodies, so Ward was used for truck bodies. Often Mack would work with Baker Aerialscope to create its tower ladders. Mack left the fire apparatus business in the early 1990s and FDNY turned to Seagrave to develop its next generation of fire truck. FDNY's very specific specifications meant that few apparatus manufacturers could compete with Seagrave for the contract. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1104, 828 KB)Fire truck of the New York City Fire Department. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1104, 828 KB)Fire truck of the New York City Fire Department. ... Seagrave is a village and civil parish in the Charnwood district of Leicestershire, England. ... For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ... Mack Trucks is one of the worlds leading truck-manufacturing companies. ... American LaFrance (ALF) is an emergency vehicle manufacturer, based in Ladson, South Carolina. ... Fire Engine in South Bend, Indiana. ... A CE300 school bus made by IC Corporation transporting Houston ISD students. ... Seagrave Fire Apparatus LLC is a manufacturer of fire apparatus that specializes in pumper and rescue units, as well as aerial towers. ...


Most of the engines in FDNY's fleet are Seagrave Commander II's and include 500 gallon water tanks and either 1000 or 2000 gallon per minute pumps. The 2000gpm pumps are primarily located in the high-rise districts and are considered high pressure pumpers. With the loss of apparatuses which occurred as a result of the September 11 attacks, FDNY began to use engines made by other companies including Ferrara and E-One. The FDNY is making the move from a fixed cab to a "Split-Tilt" cab, so the Seagrave Marauder II Pumper will fill the FDNY's new order for 69 new pumpers. For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ... High-rise is a 1975 novel by J. G. Ballard. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... A Ferrara Quint. ... E-One or Emergence One Incorporated is an emergency services manufacturer and marketer based in Ocala, Florida. ...


Truck companies are generally equipped with Seagrave aerials. Ladder length varies and often depends on the geographic area to which the unit is assigned. Those in the older sections of the city often use tiller trucks to allow for greater maneuverability. Before Seagrave was the predominant builder, Mack CF's built with Baker tower ladders were popular. Most FDNY aerials are built with 75’, 95' or 100' ladders. Tiller ladders, rear mount ladders and tower ladders are the types of trucks used. For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ...


For specialty units, FDNY uses a variety of manufacturers. Its current heavy rescues, often called a 'toolbox on wheels' are made by Pierce (Rescue 1) and E-One/Saulsbury (Rescues 2-5). Other specialty units, including hazardous material units, collapse trucks, and reserve rescues are made by American LaFrance, Pierce, E-One and Freightliner. Various body types include standard heavy rescue bodies, step vans, busses and smaller units built on GMC and Ford pick up truck bodies. A heavy rescue vehicle, often referred to as a rescue company, rescue squad, or simply heavy rescue, is a type of specialty firefighting apparatus. ... 1999 Pierce Quantum Engine of Greenfields, PA. Pierce Manufacturing is an Appleton, Wisconsin-based manufacturer of fire trucks. ... E-One or Emergence One Incorporated is an emergency services manufacturer and marketer based in Ocala, Florida. ... A hazardous material (HAZMAT) is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans, other living organisms, or the environment due to being radioactive, flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, a biohazard, an oxidizer, an asphyxiant, or capable of causing severe allergic reactions. ...


FDNY chiefs generally operate with Chevrolet Suburbans and Ford Excursions at the Battalion level and Ford Crown Victorias at the Division level. As they come up for replacement, the Crown Victorias are being changed to Excursions at the Division level as well. This provides greater command options for the Deputy Chiefs who command the Divisions. This article is about a type of vehicle. ... The Ford Excursion is a full-size sport utility vehicle that was produced by the Ford Motor Company between model years 2000 and 2005. ... For the Police Interceptor version used by law enforcement, see Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor. ...


In addition to its engine, truck, and rescue companies, FDNY operates three fireboats as Marine Companies: The fireboat Guardian was a gift of survivors of the Loma Prieta earthquake to supplement San Franciscos fireboat Phoenix. ...

  • Marine 1 – John McKean
  • Marine 6 – Kevin C. Kane
  • Marine 9 – Firefighter
  • Reserve – Governor Alfred E. Smith

A former FDNY Marine Unit, the John J. Harvey, is notable as having returned to active service as Marine 2 on September 11, 2001 and providing firefighting services for 80 hours following the attack.[27] Firefighter was the most powerful diesel-electric fireboat, when built in 1938. ... Fireboat John J. Harvey Fireboat John J. Harvey The John J. Harvey is a fireboat formerly of the New York City Fire Department in New York City, famed for returning to service on 9/11. ...


FDNY in film and television

The New York City Fire Department has appeared in numerous films and television shows in recent years. One of the earliest was the 1972 documentary Man Alive: The Bronx is Burning, for BBC Television. It was screened in the United Kingdom on September 27, 1972 and followed firefighters from a fire house in the South Bronx: Battalion 27, Ladder 31 and Engine 82. It chronicled the appalling conditions the firefighters worked in with roughly one emergency call per hour, and the high rates of arson and malicious calls.[28] Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Man Alive was a popular documentary and current affairs series that ran on BBC Television from 1965 to 1981. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


The documentary focused heavily on firefighter Dennis Smith who served in the South Bronx area amd went on to write Report from Engine Co. 82 and a number of other books. He has become a prominent speaker on firefighting policy.[29] Dennis Smith is a former firefighter and is the best-known advocate for firefighters in the United States. ...


In 1991, brothers Brian Hickey, a New York City firefighter and his brother Raymond produced a documentary entitled Firefighters: Brothers in Battle.[30] The film features footage of fires and rescues throughout the five boroughs of New York City, including the infamous Happy Land Social Club fire which killed 87 persons, dramatic rescues from a crashed airplane off of La Guardia Airport, and footage and interviews at Medal Day 1991. Unfortunately, Raymond died of cancer in 1993 and Brian was killed on September 11, 2001 while operating at the World Trade Center.[31] Brian last served as Captain of Rescue Company 4 in Queens. The Happyland Fire killed 87 people trapped in an unlicensed social club called Happy Land in New York City, on March 25, 1990. ...


The 2002 documentary film 9/11 features the September 11, 2001 attacks from the perspective of the FDNY.[32] Two other documentaries include the 2005 film Brotherhood: Life in the FDNY, which focuses on Squad 252 in Brooklyn, Rescue 1 in Manhattan and Rescue 4 in Queens. A 2007 Scottish short film titled 343 was made by director Stephen Philip Donnelly in rememberence of the 343 firefighters killed on the 9/11 attacks. Also see: 2002 (number). ... 9/11 is a documentary film about the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks in New York, in which two planes crashed into the two buildings of the World Trade Center. ...


Television series about FDNY have included Rescue Me, which began airing in 2004 and depicts the fictional life of firefighters in a FDNY firehouse.[33] The NBC drama Third Watch ran from 1999 to 2005 and provided a fictionalized and highly dramatized depiction of the firefighters and paramedics of the FDNY and police officers of the New York City Police Department. While presented as a procedural drama, it had many glaring inaccuracies. Errors in geography, operational procedure, member duties, radio protocol, human pathology and appropriate treatment, unit designations, physics, tactics, and city and state laws and ordinances were common owing to dramatic license.[34] However, due to the popularity of the TV show, it had great influence on the general public's perception of how the FDNY operates.[34] This article is about the American television series. ... Third Watch is an NBC television drama set in New York City that ran from 1999 to 2005. ... NYPD redirects here. ...


See also

This article is about the 1835 fire. ... The New York City Fire Commissioner is the civilian administrator of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY). ... This article is about the salvage corps in New York City. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.fire-police-ems.com/books/bn2020.shtml
  2. ^ a b History of Fire Service. New York City Fire Department. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  3. ^ Dutch Colonization. National Parks Service. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  4. ^ a b Heroes of Ground Zero; FDNY: A History. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  5. ^ "We Have Some Planes". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  6. ^ a b Fritsch, Jane. "A Day of Terror - The Response: Rescue Workers Rush In, and Many Do Not Return", New York Times, September 12, 2001. 
  7. ^ Kevin Baker, "A Fate Worse than Bush: Rudy Giuliani and the Politics of Personality," Harpers, August 2007, p. 37, citing Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn, 102 Minutes: The Untold Story of the Fight to Survive Inside the Twin Towers (Times Books, 2002)
  8. ^ Dean E. Murphy. "Honoring the Rescuers", New York Times, September 17, 2001. 
  9. ^ Kevin Flynn and Jim Dwyer. "FIRE DEPT. LAPSES ON 9/11 ARE CITED", New York Times, August 3, 2002. 
  10. ^ The Great Northeast Blackout of 2003 (Powerpoint). Deputy Assistant Chief John Norman, FDNY. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  11. ^ http://nyfd.com/history/fdny.html - 1870
  12. ^ NYC Fire Museum - History of the FDNY
  13. ^ http://www.nyfirestore.com/irishemerald.html
  14. ^ http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/state/fire/41-50/ch42pt4.html
  15. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/html/history/ems.shtml
  16. ^ http://www.fire-police-ems.com/books/bn2020.shtml
  17. ^ Mayor of New York Press Release PR- 291-04 November 3, 2004
  18. ^ http://nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/stats/fire_cwsum_cy06.pdf
  19. ^ FDNY Photo Unit: Images of Heroes. Fire Department of New York. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  20. ^ FDNY Fire Operations response on September 11. Fire Department of New York. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  21. ^ Donna De La Cruz. FDNY Union Leaders Surrender After Protest. Firehouse.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  22. ^ EMT and Paramedic Frequently Asked Questions. New York City Fire Department. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  23. ^ a b I Am FDNY EMS. New York City Fire Department. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  24. ^ FDNY EMS/Participating Member/911 Ambulance. Urban Medical Systems of New York City, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  25. ^ "The Threats to Effective and Timely EMS Service in the City of New York", NYC EMS Authority, February 7, 2007, p. Online. 
  26. ^ FDNY Again Seeks Fire/EMS Blending. The Chief-Leader. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  27. ^ Historic Fireboat Aids in New York City Response and Recovery at World Trade Center. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  28. ^ Man Alive: The Bronx is Burning. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  29. ^ DennisSmith.com. Dennis Smith. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  30. ^ F.D.N.Y.: Brothers in Battle (1992). New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  31. ^ FDNY Captain Brian Hickey. New York City Fire Department. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  32. ^ 9/11 (2002) TV. The Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  33. ^ Denis Leary plays with fire on ‘Rescue Me’ (2006-08-08). Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  34. ^ a b Behind the scenes: Third Watch. Fire Chief (2000-12-01). Retrieved on 2007-11-30.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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New York City Fire Department - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3663 words)
The FDNY is the largest municipal Fire Department in the United States with 16,000 personnel and it faces an extraordinarily varied challenge.
These were the first fire engines to be used in the American colonies, and all able-bodied citizens were required respond to a fire alarm and to participate in the extinguishing under the supervision of the Aldermen.
Following several large fires in 1866 which resulted in excessive fire losses and a rise in insurance rates, the fire department was reorganized under the command of General Alexander Schaler, and with military discipline the paid department reached its full potential which resulted in a general reduction in fire losses.
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