FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > New Spain
Virreinato de Nueva España
Viceroyalty of New Spain

 

1519 – 1821
 

 

 

Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Spain
map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange.
Capital Mexico City
Language(s) Spanish
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Monarchy
King of Spain
 - 1535-1556 Charles I
 - 1813-1821 Ferdinand VII
Viceroy
 - 1535-1550 Antonio de Mendoza
 - 1821-1821 Juan O'Donojú
History
 - Spanish Conquest of Mexiko 1519
 - First viceking appointed 1535
 - Grito de Dolores 1810
 - Consummation of Mexican Independence 1821
Population
 - 1519 est. 20.000.000 
 - 1810 est. 7.657.300 
Currency Peso de Oro

The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España) was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia, North America, South America, and its peripheries from 1535 to 1821. The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (622x735, 157 KB) First page of the Codez Mendoza representing the Foundation of Tenochtitlan Postcortesian codex, prepared by tlacuilos by orders of Viceroy Mendoza int the year 1541 or 1542. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Image File history File links Sin_bandera. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_1821. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Spanish West Indies (also known as Las Antillas) consist of Cuba, Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic and Haiti), Puerto Rico, Jamaica (until the 1655) , the Cayman Islands, Trinidad (until 1797) and Bay Islands (until 1643). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Spanish East Indies is a term to describe Spanish possessions in Asia and Oceania. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of Spain in Plaza de Colón, Madrid. ... Coat of Arms of Spain (Official model) The current Coat of arms of Spain was approved by law [1] in 1981, when the present established replaced the interim version which, in turn, replaced the official arms of Francoist Spain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (939 × 720 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... It has been suggested that Regents: Iberian States be merged into this article or section. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Viceroys of New Spain Spanish Rule Before Appointment of Viceroy Hernán Cortés, as Governor-General . ... Don Antonio de Mendoza, conde de Tendilla, was the first Viceroy of New Spain, serving from 1535 - 1550. ... Juan ODonojú Juan ODonojú (1762, Seville, Spain—October 8, 1821, Mexico City) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Spain from July 21, 1821 to September 28, 1821, during Mexicos war of independence. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Statue of Miguel Hidalgo in front of church, Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato The Grito de Dolores was the call for insurrection against the authorities of Mexico given by Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810, in the town of Dolores, near Guanajuato. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


New Spain's territory included what is the Bay Islands (until 1643), Cayman Islands (until 1670), Central America (as far as the southern border of Costa Rica until 1821), Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (including Haiti until 1697), Jamaica (until 1655) Mariana Islands, Mexico, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Trinidad (until 1797) nearly all of the southwest United States (including all or parts of the modern-day U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and Florida), and claims as far north as British Columbia and Alaska, but the northern boundary of New Spain was redefined by the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. For at least part of its existence, New Spain also included Venezuela. Islas de la Bahía (Bay Islands) is one of the 18 departments (departamentos) into which the Central American nation of Honduras is divided. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... The Nootka Convention was a treaty between Spain and Great Britain in 1790 that averted a war between the two countries over overlapping claims to portions of the northwestern coast of North America. ... Alaska in 1895 (Rand McNally). ... The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1821, Spain lost continental territories when it recognized the independence of Mexico, as well as Santo Domingo when it was invaded by Haiti. However, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Spanish East Indies (including Mariana Islands and the Philippines) remained a part of the Spanish crown until the Spanish–American War (1898). Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Motto Dios, Patria, Libertad(Spanish) God, Homeland, Liberty Anthem Quisqueyanos valientes Capital (and largest city) Santo Domingo 1 Government Presidential Republic  -  President Leonel Fernández Independence from Haiti   -  Date 27 February 1844  Area  -  Total 48,442 km² (130th) 18,810 sq mi   -  Water (%) 1. ... Spanish East Indies is a term to describe Spanish possessions in Asia and Oceania. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Context

During this time, Spain, Europe, America and the viceroyalty experienced different historical, cultural, social, economic and political movements. In addition, the vastness of New Spain and its trade with China and Japan via the Manila Galleons (Nao of China), as well as the journeys of navíos under the Spanish flag in the 18th century which had to evade Caribbean pirates, encouraged complex and changing economic and military strategies, just as Spain changed from the Catholic Monarchs to the reyes liberales and to Joseph Bonaparte, the political doctrines that were adopted by Spain also affected the viceroyalty. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Manila Galleons were Spanish galleons that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain (now Mexico). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ...


History

During the Spanish Colonization of the Americas and Asia-Pacific, the Cross of Burgundy served as the flag of the Viceroyalties of New Spain.
During the Spanish Colonization of the Americas and Asia-Pacific, the Cross of Burgundy served as the flag of the Viceroyalties of New Spain.
Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington
Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington

Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... The Cross of Burgundy Flag was used by Spain from 1506-1785. ... Image File history File links Coronado-Remington. ... Image File history File links Coronado-Remington. ... The Hunters Supper, 1909, National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Frederic Remington (October 4, 1861 - December 26, 1909) was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of the American West. ...

Exploration and Settlement (1519–1643)

After the Spanish conquest of Mexico (15191521), the Council of the Indies was constituted in 1524 and the first Audiencia in 1527 in order to encourage further exploration and settlement in New Spain. In 1535, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Spain named Antonio de Mendoza New Spain's first viceroy. Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... The Consejo de Indias (Council of the Indies), in full the Real y Supremo Consejo de Indias (Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies) was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire, both in administering the Americas and in the Philippines, combining legislative, executive and judicial functions. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... An Real Audiencia (Spanish: Royal Audiency) was a Judicial District that functioned as an Appeals Court. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Don Antonio de Mendoza, conde de Tendilla, was the first Viceroy of New Spain, serving from 1535 - 1550. ...


Mendoza encouraged the exploration of Spain's new territories, as he commissioned the expeditions of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado into the American Southwest in 1540-1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo along the western coast of Alta California in 1542-1543, and Ruy López de Villalobos to the Philippines in 1542-1543. During the mid-16th century, many towns were founded, including San Miguel de Allende (1542) and Durango (1563) in Mexico. Along the Atlantic Coast of North America, Spain attempted to establish missions in Georgia (1568-1684) and South Carolina(15661587) and even once on the Chesapeake Bay on the Virginia Peninsula, the ill-fated Ajacan Mission(15701571), but was only successful in what is now Florida, where they established St. Augustine in 1565. In Mexico City itself, the Spanish undertook important public works, such as the construction of drainage works as a safeguard against perennial floods. Coronado Sets Out to the North, by Frederic Remington, 1861-1909 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (ca. ... João Rodrigues Cabrilho Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Portuguese: João Rodrigues Cabrilho) (ca. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... Ruy López de Villalobos (b. ... Panoramic view of San Miguel de Allende. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... The Spanish missions in the Carolinas were part of a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics in order to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... The Ajacan Mission was a failed attempt in the 16th century by Spanish Jesuit priests to settle and bring Christianize the Native Americans on the Virginia Peninsula in the New World. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ...


Seeking to develop trade between the East Indies and the Americas across the Pacific Ocean, Miguel López de Legazpi established the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines in 1565, which became the town of San Miguel. Andrés de Urdaneta discovered an efficient sailing route from the Philippines returning to Mexico. In 1570, the native city of Manila was conquered and trade links soon began in the Manila-Acapulco Galleons. The Manila-Acapulco galleons shipped products gathered from both Asia-Pacific and the Americas, such as silk, spice, silver, gold and other Asian products to Mexico. While Spanish-Mexican colonist brought with them Spanish or indigenous Mexican customs, religion, languages, foods and cultural traditions to the Philippines, Guam and the Mariana Islands. The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Miguel López de Legazpi (1502 - August 20, 1572, Manila), also known as El Adelantado (The Governor) and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish conquistador who established the first colony in the Philippine Islands in 1565. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Cebu City is the capital of the province of Cebu in the Philippines and is the second most important metropolitan center in the country. ... Andrés de Urdaneta (b. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... The Manila Galleons were Spanish galleons that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain (now Mexico). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Products brought from Asia-Pacific were sent to Veracruz and shipped to Spain and, via trading, to the rest of Europe. There were attacks on these shipments in the Gulf of Mexico by British and Dutch pirates or privateers led by Francis Drake in 1586 and Thomas Cavendish in 1587. In addition, the cities of Huatulco (Oaxaca) and Barra de Navidad in Jalisco were sacked. Lope Díez de Armendáriz, the first American-born viceroy of New Spain, formed the Armada de Barlovento, based in Veracruz, to patrol the Gulf coast and protect the ports and shipping from pirates and privateers. Map showing general definition of Asia-Pacific The term Asia-Pacific generally applies to littoral East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australasia near the Pacific Ocean, plus the states in the ocean itself (Oceania). ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that comprise Mexico. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Thomas Cavendish (1555-1592) was born in Trimley St. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Huatulco, Mexico (Cacaluta Bay). ... Barra de Navidad is a small town located on the western coast-line of the Mexican state of Jalisco. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 30,534. ... Lope Díez de Armendáriz, marqués de Cadereyta Lope Díez de Armendáriz, marqués de Cadereyta (sometimes Don Lope Díaz de Armendáriz) (born 1575 in Quito, Viceroyalty of Peru, died after 1639) was a Spanish nobleman and the first Criollo to be viceroy of... This article is about maritime piracy. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ...


In 1591, Luis de Velasco pacified many of the semi-nomadic Chichimeca tribes of northern Mexico. In 1598, Juan de Oñate founded the San Juan colony on the Rio Grande and pioneered the grandly named El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. The Native Americans at Acoma revolted against this Spanish encroachment but faced severe suppression. In 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno sailed as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California. In 1609, Pedro de Peralta, a later governor of the Province of New Mexico, established the settlement of Santa Fe at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Year 1591 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Luis de Velasco II Marqués de Salinas, Viceroy of New Spain and of Peru Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas (known as Don Luis de Velasco, hijo to distinguish him from his father) (ca. ... The Chichimeca are a group of nomads in northern Mexico. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Don Juan de Oñate Salazar (1552 – 1626) was a Spanish explorer, colonial governor of the New Spain (present-day Mexico) province of New Mexico, and founder of various settlements in the present day Southwest of the United States. ... San Juan is a census-designated place located in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail is a part of the United States National Historic Trail system. ... Photograph of Enchanted Mesa taken from Aaku - 1899 Acoma Pueblo (Western Keresan dialect: Aaku; Zuni: Hakukya), also known as Sky City, is a Native American pueblo built on top of a 367-foot (112 m) sandstone mesa in the U.S. state of New Mexico. ... This page is about the year. ... Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, Alta California, and Japan. ... A view of Monterey Bay Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean, on the coast of California, south of San Francisco. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... The following is a list of governors of the Province of New Mexico under the Viceroyalty of New Spain. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains located in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado in the United States. ...

View of the bay and city of Acapulco (1611-1632), mentioning the presence of "a ship from Japan".
View of the bay and city of Acapulco (1611-1632), mentioning the presence of "a ship from Japan".

In 1606, Spanish and allied forces established forts and trading posts in Ternate and Tidore (Maluku Islands) (Moluccas in eastern Indonesia), and remained until 1663. Contacts with Japan were established and Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent as ambassador in 1611. On the north coast of Taiwan, the Spaniards, Mexicans, Filipinos and other allies built Fort Santo Domingo near Keelung in 1626 and a mission in Tan-shui (1628), which they occupied until 1642 when they were driven out by a Dutch-led force. Some Pacific islands were visited by Spanish ships in the 16th century, but they made no effort to trade with or colonize them, including New Guinea (by Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545), Solomon Islands (by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa in 1568) and Marquesas Islands (by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira in 1595). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1080x672, 1195 KB) [edit] Summary Bay and city of Acapulco in Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1080x672, 1195 KB) [edit] Summary Bay and city of Acapulco in Mexico. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... Tidore is an island and town in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, just west of the larger island of Halmahera. ... Maluku redirects here. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, Alta California, and Japan. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Fort Santo Domingo was built by the Spanish in 1629 at Tamsui in the northwestern coast of Taiwan. ... Keelung City (Traditional Chinese: 基隆; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«lóng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jilóng; Wade-Giles: Chi-lung; POJ: Ke-lâng) is a provincial city of Taiwan, Republic of China. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Yñigo Ortiz de Retez was a 16th century Spanish navigator and explorer. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532 - 1592) was a Spanish explorer, author, historian, astronomer, scientist, and humanist. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ...


Great educational institutions were founded: The Colegio de Santa Cruz at Tlatelolco (1536), the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico (1553), the Colegio de San Ildefonso (1595) at Cebu City and the University of Santo Tomas (1611) at Manila. On March 25, 1544 Viceroy Mendoza promulgated the New Laws, intended to ease the plight of Indians under the system of forced labor. The Inquisition was established formally in 1571. In 1573 the Cathedral of Mexico City was begun. Tlaltelolco is an area in Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, a square surrounded on three sides by an excavated Aztec pyramid, the 17th century church Templo de Santiago, and the modern office complex of the Mexican foreign ministry. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... University of San Carlos Main Campus Talamban Campus The University of San Carlos (USC) in Cebu City is the oldest university in the Philippines. ... Nickname: Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City Coordinates: 10°17 N 123°54 E Country Region Province Cebu (capital) Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City Barangays 80 Incorporated (town) 1565 Incorporated (city) February 24, 1937 Government  - Mayor Tomas D.R. Osmeña (BO-PK/Lakas... The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines (or simply the University of Santo Tomas, UST or affectionately, Ustê), is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the New Laws of 1542 were created to prevent the exploitation of the indigenous people by the encomenderos. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


At Acapulco and Veracruz, Suárez instituted the Commercial Tribunal to regulate commercial affairs and to supervise two grand commercial fairs. In 1639 a bull of Pope Urban VIII prohibited slavery in Latin America, but Philip IV permitted the continuation of black slavery. Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, fourth count of La Coruña Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, 4th conde de la Coruña (Spanish: Don Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, cuatro conde de la Coruña) (ca. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... Pope Urban VIII (April 1568 – July 29, 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ...


The last Spanish Hapsburgs (1643–1713)

Spanish territory throughout the world.

The presidios (military towns), pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) The map illustrates the Spanish colonial possessions through out the world. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) The map illustrates the Spanish colonial possessions through out the world. ... Presidio is a place in the State of Texas in the United States of America: see Presidio, Texas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... The Spanish established various missions throughout the New World as they colonized it, often slightly tweaked due to regional differences. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ...


The U.S. (modern day New Mexico) town of Alburquerque was founded in 1660, the Mexican towns of Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez was in 1667, Santiago de la Monclova in 1689, Panzacola, Texas in 1681 or San Francisco de Cuéllar (now the city of Chihuahua) in 1709. From 1687, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino founded over twenty missions in the areas between the Mexican state of Sonora and the state of Arizona in the United States. From 1697, Jesuits established other 18 missions throughout the Baja California Peninsula. In 1668 Padre San Vitores established the first mission in the Mariana Islands (now Guam). Between 1687 and 1700 several Missions were founded in Trinidad, but only four survived as Amerindian villages throughout the eighteenth century. Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the largest city of New Mexico. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua formerly known as El Paso del Norte. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Monclova is a city in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the state in Mexico. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Bronze by Suzanne Silvercruys. ... The Spanish Missions of the Sonoran Desert are a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Jesuits and other orders to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier lands of its colony of New... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The assassination of Padre San Vitores in 1672 by Matapang and Hirao Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores (November 12, 1627-April 2, 1672) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary who founded the first Catholic church on the island of Guam. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Spanish Missions were established in the New World as part of the Spanish Colonisation of its new possessions. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Immersed in a low intensity war with Great Britain (mostly over the Spanish ports and trade routes harassed by British pirates), the defenses of Veracruz and San Juan de Ulúa, Jamaica, Cuba and Florida were strengthened. Santiago de Cuba (1662), St. Augustine Spanish Florida (1665) or Campeche 1678 were sacked by the British. The Tarahumara Indians were in revolt in the mountains of Chihuahua for several years. In 1670 Chichimecas invaded Durango, and the governor, Francisco González, abandoned its defense. In 1680, 25,000 previously subjugated Indians in 24 pueblos of New Mexico rose against the Spanish and killed all the Europeans they encountered. In 1685, after a revolt of the Chamorros, the Marianas islands were incorporated to the New Spain. In 1695, this time with the British help, the viceroy Gaspar de la Cerda attacked the French who had established a base on the island of Española. The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that comprise Mexico. ... San Juan de Ulúa is a large fortress on an island overlooking the seaport of Veracruz, Mexico. ... Santiago de Cuba is the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island nation of Cuba, some 540 miles (869 km) east south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... The Tarahumara are a Native American people of northern Mexico, renowned for their long-distance running ability. ... This article is about the state in Mexico. ... The Chichimeca are a group of nomads in northern Mexico. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Depiction of latte stone colonnades on the island of Tinian. ... Jan. ... Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza Don Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza, 8th conde de Gelves (January 11, 1653, Spain—March 12, 1697, Santa María, Spain) was viceroy of New Spain from November 20, 1688 to February 26, 1696. ... Please refer to Espanola. ...


Early in the Queen Anne's War, in 1702, the English captured and burned Spanish-held St. Augustine, Florida. However, the English were unable to take the main fortress of St. Augustine, resulting in the campaign being condemned by the English as a failure. The Spanish maintained St. Augustine and Pensacola for more than a century after the war, but their mission system in Florida was destroyed and the Apalachee were decimated in what became known as the Apalachee Massacre of 1704. In 1704 the viceroy Francisco Fernández de la Cueva suppressed a rebellion of the Pima Indians in Nueva Vizcaya. Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Pensacola is the name of several cities as well as other things: Pensacola (tribe), a group of Native Americans A number of places in the U.S. state of Florida: Pensacola, Florida An area airport, see Pensacola Regional Airport. ... Approximate area of the Apalachee culture region. ... The Apalachee Massacre was an episode that took place during Queen Annes War. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Francisco Fernández de la Cueva Enríquez, 10th Duke of Alburquerque, Viceroy of New Spain Don Francisco Fernández de la Cueva Enríquez, marqués de Cuéllar, 10th duque de Alburquerque (c. ... The Akimel Oodham or Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). ... NUEVA VIZCAYA. Nueva Vizcaya was the first province of northern Mexico to be explored and settled by the Spanish. ...


Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas reformed the postal service and the marketing of mercury. The trade with Siam and Cochinchina were increased, sending mercury, saltpeter and other mineral products. In 1701 the Tribunal de la Acordada (literally, Court of Agreement), an organization of volunteers intended to capture and quickly try bandits, was founded. The church of Virgin of Guadalupe, patron of Mexico, was finished in 1702. Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas, Bishop of Puebla, Viceroy of New Spain Don Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas (c. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Cochinchina, from Cochin China (see note below) (known locally as Nam Kỳ, meaning southern region), in French: Cochinchine) is a name for the southernmost part of Vietnam, lying southeast of Cambodia. ... Our Lady of Guadalupe (reproduction) San Juan Bautista, Coyoacán, DF Our Lady of Guadalupe is an aspect of the Virgin Mary, who, according to legend, appeared to Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Aztec convert to Catholicism, in the current borough of Gustavo A. Madero, in Mexico City in 1531. ...


The Bourbon Reforms (1713–1806)

See also: Louisiana (New Spain)

In 1720, the Villasur expedition from Santa Fe met and attempted to parley with French- allied Pawnee in what is now Nebraska. Negotiations were unsuccessful, and a battle ensued; the Spanish were badly defeated, with only 13 managing to return to New Mexico. Although this was a small engagement, it is significant in that it was the deepest penetration of the Spanish into the Great Plains, establishing the limit to Spanish expansion and influence there. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Villasur expedition (1720) was a Spanish military expedition intended to check the growing French presence on the Great Plains of central North America. ... Nuevo México (or, alternatively, Santa Fe de Nuevo México) was a province of New Spain and, after independence, a federally administered territory of Mexico. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ...


The War of Jenkins’s Ear broke out in 1739 between the Spanish and British and was confined to the Caribbean and Georgia. The major action in the War of Jenkins' Ear was a major amphibious attack launched by the British under Admiral Edward Vernon in March, 1741 against Cartagena de Indias, one of Spain's major gold-trading ports in the Caribbean (today Colombia). Combatants British Empire Spain Commanders Edward Vernon James E. Oglethorpe George Anson Charles Knowles Blas de Lezo Manuel de Montiano Andrés Reggio The War of Jenkins Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... Combatants Britain Spain Commanders Admiral Edward Vernon Lawrence Washington Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava Admiral Blas de Lezo † Strength 19,600 regulars 4,000 militia 186 ships 3. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...


Following the French and Indian War/Seven Years War, the British troops invaded and captured the Spanish cities of Havana in Cuba and Manila in the Philippines in 1762. The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Spain control over the New France Louisiana Territory including New Orleans, Louisiana creating a Spanish empire that stretched from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, but Spain also ceded Florida to Great Britain to regain Cuba, which the British occupied during the war. Louisiana settlers, hoping to restore the territory to France, in the bloodless Rebellion of 1768 forced the Louisiana Governor Antonio de Ulloa to flee to Spain. The rebellion was crushed in 1769 by the next governor Alejandro O'Reilly who executed five of the conspirators. The Louisiana territory was to be administered by superiors in Cuba with a governor onsite in New Orleans. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... This article is about the 1756–1763 war. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... The United States in 1810, following the Louisiana Purchase. ... NOLA redirects here. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Rebellion of 1768 was an attempt by Creole and German settlers around New Orleans, Louisiana to stop the handover of the New France Louisiana Territory to New Spain. ... List of Governors of Louisiana First French Era Sieur Sauvole de la Villantry 1699-1701 Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville 1701-1713 Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac 1713-1716 Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville 1716-1717 Jean-Michel de Lespinay 1717-1718 Jean-Baptiste Le... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... Alejandro OReilly (1722-1794) (originally: Alexander OReilly), was the second Spanish governor of colonial Louisiana, and the first Spanish governor of the territory to exercise power. ...


The 21 northern Missions in present–day Alta California (U.S.) were established along California's El Camino Real from 1769. In an effort to exclude Britain and Russia from the eastern Pacific, King Charles III of Spain sent forth from Mexico a number of expeditions to explore the Pacific Northwest between 1774 and 1791. The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... An early map traces the mission trail in Baja California as it existed in 1769. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Captain Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, circa 1785. ...

A Spanish army captures British in the Battle of Pensacola in 1781. In 1783 the Treaty of Paris returns all of Florida to Spain for the return of the Bahamas.

Spain entered the American Revolutionary War as an ally of France in June 1779, a renewal of the Bourbon Family Compact. In 1781, a Spanish expedition during the American Revolutionary War left St. Louis, Missouri (then under Spanish control) and reached as far as Fort St. Joseph at Niles, Michigan where they captured the fort while the British were away. On May 8, 1782, Count Bernardo de Gálvez, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, captured the British naval base at New Providence in the Bahamas. On the Gulf Coast, the actions of Gálvez led to Spain acquiring East and West Florida in the peace settlement, as well as controlling the mouth of the Mississippi River after the war—which would prove to be a major source of tension between Spain and the United States in the years to come. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, Governor-General José Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of Friends of the Country (1781). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (643x680, 112 KB)Spanish grenadiers pour into the ruins of Fort George at the Battle of Pensacola. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (643x680, 112 KB)Spanish grenadiers pour into the ruins of Fort George at the Battle of Pensacola. ... Combatants Spain Britain Commanders Bernardo de Gálvez John Campbell Strength 7,000 regulars and militia 3,000 regulars, sailors, militia, and natives Casualties 74 dead, 198 wounded 105 dead, 382 wounded, 2,213 captured The Battle of Pensacola marked the culmination of Spains reconquest of Florida from Britain... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article is about military actions only. ... A series of 18th century alliances between France, Spain and the Two Sicilies known as the Bourbon Family Compact or just the Family Compact (pactes de families in French), because the kingdoms were all ruled by members of the House of Bourbon. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Fort Saint Joseph was a fort near present day Niles, Michigan. ... Niles is a city located in Berrien County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Bernardo de Gálvez, Count of Gálvez Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez (Spanish: Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, vizconde de Gálveztown y conde de Gálvez) (July 23, 1746, Málaga, Spain—November 30, 1786, Mexico City) was... This article is about the U.S. State. ... (This article is about the island in the Bahamas. ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... Map of East and West Florida in 1810. ... This article is about the region. ... José Basco y Vargas was the 44th governor of the Philippines under Spanish colonial rule, from 1778 to 1787. ...

From Frank Bond, "Louisiana" and the Louisiana Purchase. Government Printing Office, 1912 Map No. 4.
From Frank Bond, "Louisiana" and the Louisiana Purchase.
Government Printing Office, 1912 Map No. 4.

In the second Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolution, Britain ceded West Florida back to Spain to regain The Bahamas, which Spain had occupied during the war. Spain then had control over the river south of 32°30' north latitude, and, in what is known as the Spanish Conspiracy, hoped to gain greater control of Louisiana and all of the west. These hopes ended when Spain was pressured into signing Pinckney's Treaty in 1795. France reacquired 'Louisiana' from Spain in the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800. The United States bought the territory from France in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. original Frank Bond hio? This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... original Frank Bond hio? This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Pinckneys Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. ... The Treaty of San Ildefonso (formally titled the Preliminary and Secret Treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana) was a secretly negotiated treaty between France... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ...


The Nootka Convention (1791) resolved the dispute between Spain and Great Britain about the British settlements in Oregon to British Columbia. The Nootka Convention was a treaty between Spain and Great Britain in 1790 that averted a war between the two countries over overlapping claims to portions of the northwestern coast of North America. ...


End of the Viceroyalty (1806-1821)

Spanish Florida would ultimately be acquired by the United States in 1819 under the Adams-Onís Treaty. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and... The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and...

Map showing results of the Adams-Onís Treaty.

After priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's Grito de Dolores (call for independence), the insurgent army began an eleven-year war that would culminate in triumph by the Mexicans, who then offered the crown of the new Mexican Empire to Ferdinand VII or to a member of the nobility that he would designate. After the refusal of the Spanish monarchy to recognize the independence of Mexico the ejército Trigarante (Army of the Three Guarantees) cut all political and economic ties with the Kingdom of Spain. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x654, 227 KB)[edit] Summary Map showing the results of the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x654, 227 KB)[edit] Summary Map showing the results of the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. ... The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and... Statue of Miguel Hidalgo, Coyoacán, DF Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811) was the chief instigator of Mexicos war of independence against Spain. ... Statue of Miguel Hidalgo in front of church, Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato The Grito de Dolores was the call for insurrection against the authorities of Mexico given by Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810, in the town of Dolores, near Guanajuato. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... The Bandera de las Tres Garantías (Flag of the Three Guarantees), carried by the Ejército Trigarante, as displayed at the General Archive of the Nation in Mexico City. ...


However, Cuba, the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico remained a part of the Spanish Crown until the Spanish–American War (1898). Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Politics

New Spain was organized into several subdivisions, including Nueva Extremadura, Nueva Galicia, Nueva Vizcaya and Nuevo Santander, as well as the Captaincies General of Guatemala, Cuba and Santo Domingo, and the Philippine Islands. Nueva Extremadura was a region in the north of New Spain. ... Nueva Galicia (New Galicia) was a region of New Spain. ... NUEVA VIZCAYA. Nueva Vizcaya was the first province of northern Mexico to be explored and settled by the Spanish. ... Nuevo Santander (New Santander) was a region of New Spain, corresponding generally to the modern Mexican state of Tamaulipas. ... Captaincy General (from the Spanish Capitanía General) is a division of a viceroyalty in colonial Spanish-America and the Spanish-Philippines, established in areas under risk of foreign invasion or Indian attack. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... The Philippine islands is a commonly mistaken description for the Philippines. ...


New Spain was ruled by a Mexico City-based viceroy appointed by the Spanish monarch. Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ...


Economy

To pay off the Spanish army that captured Mexico the soldiers and officers were granted large areas of land and the natives who lived on them as a type of feudalism. Although officially they could not become slaves, the system, known as encomienda, came to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, although its originators may not have set out with such intent. In short order the upper echelons of patrons and priests in the society lived off the work of the lower classes. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the indigenous peoples, Bishop Bartolomé de las Casas suggested bringing black slaves to replace them. Fr Bartolomé later repented when he saw the even worse treatment given to the black slaves. The other discovery that perpetuated this system was extensive silver mines discovered at Potosi and other places that were worked for hundreds of years by forced native labor and contributed most of the wealth flowing to Spain. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was the principal source of income for Spain among the Spanish colonies, with important mining centers like Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi and Hidalgo. The encomienda system was a trusteeship labor system used during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Bartolomé de las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... San Luis Potosí is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ...


There were several major ports in New Spain. There were the ports of Veracruz the viceroyalty's principal port on the Atlantic, Acapulco on the Pacific, and Manila near the South China Sea. The ports were fundamental for overseas trade, stretching a trade route from Asia, through the Manila Galleon (also known as the Nao de China) to the Spanish mainland. The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that comprise Mexico. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... Acapulco (Officially: Acapulco de Juárez) is a city and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 300 km (190 miles) southwest from Mexico City. ... “Pacific” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... Filipino name Tagalog: Luzon Sea Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Manila Galleons were Spanish galleons that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain (now Mexico). ...


There were ships that made two voyages a year between Manila and Acapulco, whose goods were then transported overland from Acapulco to Veracruz and later reshipped from Veracruz to Cádiz in Spain. So then, the ships that set sail from Veracruz were generally loaded with merchandise from the Orient originating from the commercial centers of the Philippines, plus the precious metals and natural resources of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. During the sixteenth century, Spain held the equivalent of US$1.5 trillion (1990 terms) in gold and silver received from New Spain. Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... A gold nugget A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Nevertheless, these resources did not translate into development for the Metropolis (mother country) due to Spanish Roman Catholic Monarchy's frequent preoccupation with European wars (enormous amounts of this wealth were spent hiring mercenaries to fight the Protestant Reformation), as well as the incessant decrease in overseas transportation caused by assaults from companies of British buccaneers, Dutch corsairs and pirates of various origin. These companies were initially financed by, at first, by the Amsterdam Stock Market — the first in history and whose origin is owed precisely to the need for funds to finance pirate expeditions —, as later by the London market. The above is what some authors call the "historical process of the transfer of wealth from the south to the north." Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 A metropolis (in Greek μήτηρ, mÄ“tÄ“r = mother and πόλις, pólis = city/town) is a big city[1], in most cases with over half a million inhabitants in the city proper, and with a population of at least one million living... “Reformation” redirects here. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ...


Demographics

The role of epidemics

Spanish settlers also brought with them smallpox, typhus, and other diseases. Most of the settlers had developed an immunity from childhood, but the indigenous peoples lacked the needed antibodies since these diseases were totally alien to the American native population at the time. There were at least three separate epidemics that decimated the population: Smallpox (152021), measles (154548) and typhus (157681). Of the estimated 8 to 20 million of the original prehispanic population, less than two million are believed to have survived. At the end of the 16th century, New Spain was a depopulated country with abandoned cities and maize fields. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


Conversely, syphilis apparently had its origin in America and was introduced from there into Europe. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ...


The role of the interracial mixing

With the conquest a new ethnic group was created: the mestizo, a result of the conquerors taking native women, turning out to be in practice, a measure against revolt by the natives and beginning the mixing of both cultures. Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço...


Most of these lands were dominated by Spanish landowners and their white descendants. Europeans, in fact, totally dominated the politics and economy of colonial Mexico. Mestizos came next, and native peoples occupied the lowest rung of society.


The majority of the Spanish colonists were men with no wives available and married or made concubines of the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization. As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage and secret mistresses, a vast class of people known as mestizos and mulattos came into being. But even if mixes were common, the white population tried, largely successfully even today, to keep their status. After the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported. A system was created to keep each mix in a different social level: El sistema de castas (the casta system). Each different mix had a name and different privileges or prohibitions. There were even two different kinds of whites, those born in Spain, later referred to as peninsulares (in Spanish, people born in the Peninsula, i.e. the Iberian Peninsula), who got all the upper level positions and higher paying jobs. At a lower level, those born in America, or criollos took the next lower layer of desirable jobs. Mestizos and then mulattos were next, followed by the unmixed natives, zambos (Amerindian mixed with black), and blacks, respectively. The Spanish peninsulares tried by all means to keep their status, even if they took native women. Those who were wealthy enough also tried to have a Spanish wife, who was sent to give birth in Spain to prevent their children from becoming criollos. In spite of the sistema de castas, the Amerindians and the Mestizos were taught the religion and the language of the Metropoli (Spanish), and they were even allowed to become members of the religious orders or even priests. Moreover, efforts were made to keep the Amerindian cultural aspects which did not violate the Catholic traditions. As an example, some Spaniards learned some of the Amerindian languages (as early as in the XVI century) and developed a Grammar for them so that they could be easily transmitted. This was similarly practiced by the French colonists. On the other hand, the idea of sharing the language and the religion of the natives was deeply rejected in the British colonies of North America (and later in the United States of America) and their culture was ignored, despised and eventually obliterated. Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... Look up Casta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Criollo, in the Spanish colonial Casta system (caste system) of Latin America, was a person born in the Spanish colonies deemed to have purity of blood in respect to the individuals European ancestry. ...


Mestizos and criollos were nevertheless not allowed in the upper levels of the government or any other position of power, and eventually they joined forces for the independence of Mexico. With independence, the caste system and slavery were theoretically abolished, however it can be argued that, despite the peninsulares left back to Europe or merged with the criollos, the latter replaced them in terms of power.


Thus, Mestizos, while they no longer have a separate legal status from other groups, comprise approximately 60–65% of the population. Whites, who no longer have a special legal status, are thought to be about 15–20% of the population and still have most of the desirable jobs. In modern Mexico, mestizo has became more a cultural term, since a Native American that abandons his traditional ways is considered a mestizo. Also, most Afromexicans prefer to be considered mestizo, since they feel more identified with this group.


The role of the Catholic church

The conquistadores brought with them the Catholic faith and a lot of priests, to which the population was seemingly rapidly converted. Because of their joint action in getting rid of the Moors in Spain, the Catholic Church was basically regarded as an arm of the Spanish government, since the Spanish Crown at the time can't be understood nowadays without considering its ties to Catholicism as opposed to Muslims and Protestantism. It was soon found that most of the natives had adopted "the god of the heavens", as they called it, as just another one of their many gods. While it was an important god, because it was the god of the conquerors, they did not see why they had to abandon their old beliefs. As a result, a second wave of missionaries began a process attempting to completely erase the old beliefs, and thus wiped out many aspects of Mesoamerican culture. Hundreds of thousands of Aztec codices were destroyed, Aztec priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the old gods were destroyed. Even some foods associated with religion, like amaranto, were forbidden. Eventually, in some areas some of the natives were declared minors and forbidden to learn to read and write, so they would always need a government manager in charge of them to be responsible of their indoctrination. Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under Spanish rule between the 15th and 17th centuries. ... For other uses, see moor. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... Species See text The amaranths (also called pigweeds) comprise the genus Amaranthus, a widely distributed genus of short-lived herbs, occurring mostly in temperate and tropical regions. ... The term minor (from Latin smaller, lesser) has several meanings: Minor is a legal term for a young person, see Minor (law). ...


During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain. Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed by native labor in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints and various religious topics such as "San Luis Potosí" (after St. Louis) and "Vera Cruz" ("True Cross"). Nickname: Location of San Luis Potosí in central-north Mexico Country Mexico State San Luis Potosí Founded 3 November 1592 Government  - Mayor Jorge Lozano Armengol ( PAN) Area  - City 385 km²  (148. ... Veracruz from space, July 1997 The city of Veracruz is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. ...


The Spanish Inquisition, and its descendant, the Mexican Inquisition, continued to operate in the Americas until Mexico declared its independence. This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... T he Mexican Inquisition was the extension of the Spanish Inquisition to Mexico, in 1571. ...


Culture

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ramírez

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was one of the principal centers of European cultural expansion in America. The viceroyalty was the basis for a racial and cultural mosaic of the Spanish American colonial period. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (635x888, 313 KB)Painted in 1750 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (635x888, 313 KB)Painted in 1750 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


The first printing press in the New World was brought to Mexico in 1539, by printer Juan Pablos (Giovanni Paoli). The first book printed in Mexico was entitled La escala de San Juan Climoca. In 1568, Bernal Díaz del Castillo finished La Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. Figures such as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and Juan Ruiz de Alarcón stand out as some of the viceroyalty's most notable contributors to Spanish Literature. In 1693, Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora published El Mercurio Volante, the first newspaper in New Spain. Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ... Sor Juana (12 November 1651 (or 1648, according to some biographers) – 17 April 1695), also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz or, in full, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ramírez, was a self taught Mexican scholar, nun, and writer of the... Juan Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza (1581? - August 4, 1639), was a Mexican dramatist. ... The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora (August 14, 1645 – August 22, 1700) was one of the first great intellectuals born in the Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. ...


Architects Pedro Martínez Vázquez, Manuel Tolsá and Lorenzo Rodriguez produced some fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic architecture known as Mexican Churrigueresque in the own capital, Ocotlan, Puebla or remote silver-mining towns. Bust of Manuel Tolsá, by Martín Soriano Manuel Tolsá (Enguera, Valencia, Spain, May 4, 1757—Mexico City, December 24, 1816) was a prolific Neoclassical architect and sculptor in Spain and Mexico. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Ocotlán is a municipality in Jalisco, Mexico. ... Nickname: Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531 Government  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area  - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ...

The facade of the church of St. Sebastian y Santa Prisca in Taxco (1751-58) bristles with Mexican Churrigueresque ornamentation.
The facade of the church of St. Sebastian y Santa Prisca in Taxco (1751-58) bristles with Mexican Churrigueresque ornamentation.
The Manila Cathedral before the 1880 earthquake
The Manila Cathedral before the 1880 earthquake

The magnificent fourth Manila Cathedral was constructed in 1654 to 1671. Image File history File links Taxco_Santa_Prisca. ... Image File history File links Taxco_Santa_Prisca. ... Santa Prisca church in Taxco Aerial view of Taxco Taxco (full name: Taxco de Alarcón) is an antique colonial silver-mining center located in the northern reaches of the Mexican state of Guerrero. ... Manila Cathedral before the earthquake of 1880. ... Manila Cathedral before the earthquake of 1880. ... The Manila Cathedral before the 1880 earthquake Manila Cathedral facade The Manila Cathedral, also known as the minor basilica of the Immaculate Conception, was the seat of the Archbishop of Manila during the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, and still remains the ecclesisastical seat of the Archdiocese of Manila. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ...


The Spanish viceregal government blocked the diffusion of liberal ideas during the Enlightenment, the French Revolution and the United States War of Independence at a time when it tolerated no other religion than the Catholic faith. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Netherlands, Spain, allies British Empire, German states, allies Commanders George Washington Comte de Rochambeau Nathanael Greene William Howe Henry Clinton Charles Cornwallis Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties {{{casualties1}}} {{{casualties2}}} {{{notes}}} The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War for Independence, was the military...


Criticism of the Spanish presence

Spanish presence on the American continent tends to be criticized very passionately, especially because of the disappearance of its preexisting cultures: those civilizations were crushed and replaced by the Spanish colonial government due to the superior firepower and tactics of the Spanish conquistadors, internal unrest, and various diseases. It was not until the 20th century that a broad anthropological effort was initiated to rescue and preserve the cultural elements that belonged to those civilizations. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


The Spanish reign of the 18th and 19th centuries instituted a society of castes based on racial differences where blacks and indigenous peoples were treated like slaves and the political and religious oligarchy was comprised exclusively of peninsulares, and did not allow criollo (American-born of European ancestry), mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish), or mulato (mixed African and Spanish) society to participate in decision making. This structure was similar to the rule of the rest of European powers. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... In the colonial caste system of Spanish America, a peninsular was a citizen born in the metropolitan part of the Spanish Empire, modernly called just Spain, in Iberian Peninsula. ... Criollo, in the Spanish colonial Casta system (caste system) of Latin America, was a person born in the Spanish colonies deemed to have purity of blood in respect to the individuals European ancestry. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... Representation of Mulattos during the Latin American colonial period Mulatto (also Mulato) is a term of Spanish and/or Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a Sub-Saharan African and a European. ...


Various instances of submissive indigenous peoples who were being poorly treated by their conquerors, coupled with the diseases brought from Europe which decreased the regional workforce, eventually provoked the kingdom of Spain to of laws that tried to lend order to the treatment of the indigenous peoples, legislating against the abuse of the original population by the encomenderos, royal designees who controlled the land and had a feudal-like right to indigenous labor. The Spanish laws to be applied in the American colonies were known as the Leyes de Indias, inspired in the work of Bartolomé de Las Casas, who is considered one of the most influential human rights advocate of all times. The encomienda system was a trusteeship labor system used during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The Laws of the Indies (Leyes de Indias in Spanish) are a set of guidelines signed by King Phillip II of Spain to instruct Spanish colonists on how to create and expand towns in Spanish America. ... Bartolomé de las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ...


The introduction of the horse had a profound impact on Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America, too. The horse offered revolutionary speed and efficiency, both while hunting and in battle. The horse also became a sort of currency for native tribes and nations. Horses became a pivotal part in solidifying social hierarchy, expanding trade areas with neighboring tribes, and creating a stereotype both to their advantage and against it. The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ...


See also

Anahuac is an ancient name for a Mesoamerican, particularly Aztec, area or areas, usually identified as located within or even coterminous with the Valley of Mexico. ... Captain Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, circa 1785. ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... Mexico is a country of North America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. ... The history of the Philippines begins with the arrival of the first humans in the Philippines by land bridges at least 30,000 years ago. ... Viceroys of New Spain Spanish Rule Before Appointment of Viceroy Hernán Cortés, as Governor-General . ... During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the New Laws of 1542 were created to prevent the exploitation of the indigenous people by the encomenderos. ... Spanish East Indies is a term to describe Spanish possessions in Asia and Oceania. ... The Spanish Missions of the Sonoran Desert are a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Jesuits and other orders to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier lands of its colony of New... The Valladolid Debate (1550 to 1551) was a debate concerning the existence of souls in the natives of the so-called New World. ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ...

References


Spanish Missions:
  Arizona | Baja California | California | Carolinas | Florida | Georgia | Mexico  
  New Mexico | Sonoran Desert | South America | Texas | Trinidad | Virginia  
Santa Barbara Mission


Beginning in 1493, the Kingdom of Spain maintained a number of missions throughout Nueva España (New Spain, consisting of Mexico and portions of what today are the Southwestern United States) in order to facilitate colonization of these lands. ... Misión Santa Rosalía de Mulegé in Baja California Sur. ... The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... The Spanish missions in the Carolinas were part of a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics in order to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans. ... Beginning in the Sixteenth century, the Kingdom of Spain established a number of missions throughout la Florida in order to convert the Indians to Christianity, to facilitate control of the area and to prevent its colonization by other countries, in particular, England and France. ... Beginning in 1493, the Kingdom of Spain maintained a number of missions throughout Nueva España (New Spain, consisting of Mexico and portions of what today are the Southwestern United States) in order to facilitate colonization of these lands. ... The Spanish Missions of the Sonoran Desert are a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Jesuits and other orders to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier lands of its colony of New... The Spanish missions in South America comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics in order to spread the Christian doctrine among the local natives. ... The Spanish Missions in Texas comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land. ... Spanish Missions were established in the New World as part of the Spanish Colonisation of its new possessions. ... The Ajacan Mission was a failed attempt in the 16th century by Spanish Jesuit priests to settle and bring Christianize the Native Americans on the Virginia Peninsula in the New World. ... Image File history File links PNG File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Spanish Empire
Viceroyalties: New Spain · Peru · New Granada · Rio de la Plata
Real Audiencias: Mexico · Guadalajara · Guatemala · Manila · Santo Domingo
Lima · Cusco · Chile · Bogota · Panama · Caracas · Quito · Buenos Aires · Charcas
Captancies General: Philippines · Cuba · Yucatan · Guatemala · Venezuela · Chile · Puerto Rico

  Results from FactBites:
 
New Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2226 words)
New Spain was ruled by a Mexico City-based viceroy appointed by the Spanish monarch.
New Spain's territory included what is now Mexico and Central America (as far as the southern border of Costa Rica), and nearly all of the southwest United States, including all or parts of the modern-day U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
The port of Veracruz was the viceroyalty's principal port on the Atlantic Ocean and the port of Acapulco its main harbor on the Pacific.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m