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Encyclopedia > New Orleans Jazz

Dixieland music is a style of jazz. Dixieland developed in New Orleans, Louisiana at the start of the 20th century, and spread to Chicago, Illinois and New York City, New York by New Orleans bands in the 1910s, and was, for a period, quite popular among the general public. It is often considered the first true type of jazz, and was the first music referred to by the term jazz (before 1917 often spelled jass). Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikisource, as part of the 1911 Encyclopedia Wikiproject, has original text related to this article: Music Meta has a page about this at: Music markup MusicNovatory: the science of music encyclopedia The... Jazz master Louis Armstrong remains one of the most loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ... New Orleans (local pronunciations: , , or ) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced in standard French accent) is a major U.S. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... ... New York, New York redirects here. ... // Events and trends The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... Jazz master Louis Armstrong remains one of the most loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ...

Contents


History

The style combined earlier brass band marches, French Quadrilles, ragtime and blues with collective, polyphonic improvisation by trumpet, trombone, and clarinet. Ragtime is an American musical genre, enjoying its peak popularity around the years 1900–1918. ... The blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on a pentatonic scale as well as a characteristic twelve-bar chord progression. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of several independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Improvisation is the act of making something up as it is performed. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium, and tuba. ... A lip-reed aerophone with a predominantly cylindrical bore, the trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A bass clarinet, which sounds an octave lower than the more common B♭ soprano clarinet. ...


The term Dixieland became widely used after the advent of the first million-selling hit records of the Original Dixieland Jass Band in 1917. The music has been played continuously since the early part of the 20th century. Louis Armstrong's All-Stars was the band most popularly identified with Dixieland, although Armstrong's own influence runs through all of jazz. Shown are (left to right) Tony Sbarbaro (aka Tony Spargo) on drums; Edwin Daddy Edwards on trombone; D. James Nick LaRocca on cornet; Larry Shields on clarinet, and Henry Ragas on piano. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Louis Daniel Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971) (also known by the nicknames Satchmo and Pops) was an American jazz musician. ...


Many Dixieland groups consciously imitated the recordings and bands of decades earlier. Other musicians continued to create innovative performances and original new tunes. Some fans of post bebop jazz consider Dixieland to no longer be a vital part of jazz, while some adherents consider music in the traditional style, when well and creatively played, every bit as modern as any other jazz style. Bebop or bop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ...


Dixieland combos usually have a rhythm section with a combination of drum kit, upright bass, piano, and banjo or guitar. The lead instruments are usually restricted to the trombone, trumpet, and clarinet. The definitive Dixieland sound is the simultaneous playing of the three lead instruments. Rhythm section refers to the musicians whose primary jobs in a jazz or popular music band or ensemble is to establish the rhythm of a song or musical piece, often via repeated riffs or ostinati. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set - the latter an old-fashioned term) is a collection of drums, cymbals and other percussion instruments arranged for convenient playing by a sole percussionist (drummer), usually for jazz, rock, or other types of contemporary music. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Old 6-string zither banjo 4-string banjos The banjo is a stringed instrument of African-American origin, sometimes called the gourd banjo. Its name is commonly thought to be derived from the Kimbundu term mbanza. ... A guitar is a stringed musical instrument. ... A lip-reed aerophone with a predominantly cylindrical bore, the trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium, and tuba. ... A bass clarinet, which sounds an octave lower than the more common Bâ™­ soprano clarinet. ...


With the advent of bebop in the 1940s, the earlier group-improvisation style fell out of favor with the majority of younger black players, while some older players of both races continued on in the older style. Though younger musicians developed new forms, many bebopers revered Armstrong, and quoted fragments of his recorded music in their own improvisations. Bebop or bop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ... Bebop or bop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ...


There was a revival of Dixieland in the 1950s, which brought many semi-retired musicians a measure of fame late in their lives. This period is sometimes seen as a fad. // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ... In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is the precursor molecule to FADH2. ...


There was also in the 1950s a style called "Progressive Dixieland" which sought to blend traditional Dixieland melody with bebop-style rhythm. Steve Lacy played with several such bands early in his career. Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bebop or bop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ... Steve Lacy (July 23, 1934 - June 4, 2004), born Steven Norman Lackritz in New York, was an innovative jazz soprano saxophonist. ...


Etymology

While the term Dixieland is still in wide use, the term's appropriateness is a hotly debated topic in some circles. For some it is the preferred label (especially bands on the USA's West coast and those influenced by the 1940s revival bands), while others (especially New Orleans musicians, and those influenced by the African-American bands of the 1920s) would rather use terms like Classic Jazz or Traditional Jazz. Some of the latter consider Dixieland a derogatory term implying superficial hokum played without passion or deep understanding of the music.


According to jazz writer Gary Giddins, the term Dixieland was widely understood in the early 20th century as a code for "black music." Frequent references to Dixieland were made in the lyrics of popular songs of this era, often written by songwriters of both races who had never been south of New Jersey. Other composers of the "Dixieland" standards, such as Clarence Williams and Jelly Roll Morton, were native New Orleanians. Jelly Roll Morton (1890-1941) is third from left Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton (October 20, 1890 - July 10, 1941) was a virtuoso pianist, a bandleader, and a composer who some call the first true composer of Jazz music. ...


Dixieland is often today applied to white bands playing in a traditional style. Some critics regard this labeling as incorrect. From the late 1930s on, black and mixed-race bands playing in a more traditional group-improvising style were referred to in the jazz press as playing "small-band Swing," while white and mixed-race bands such as those of Eddie Condon and Muggsy Spanier were tagged with the Dixieland label.


This brings us back to the fundamentally problematic character of the term Dixieland as a musical category. There are black musicians today, young as well as old, who play New Orleans jazz, traditonal jazz or small band swing, that musically could also be called Dixieland, although black musicians would not usually accept that term. Thus it makes sense to say only white musicians play Dixieland. In the early 20th century, Dixieland may have been understood as a code for black music in the northern US. However, in New Orleans the distinction was as clear then as now. It is sometimes said that only white bands were called Dixieland bands, like the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. While there is some evidence for this generalization, there are numerous counter examples of African American New Orleans musicans calling their music "Dixieland" or including the word "Dixieland" in the name of their band from the 1920s through the 1960s. Younger generations of African American New Orleans musicians generally strongly reject the "Dixieland" label. A number of early black bands used the term Creole (as with King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band), including some that were not actually of Creole ancestry. The term Creole is used with different meanings in different contexts, which can generate confusion. ...


Younger generations of primarily white players continued to find inspiration in the spirited, highly rhythmic traditional style of playing, with the result that the ranks of African-Americans today playing in the Dixieland style of jazz are very few. However, this has to be understood with the recognition that Dixieland jazz is as much a social/racial category as it is a musical one, unlike the more specifically musical New Orleans jazz or Traditional jazz. In these latter categories there are plenty of active young black musicians. The upshot of this is that although Dixieland is a term used to mean "traditional jazz" outside of jazz, within jazz it is a white subset of traditional jazz.


Modern Dixieland

A traditional jazz band plays for a party in New Orleans in 2005. Shown are Chris Clifton, trumpet; Brian O'Connell, clarinet; Les Muscutt, banjo; Chuck Badie, string bass; and Tom Ebert, trombone. Other instruments often found in this type of band are the piano and drums.
A traditional jazz band plays for a party in New Orleans in 2005. Shown are Chris Clifton, trumpet; Brian O'Connell, clarinet; Les Muscutt, banjo; Chuck Badie, string bass; and Tom Ebert, trombone. Other instruments often found in this type of band are the piano and drums.

Today there are three main active streams of Dixieland jazz: Download high resolution version (1026x720, 160 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1026x720, 160 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium, and tuba. ... A bass clarinet, which sounds an octave lower than the more common Bâ™­ soprano clarinet. ... Old 6-string zither banjo 4-string banjos The banjo is a stringed instrument of African-American origin, sometimes called the gourd banjo. Its name is commonly thought to be derived from the Kimbundu term mbanza. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A lip-reed aerophone with a predominantly cylindrical bore, the trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... This article is about the modern musical instrument. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ...


1. Chicago style is often applied to the sound of Chicagoans such as Eddie Condon, Muggsy Spanier, and Bud Freeman. The rhythm sections of these bands substitute the string bass for the tuba and the guitar for the banjo. Musically, the Chicagoans play in more of a swing-style 4-to-the-bar manner with emphasis on the backbeat (ie. beats two and four). The New Orleanian preference for an ensemble sound is deemphasized in favor of solos. Chicago-style dixieland also differs from its southern origin by being faster paced, resembling the hustle-bustle of city life. Chicago-style bands play a wide variety of tunes, including most of those of the more traditional bands plus many of the Great American Songbook selections from the 1930s by George Gershwin, Jerome Kern, Cole Porter, and Irving Berlin. Non-Chicagoans such as Pee Wee Russell and Bobby Hackett are often thought of as playing in this style. This modernized style came to be called Nicksieland, after Nick's Greenwich Village night club, where it was popular. though the term was not limited to that club. Eventually, this music came to be called Mainstream jazz, a term popularized by British critic Stanley Dance. Albert Edwin Condon, better known as Eddie Condon, (16 November 1904–4 August 1973) was a jazz banjoist, guitarist, and bandleader. ... Joseph Muggsy Spanier (1906-1967) was a prominent white trumpet and cornet player based in Chicago. ... Lawrence Bud Freeman (April 13, 1906 - March 15, 1991) was a Chicago born Jazz musician, known mainly for playing the tenor saxophone, but also able at the clarinet. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... The tuba is the largest of the low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... A guitar is a stringed musical instrument. ... Old 6-string zither banjo 4-string banjos The banjo is a stringed instrument of African-American origin, sometimes called the gourd banjo. Its name is commonly thought to be derived from the Kimbundu term mbanza. ... Backbeat can mean one of two things: Backbeat or Back beat is a style of rock music percussion Backbeat is a 1994 bio-pic of the early career of The Beatles, starring Stephen Dorff, Sheryl Lee, and Ian Hart Categories: Disambiguation ... The Great American Songbook is an informal term referring to a period of American popular music songwriting that took place between the 1930s and 1950s. ... George Gershwin photograph by Edward Steichen in 1927. ... Jerome David Kern (January 27, 1885 – November 11, 1945) was an American popular composer. ... Cole Porter Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989), born Israel Isidore Baline, in Tyumen, Russia (or possibly Mogilev, Belarus), was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... Charles Ellsworth Russell, much better known by his nickname Pee Wee Russell, (27 March 1906 - 15 February 1969) was a jazz musician. ... Robert Leo (Bobby) Hackett (January 31, 1915 _ June 7, 1976) was an accomplished jazz musician. ...


2. The West Coast revival is a movement begun in the late 1930s by the Lu Watters Yerba Buena Jazz Band of San Francisco and extended by trombonist Turk Murphy. It started out as a backlash to the Chicago style, which is closer in development towards swing. The repertoire of these bands is based on the music of Joe "King" Oliver, Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, and W.C. Handy. Bands playing in the West Coast style use banjo and tuba in the rhythm sections, which play in a 2-to-the-bar rhythmic style. The sound of San Fransican good time music is added. Watters was fixated on reproducing the recorded sound of King Oliver's band with Armstrong on second trumpet. Since the Oliver recordings were acoustic, they had no drums, so Watters omitted the drums as well, even though Oliver had drums when he played live. The term Swing has several meanings: Swing (dance), a kind of dance, including West Coast Swing and East Coast Swing. ... Joe King Oliver Joe King Oliver, (December 19, 1885 – April 8, 1938) was a bandleader and jazz musician. ... Jelly Roll Morton (1890-1941) is third from left Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton (October 20, 1890 - July 10, 1941) was a virtuoso pianist, a bandleader, and a composer who some call the first true composer of Jazz music. ... Louis Daniel Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971) (also known by the nicknames Satchmo and Pops) was an American jazz musician. ...


3. The New Orleans Traditional revival movement began with the rediscovery of Bunk Johnson in 1942 and was extended by the founding of Preservation Hall in the French Quarter during the 1960s. Bands playing in this style use string bass and banjo in the rhythm section playing 4-to-the-bar and feature popular tunes and Gospel Hymns that were played in New Orleans since the early 20th century such as "Ice Cream," "You Tell Me Your Dream," "Just a Closer Walk With Thee" and some tunes from the New Orleans brass band literature. Preservation Hall is a noted jazz performance hall located at 726 St. ...


There are also active traditionalist scenes around the world, especially in Britain and Australia.


Famous traditional Dixieland tunes include: "Muskrat Ramble", "Struttin' With Some Barbecue", "Tiger Rag", "Dippermouth Blues" "Milenburg Joys", "Basin Street Blues", "Tin Roof Blues", the hymn "Just a Closer Walk With Thee", and many others. All of these tunes were widely played by jazz bands of both races of the pre-WWII era, especially Louis Armstrong. They came to be grouped as Dixieland standards beginning in the 1950s.


Partial List of Dixieland Musicians

Some of the artists historically identified with Dixieland are mentioned in List of jazz musicians. A jazz musician is someone who plays or sings jazz music. ...


Some of the best-selling and famous Dixieland artists of the post-WWII era:

  • Tony Almerico, trumpeter, played Dixieland live on clear channel WWL radio in New Orleans, as well as at many downtown hotels, and was a tireless promoter of the music.
  • The Dukes of Dixieland, the Assunto family band of New Orleans. A successor band continues on in New Orleans today.
  • Eddie Condon, guitarist who led bands and ran a series of nightclubs in New York City and had a popular radio series. Successor bands played until the 1970s, and their mainstream style is still heard.
  • Turk Murphy, a trombonist who led a band at Earthquake McGoons and other San Francisco venues from the late 1940s through the 1970s.
  • Al Hirt, trumpeter who had a string of top-40 hits in the 1960s, led bands in New Orleans until his death.
  • Pete Fountain, clarinetist who led popular bands in New Orleans, retired recently.
  • Kenny Ball, had a top-40 hit with "Midnight in Moscow" in the late 1960s. From Britain.
  • Jim Cullum, cornetist based in San Antonio, TX. With his late father, led bands in San Antonio since 1963, originally known as the Happy Jazz Band. Today leads the Jim Cullum Jazz Band featured on the long-running USA public radio series, Riverwalk, Live From The Landing.
  • Tim Laughlin, clarinetist, protege of Pete Fountain, who has led many popular bands in New Orleans, and often tours in Europe during the summer

The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium, and tuba. ... Clear channel stations are AM radio stations that are designated as such so that only one or two 50,000 watt powerhouses operate at night on each designated frequency, covering a wide area via sky wave propagation. ... WWL is an TLA (three-letter acronym) with several meanings: the Worldwide Lexicon open source project WWL-TV, New Orleans affiliate for CBS WWL-AM This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Albert Edwin Condon, better known as Eddie Condon, (16 November 1904–4 August 1973) was a jazz banjoist, guitarist, and bandleader. ... Al Hirt (November 7, 1922 - April 27, 1999) was a popular trumpeter and bandleader. ... Pete Fountain (born July 3, 1930) is a New Orleans clarinetist. ... Kenny Ball (Kenneth Ball), was born on May 22, 1931 at Ilford, Essex, England and became famous as the lead player in Kenny Ball and his Jazzmen. ...

Festivals

  • In Dresden, Germany, Dixieland is the name of Europe's biggest international Jazz festival. 500,000 visitors celebrate it mainly on the river. A smaller festival, called "Riverboat Jazz festival" is held annually in the picturesque danish town, Silkeborg.
  • In the US, the largest traditional jazz festival is held in Sacramento CA annually on Memorial Day Weekend, with about 100,000 visitors and about 150 bands from all over the world. Other smaller festivals and jazz parties arose in the late 1960s as the Rock revolution displaced many of the jazz nightclubs.

Dresden is the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ...

Periodicals

There are a few active periodicals devoted to traditional jazz: The Mississippi Rag and the American Rag published in the US, and Jazz Journal International in Europe. The Mississippi Rag is an internationally influential monthly jazz newspaper published since 1973. ...


See also: Trad jazz Trad jazz, short for traditional jazz is a music genre popular in Britain and Australia from the 1940s onward through the 1950s and which still has enthusiasts today. ...

Jazz | Jazz genres
Acid jazz - Avant-garde jazz - Bebop - Dixieland - Calypso jazz - Chamber jazz - Cool jazz - Creative jazz - Free jazz - Gypsy jazz - Hard bop
Jazz blues - Jazz fusion - Jazz rap - Latin jazz - Mini-jazz - Modal jazz - M-Base - Nu jazz - Smooth jazz - Soul jazz - Swing - Trad jazz - West coast jazz
Other topics
Musicians - Jazz standard - Jazz royalty

  Results from FactBites:
 
New Orleans jazz - definition of New Orleans jazz in Encyclopedia (5177 words)
At the root of jazz is the blues, the folk music of former African slaves in the U.S. South and their descendants, heavily influenced by West African cultural and musical traditions that evolved as fl musicians migrated to the cities.
Early jazz influences found their first mainstream expression in the marching band and dance band music of the day, which was the standard form of popular concert music at the turn of century.
According to many New Orleans musicians who remembered the era, the key figures in the development of the new style were flamboyant trumpeter Buddy Bolden and the members of his band.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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