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Encyclopedia > New People's Army

The New People's Army (NPA), is a paramilitary group fighting for communist revolution in the Philippines. It was formed on March 29, 1969. The Maoist NPA fights a "protracted people's war" as the military wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP). The NPA is classified as a terrorist organization by the US and the EU.[1][2] A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... It has been suggested that Proletarian revolution be merged into this article or section. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893&#8211... Peoples war (also called protracted peoples war) is a military strategy invented by Mao Zedong. ... The New Peoples Army, or NPA, is a communist-based revolutionary group in the Philippines, formed in December 1969. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


The NPA's roots can be traced from the Hukbalahap, the armed wing of the earlier pro-Soviet Philippine Communist Party. The Huks first mobilized and fought against the Japanese Empire's occupation of the Philippines during World War II. Under the leadership of Luis Taruc and communist party General Secretary Jose Lava, the Hukbalahap continued waging guerrilla warfare against the United States and the first independent governments before largely surrendering to President Ramon Magsaysay in 1954. By the early 1960s, the communist Huk campaign was waning. The Hukbalahap was the militant arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), formed in 1942 to fight the Japanese occupation in the Philippines during World War II. The term is a contraction of the Filipino term Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon which means Peoples Army... Soviet redirects here. ... Communist Party of the Philippines (in Tagalog: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is a communist party in the Philippines. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Luis Taruc (June 21, 1913 - May 4, 2005) was a Philippine Communist political figure and revolutionary. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was the third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...

Contents

Formation

After the Sino-Soviet split, communist parties around the world fractured into pro-USSR and Maoist groups. The upstart Communist Party of the Philippines broke from the older Soviet-line Philippine Communist Party on December 26, 1968. Three months later, on March 29, 1969, the CPP reformed the vanguard party's old militia the Huks and renamed them the New People's Army, on the anniversary of the date that the guerilla resistance against Imperial Japan was formed in 1942. The formation was created when José María Sison and Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. met with a former Huk, Bernabe Buscayno, aka:"Commander Dante". The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... A Communist party is a party which promotes Communism. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893&#8211... The New Peoples Army, or NPA, is a communist-based revolutionary group in the Philippines, formed in December 1969. ... Communist Party of the Philippines (in Tagalog: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is a communist party in the Philippines. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... A vanguard party is a political party or grassroot organization at the forefront of a mass action, movement, or revolution. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The Hukbalahap was the militant arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), formed in 1942 to fight the Japanese occupation in the Philippines during World War II. The term is a contraction of the Filipino term Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon which means Army of the... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Jose Maria Sison aka Armando Liwanag José Maria Sison, born February 8, 1939 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, is a writer and intellectual who reorganized the Communist Party of the Philippines by combining elements of Maoism. ... For the municipality, see Sen. ...


The NPA follows Maoism, claiming to fight for that ideology's concept of "New Democracy." Starting out with 60 fighters and 34 rifles, the NPA quickly spread throughout the Philippine Islands during the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. After the declaration of Martial Law in 1972, thousands of students came into the ranks. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For different uses of the term, including political parties with the name New Democracy, see New Democracy (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth president of the Philippines, serving from 1965 to 1986. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


At its peak, there were believed to be over 25,000 fighters in the early 1980's.


However, leadership from the CPP were jailed in the middle of the 1970s, including Jose Maria Sison. The remaining leadership of the NPA continued guerilla warfare but began committing human rights violations, extortion, kidnappings and urban insurrection. This deviated from the NPA's political line of guerilla warfare and mass work in the countryside. Jose Maria Sison aka Armando Liwanag José Maria Sison, born February 8, 1939 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, is a writer and intellectual who reorganized the Communist Party of the Philippines by combining elements of Maoism. ...


Second Great Rectification Movement

In the 1990s, internal criticism about mistakes in the 1980s led to the Second Great Rectification Movement, launched in 1992 and largely completed in 1998, leading to a resurgence in the Philippine revolution. The Second Rectification ended a massive internal purge of the movement that killed thousands of partisans and members on accusations of being deep penetration agent by the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine intelligence community. Former NPA fighter Robert Francis Garcia chronicled the wild murders in his book To Suffer Thy Comrades and organized the Peace Advocates for Truth, Healing and Justice (PATH), a group composed of survivors of the "purges" and the families of victims and their friends and supporters. Seal of the Philippine Army Seal of the Philippine Navy Seal of the Philippine Air Force Seal of the Philippine Marine Corps The Armed Forces of the Philippines or AFP (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas) originated in the establishment of the Philippine Scouts in 1901. ... The National Intelligence Coordinating Agency or NICA is the primary intelligence collection and analysis arm of the Philippine government in charge in carrying out overt, covert, and clandestine intelligence programs. ...


The NPA claims responsibility for the assassination of U.S. Army Colonel Nick Rowe, founder of the U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape course, in 1989. Colonel Rowe was part of a military assistance program to the Philippine army. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Image:Nikkirowe. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ...


Post 9/11

This group was designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the United States in August 2002 and by the European Union in November 2005.[1][2] The NPA's founder, Jose Maria Sison, lives in the Netherlands in self-imposed exile. The NPA operates mostly in the rural areas. The NPA's targets often include politicians, military, police, criminals, landlords, business owners and occasionally U.S. agents in the Philippines. It is not uncommon for elements of the NPA to collect "revolutionary taxes" from small businesses and aspiring politicians in their area.[3] In 1995 the CPP issued a communique approving of same-sex relationships and in 2005 the first gay marriage of two NPA cadre was performed.[4] Terrorist redirects here. ... August 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December // See also: Afghanistan timeline August 2002 Israeli-Palestinian conflict: A Palestinian suicide bombing claims 9 lives, near Safed; there is a shooting attack in Jerusalem, claiming 2; there is an attack upon a settler family, killing... Ongoing events • Abramoff-Reed gambling scandal • Al Jazeera bombing memo • Avian influenza (H5N1) outbreak • Black sites scandal • Conservative leadership race (UK) • Fuel prices • Irans nuclear program • Jilin chemical plant explosions • Kashmir earthquake • Malawi food crisis • Malaysian prisoner abuse scandal • New Delhi bombings investigation • Niger food crisis • North Indian cyclone... Jose Maria Sison aka Armando Liwanag José Maria Sison, born February 8, 1939 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, is a writer and intellectual who reorganized the Communist Party of the Philippines by combining elements of Maoism. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... CPP may refer to: CPP, Inc. ... Homosexuality may refer to: A sexual orientation characterized by aesthetic attraction, romantic love, and sexual desire primarily for members of the same sex or gender identity. ...


The group is nothing more than bandits at a national scale. The New People's Army has completely lost its purpose and has resorted to acts of terrorism and extortion.


The Arroyo administration has been negotiating intermittently with delegates of NPA in European countries. The young Gloria Macapagal (far right) and her family; when this picture was taken, her father Diosdado was the President of the Philippines. ...


In March 2007 Rep. Satur Ocampo was arrested on charges of murder relating to purges within the CPP/NPA alleged to have occured during the 1980s.[5]


References

  1. ^ a b Powell, Colin (2002-08-09). Designation of a Foreign Terrorist Organization. U. S. State Department. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  2. ^ a b Council Decision of 21 December 2005. EU Council (2005-12-13). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  3. ^ Pelovello, Roy. "Reds sell 'permit to win'", Manila Standard Today, 2007-02-21. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  4. ^ von Metze, Ross (2005-01-01). Gay communist rebels marry in Philippines. Gmax.co.za. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  5. ^ "Filipino MP held over 1980s murders", Aljazeera.net, 2007-03-17. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.

General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Manila Standard Today is the fourth largest broadsheet newspaper in the Philippines as of 2006. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... It should also be noted that Aljazeera. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ...

External links

  • Project Ploughshares - Armed Conflict Report 2002, Philippines-CPP/NPA
  • U.S. Embassy in Manila - Philippine Communist Party Designated Foreign Terrorist Group
  • Statement of the NDFP Negotiating Panel in defense to the U.S. declaring CPP/NPA as a terrorist organization
  • New People's Army Extract of article about NPA's tactics and strategy, May 2006 (full article needs subscription)
  • Video Demonstration of NPA "sparrow unit" assassination techniques Short documentary; no actual violence.

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