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Encyclopedia > New Persian
Persian
فارسی (transliteration: fārsi), پارسی (transliteration:pārsi)
Spoken in: Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and neighboring countries. 
Region: Middle East, Central Asia
Total speakers: 61 million native
110 million total 
Ranking: 19th (native speakers)
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Iranian
   Western Iranian
    Southwestern Iranian
     Persian 
Official status
Official language of: Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Regulated by: Academy of Persian Language and Literature
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Language codes
ISO 639-1: fa
ISO 639-2: per (B)  fas (T)
ISO/DIS 639-3: variously:
prs — Eastern Persian
pes — Western Persian
tgk — Tajik
aiq — Aimaq
bhh — Bukharic
deh — Dehwari
drw — Darwazi
haz — Hazaragi
jpr — Dzhidi
phv — Pahlavani 

Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and in Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. It is known as The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects (443 according to the SIL estimate), including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and Southern Asia. ... The Indo-Iranian languages are the language links between India and Iran. ... task manager disable ---- please help ... Irans Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی in Persian) is a governmental body presiding the use of the Persian language in Iran. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Aimaq is a dialect of the Persian language of Afghanistan spoken in West of the Hazara, central northwest Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Tajikistan. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Dehwari is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken by over 20,000 people in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with the main deviation from Farsi and Dari being a larger borrowing of Turkic and Mongolian vocabulary. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Prior to British colonization, Persian was also widely used as a second language in the Indian subcontinent; it took prominence as the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts in the subcontinent throughout the Middle Ages and became the "official language" under the Mughal emperors. Only in 1832 did the British force the subcontinent to begin conducting business in English instead of the traditional Persian. [1] Evidence of its former rank in the region can still be seen by the extent of its influence on Hindi and Urdu, as well as the popularity that Persian literature still enjoys in the region. Persian and its dialects have official-language status in the countries of Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. According to CIA World Factbook, there are 61 million native speakers of Persian in Iran [1], Afghanistan [2], Tajikistan [3] and Uzbekistan [4]. It belongs to the Indo-European language family, and is of the Subject Object Verb type. UNESCO was asked to select Persian as one of its languages in 2006.[5] Transliteration is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dari is the local written name for the Persian language in Afghanistan used mainly in official papers. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) The Indian subcontinent is a peninsular landmass of the Asian continent occupying the Indian Plate and extending into the Indian Ocean, bordered on the north by the Eurasian Plate. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Hindi (हिन्दी hind), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in North, Central, and West India, is the official language of the Indian Union. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Persian literature (in Persian: ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects (443 according to the SIL estimate), including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and Southern Asia. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of the Persian language

Persian is a member of the Indo-European family of languages, and within that family it belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch. Scholars believe the Iranian sub-branch consists of the following chronological linguistic path: Old Iranian (Avestan and Old Persian) → Middle Iranian (Pahlavi Middle Persian and several other languages) → Modern Iranian (Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, and several other languages), c. 900 to present. The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects (443 according to the SIL estimate), including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and Southern Asia. ... The Indo-Iranian languages are the language links between India and Iran. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the hymns of the Zoroastrian holy book, the Avesta. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Kurdish (Kurdî) is an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ...


Old Persian, the main language of the Achaemenid inscriptions, should not be confused with the non-Indo-European Elamite language (see Behistun inscription). Over this period, the morphology of the language was simplified from the complex conjugation and declension system of Old Persian to the almost completely regularized morphology and rigid syntax of Modern Persian, in a manner often described as paralleling the development of English. Additionally, many words were introduced from neighboring languages, including Aramaic and Greek in earlier times, and later Arabic and to a lesser extent Turkish. In more recent times, some Western European words have entered the language (notably from French and English). See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests. ... Morphology is a subdiscipline of linguistics that studies word structure. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... In linguistics, declension is a paradigm of inflected nouns. ... Syntax, originating from the Greek words συν (syn, meaning co- or together) and τάξις (táxis, meaning sequence, order, arrangement), can in linguistics be described as the study of the rules, or patterned relations that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The language itself has greatly developed during the centuries. Due to technological developments, new words and idioms are created and enter into Persian like any other language. In Tehran the Academy of Persian Language and Literature is a center that evaluates the new words in order to initiate and advise their Persian equivalents. In Afghanistan, the Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan does the same for Afghan Persian(Dari). Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran View from Jamaran looking southwest toward Elahiyeh, Jordan, and Shemiran districts of Tehran. ... Irans Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی in Persian) is a governmental body presiding the use of the Persian language in Iran. ...


Nomenclature

Persian, the more widely used name of the language in English, is an Anglicized form derived from Latin *Persianus < Latin Persia < Greek Persis, a Hellenized form of Old Persian Parsa. Farsi is the Arabicized form of Parsi, due to a lack of the /p/ phoneme in Standard Arabic. Native Persian speakers typically call it “Fārsi” in modern usage. ISO, the Academy of Persian Language and Literature, and many other sources call the language Persian. The government of Afghanistan uses both “Dari” and “Persian” in English communications. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Irans Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی in Persian) is a governmental body presiding the use of the Persian language in Iran. ...


The Academy of Persian Language and Literature (as detailed here) as well as many lexicographers have announced that “Farsi” is not the appropriate term to use for the Persian language in English. In the ISO 639-1, the local names form the basis for the language codes and for this reason “fa” is the designation for the Persian language in that system. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Academy of Persian Language and Literature. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ...


Dialects and close languages

The region where Persian and other Iranian languages are spoken
Enlarge
The region where Persian and other Iranian languages are spoken

Communication is generally mutually intelligible between Iranians, Tajiks, and Persian-speaking Afghans; however, by popular definition:

  • Dari is the local name for the eastern dialect of Persian, one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, including Hazaragi — spoken by the Hazara people of central Afghanistan.
  • Tajik could also be considered an eastern dialect of Persian, but, unlike Iranian and Afghan Persian, it is written in the Cyrillic script.

Ethnologue offers another classification for dialects of Persian language. According to this source, dialects of this language include the following:[6] Dari is the local written name for the Persian language in Afghanistan used mainly in official papers. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with a significant deviation from it to be on the borderline of being a separate language. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ...

  • Western Persian (in Iran)
  • Eastern Persian (in Afghanistan)
  • Tajik (in Tajikistan)
  • Hazaragi (in Afghanistan)
  • Aimaq (in Afghanistan)
  • Bukharic (in Israel, Uzbekistan)
  • Dehwari (in Pakistan)
  • Darwazi (in Afghanistan)
  • Dzhidi (in Israel)
  • Pahlavani (in Afghanistan)

The following are some of the closely related languages of various Iranian peoples within modern Iran proper: Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with a significant deviation from it to be on the borderline of being a separate language. ... This article is about the Aimaq people. ... Judeo-Persian was a language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. ...

Mazandarani or Tabari is an ancient Iranian language of the northwestern branch. ... Mazandaran (مازندران in Persian) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ... Gileki or Giliki (Gilaki in Persian) is a northwestern Iranian language and is spoken in Irans Gilan province. ... Guilan or Gilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... The Tat language is an Indo-Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group. ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... Zanjan (زنجان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Qazvin province contains fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ... The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ... Dari is the language of the Zoroastrians of Iran. ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Kerman Kerman (in Persian: کرمان) is a city in Iran. ... Dari is the language of the Zoroastrians of Iran. ...

Orthography

Dehkhoda's personal handwriting; a typical cursive Persian script.
Dehkhoda's personal handwriting; a typical cursive Persian script.

The vast majority of modern Persian text is written in a form of the Arabic alphabet. In recent years the Latin alphabet has been used by some for technological or internationalization reasons. Tajik, which is considered by many linguists to be a Persian dialect influenced by Russian, is written with the Cyrillic alphabet in Tajikistan (but not in Afghanistan). Image File history File linksMetadata Dehkhoda_note. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dehkhoda_note. ... Ali Akbar Dekhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting in which all the letters in a word are connected, making a word one single (complicated) stroke. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Arabic Alphabet

Main article: Persian alphabet
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Persian alphabet. (Discuss)

Modern Persian is normally written using a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet with different pronunciation of the letters. It has been suggested that Persian language#Arabic Alphabet be merged into this article or section. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Persian language#Arabic Alphabet be merged into this article or section. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ...


Script adoption

After the conversion of Persia to Islam (see Islamic conquest of Iran), it took approximately one hundred fifty years before Persians adopted the Arabic alphabet as a replacement for the older alphabet. Previously, two different alphabets were used for the Persian language (Middle Persian, or Pahlavi, at that time): one was also called Pahlavi and was a modified version of the Aramaic alphabet, and the other was a native Iranian alphabet called Dîndapirak (literally: religion script). The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Islam(Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic religion based on the Quran. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ...


Additions

The Persian alphabet adds four letters to the Arabic alphabet, due to the fact that four sounds that exist in Persian do not exist in Arabic, as they come from separate language families. Some people call this modified alphabet the Perso-Arabic alphabet. The additional four letters are: The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...

sound shape Unicode name
[p] پ Peh
[tʃ] (ch) چ Tcheh
[ʒ] (zh) ژ Jeh
[g] گ Gaf

Variations

Many Persian words with an Arabic root are spelled differently from the original Arabic word. Alef with hamza below ( إ ) always changes to alef ( ا ); teh marbuta ( ة ) usually, but not always, changes to teh ( ت ) or heh ( ه ); and words using various hamzas get spelled with yet another kind of hamza (so that مسؤول becomes مسئول). For Hamza, the letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ...


The letters different in shape are:

sound original Arabic letter modified Persian letter name
[k] ك ک Kaf
[j] (y) and [iː], or rarely [ɑː] ي or ى ی Yeh

The diacritical marks used in the Arabic script, a.k.a. harakat, are also used in Persian, although some of them have different pronunciations. For example, an Arabic Damma is pronounced /u/, while in Persian it is pronounced /o/. In Arabic orthography, harakat are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds. ... In Arabic orthography, harakat are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds. ...


The Persian variant also adds the notion of a pseudo-space to the Arabic script, called a Zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) by the Unicode Standard. It acts like a space in disconnecting two otherwise-joining adjacent letters, but does not have a visual width. The zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerized typesetting of some cursive scripts, such as the Arabic script or the Korean hangul script. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...


Extensions to other languages

The features of the Persian variant have been taken for other languages, such as Pashto or Urdu, and have sometimes been further extended with new letters or punctuation. Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pathan, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the western provinces of Pakistan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Latin Alphabet

The Universal Persian (UniPers / Pârsiye Jahâni) Alphabet is a Latin-based alphabet created over 50 years ago in Iran and popularized by Mohamed Keyvan, who used it in a number of Persian textbooks for foreigners and travellers. It sidesteps the difficulties of the traditional Arabic-based alphabet, with its multiple letter shapes and ambiguous spellings, and fits particularly well in contemporary electronically written media. UniPers (Pârsiye Jahâni) is a simple Latin-based alphabet uniquely designed to facilitate the reading and writing of the Persian language. ...


The "International Persian Alphabet" (IPA2)[7], commonly called Pársik, is another Latin-based alphabet developed in recent years mainly by A. Moslehi, a comparative linguist, as a project defined and maintained under the authority of Persian Linguistics Association. It is claimed to be the most accurate and regular one among Latin-based Persian alphabets in which many linguistic aspects of Modern Persian have been observed; however, its rules are not as simple as that of UniPers. IPA, here, stands for International Persian Alphabet and 2 is both to differentiate this abbreviation from that of the renowned International Phonetic Alphabet and to accitentally indicate version 2. ...


Fingilish, or Penglish, is the name given to texts written in Persian using the Basic Latin alphabet. It is most commonly used in chat, emails and SMS applications. Fingilish (Farsi + English) (also Pinglish or Penglish, Finglish, Pingilish or Fingilish) is a term used to describe the way Persian words are written in Latin alphabet. ... Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... Online chat can refer to any kind of communication over the internet, but is primarily meant to refer to direct 1 on 1 chat or chat rooms, using tools such as instant messenger applications—computer programs, Internet Relay Chat, talkers and possibly MUDs, MUCKs, MUSHes and MOOes. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... SMS arrival notification on a Siemens phone Short Message Service (SMS) is a service available on most digital mobile phones (and other mobile devices, e. ...


Phonology

Main article: Persian phonology

The Persian language has six vowels and twenty-three consonants, including two affricates /ʧ/ (ch) and /ʤ/ (j). Historically, Persian distinguished length: the long vowels /i:/, /u:/, /ɑ:/ contrasting with the short vowels /e/, /o/, /æ/ respectively. Modern spoken Persian, however, generally does not make this distinction anymore. The Persian language has six vowels and twenty-three consonants, including one glide //, and two affricates // and //. Vowels Diachronically, Persian possessed a distinction of length in its underlying vowel inventory, contrasting the long vowels , , with the short vowels , , . In Modern Persian, this distinction of quantity is neutralized in most environments...














Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Consonants
 
labial

apico-dentals

post-alveolars

velars

glottals

 voiceless stops
p
t
ʧ
k
ʔ
 voiced stops
b
d
ʤ
g
 
 voiceless fricatives
f
s
ʃ
x
h
 voiced fricatives
v
z
ʒ
ɣ
 
 nasals
m
n
     
 liquids  
l, r
     
 glides    
j
   

Note that /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ are affricates, not stops.


Grammar

Main article: Persian grammar

Suffixes predominate Persian morphology, though there are a small number of prefixes. Verbs can express tense and aspect, and they agree with the subject in person and number. There is no grammatical gender for nouns, nor are pronouns marked for natural gender. Persian grammar is similar to many other Indo-European languages, especially those in the Indo-Iranian family. ... It has been suggested that natural gender be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, natural gender refers to biological sex, i. ...


Normal declarative sentences are structured as “(S) (PP) (O) V”. This means sentences can be comprised of optional subjects, prepositional phrases, and objects, followed by a required verb. If the object is specific, then the object is followed by the word rɑ: and precedes prepositional phrases: “(S) (O + “ɑ:”) (PP) V” [2] The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. ... A prepositional phrase is a linguistic term for a phrase whose head is a preposition. ... An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. ... A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ...


Vocabulary

There are many loanwords in the Persian language, mostly coming from Arabic, English, French, and the Turkic languages. A loanword is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ...


Persian has likewise influenced the vocabularies of other languages, especially Indo-Iranian languages and Turkic languages. Many Persian words have also found their way into the English language. See List of English words of Persian origin. The Indo-Iranian languages are the language links between India and Iran. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... As fellow Indo-European languages, English and Persian have many words which share a common Proto-Indo-European origin, and many of these cognate words often have similar forms. ...


See also

Irans Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی in Persian) is a governmental body presiding the use of the Persian language in Iran. ... Hindu-Arabic numerals also known as Arabic Numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... The history of Urdu (اردو) is a fascinating story involving history, linguistics, ethnicity, religion, and national identity. ... As fellow Indo-European languages, English and Persian have many words which share a common Proto-Indo-European origin, and many of these cognate words often have similar forms. ... The list is not comprehensive but is continuously being expanded and includes writers and poets from Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and India. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Persian grammar is similar to many other Indo-European languages, especially those in the Indo-Iranian family. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... The Persian language has six vowels and twenty-three consonants, including one glide //, and two affricates // and //. Vowels Diachronically, Persian possessed a distinction of length in its underlying vowel inventory, contrasting the long vowels , , with the short vowels , , . In Modern Persian, this distinction of quantity is neutralized in most environments... The Persian language was crucial in the formation of a common language of the Central, North and Northwest regions of the [Indian subcontinent]. Following the Mughal conquest of India and the resulting vast Islamic empire, especially in the North and middle areas, a hybrid language of Arabic, Persian, and local... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Academy of Persian Language and Literature. ...

References

  1. ^ Clawson, Patrick. Eternal Iran, 2005, ISBN 1403962766, Palgrave Macmillan, p.6
  2. ^ Mahootian Shahrzad, Bernard Comrie, Persian, London, Routledge, 1997

London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ...

External links

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , , or ) is an international Web-based cooperative free-content encyclopedia. ...

Further reading

  1. Mace, John (2003), Persian Grammar: For reference and revision, London: Routledge-Curzon.
  2. Schmitt, Rüdiger (1989), Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag.
  3. Windfuhr, Gernot L. (1987), "Persian" in Bernard Comrie, ed., The World's Major Languages, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 
 

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