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Encyclopedia > New Mexico Campaign

The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. The victorious Union forces were led by Colonel Edward Canby, whose command included Major John Chivington of the 1st Colorado Volunteers, later notorious during the Colorado War for his role in the Sand Creek Massacre. The campaign is regarded by historians as the most ambitious attempt by the Confederates to establish control of the West, and to open an additional theater in the war. The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Hopkins Sibley was a brigadier general during the American Civil War fighting on the side of the Confederate States of America in the New Mexico Territory. ... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... This is the article on the state. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Union states are shaded blue, light blue states allowed slavery to continue during the War The Union was a name used by many to refer to the northern states during the American Civil War, while the derogatory name for people in the north was Yankees. Besides the obvious fact that... Major General E.R.S Canby Major General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9, 1817–April 11, 1873) graduated from West Point in 1839. ... Colonel John Chivington (1821-1894), born in Lebanon, Ohio, was the hero of Glorietta Pass and the man responsible for the Sand Creek Massacre. ... The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ... The Sand Creek Massacre refers to an infamous incident in the Indian wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864 when Colorado Militia troops in the Colorado Territory massacred an undefended village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the territorys eastern plains. ...


History

The previous summer of 1861, John Baylor had led of a force of Texans into the southern territory, seizing Mesilla and establishing the Confederate Territory of Arizona. The invasion had been part of a larger Confederate strategy of attempting to seize all or part of California, but the Confederates were unable to cross the desert towards Los Angeles. The 1862 campaign was a continuation of the overall strategy using a much longer invasion route that if successful, would have severed California and the West completely from the Union. The new strategy called for a invasion along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, seizing the Colorado Territory (then at the height of the Colorado Gold Rush) and Fort Laramie (the most important United States Army garrison along the Oregon Trail) before turning westward to attack the mineral-rich states of Nevada and California. 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None. ... Mesilla is a town located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. ... Territories in Arizona and New Mexico in 1863. ... Griffith Observatory and the Downtown Los Angeles skyline. ... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a broad mountain range in western North America. ... The Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, and New Mexico territories in 1860 The Colorado Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States that existed between 1861 and 1876. ... The Colorado Gold Rush was the boom in the prospecting and mining of gold in present-day Colorado in the United States that began in 1859 and lasted throughout the early 1860s. ... Grounds of Fort Laramie Fort Laramie, located in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming in the United States, was a significant 19th century trading post and later a military outpost of the United States Army. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... For other uses of the term, see Oregon Trail (disambiguation) The route of the Oregon Trail is shown in red in the western United States The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker. ... State nickname: Silver State, Battle Born State (official) Other U.S. States Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Governor Kenny Guinn Official languages None Area 286,367 km² (7th)  - Land 284,396 km²  - Water 1,971 km² (0. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ...


In February 1862, Sibley advanced northward up the valley of the Rio Grande, toward the territorial capital of Santa Fe and the Union storehouses at Fort Union. The Confederate advance followed the west bank of the river via Fort Craig, which was garrisoned by a 3,800-man Union force under Canby. Canby's command at the fort included the 1st New Mexico Volunteers under Kit Carson. Knowing he could not leave such a large Union force behind him as he advanced, Sibley attempted to lure the Union forces out into battle on favorable terms. On February 19 Sibley camped at the sandhills east of the fort with the intention of cutting the Union lines of communications with Santa Fe. On February 20, the Union forces advanced from the fort but were hit with heavy Confederate artillery and were forced to retreat. The next day the Confederates marched to Valverde Ford, six miles north of the fort. Canby attacked, but the Union forces were driven back by the Confederates under Colonel Thomas Green, who took command after Sibley was injured. Canby's forces retreated to Fort Craig but refused to surrender. The Rio Grande flowing past Albuquerque Rio Grande by Big Bend National Park,Texas Known as the Rio Grande in the United States and as the Río Bravo (or, more formally, the Río Bravo del Norte) in Mexico, the river rises in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, USA, flows... Santa Fe (Spanish: santa holy, fe faith) is the capital of New Mexico, a state of the United States of America. ... Fort Union National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service located in Watrous, New Mexico, USA. The national monument was founded on April 5, 1956. ... Kit Carson Kit Carson (December 24, 1809,in Madison County,Kentucky–May 23, 1868), born Christopher Houston Carson, was an American frontiersman. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... There have been several notable individuals named Thomas Green: Thomas Green, 18th century Bishop of Norwich Thomas Green, 18th century Woodwardian Professor of Geology Thomas Green, Confederate general after whom Tom Green County, Texas was named Thomas Hill Green, 19th-century English philosopher Thomas Green, 20th century British athlete Tom...


Sibley chose to disengage from the fort and continued northward towards Santa Fe, occupying it on March 10. The advance was stopped decisively on March 26-28 by the Union counteroffensive at the Battle of Glorieta Pass. March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... Battle of Glorieta Pass Conflict American Civil War Date March 26-28, 1862 Place Santa Fe County and San Miguel County, New Mexico Result Union victory The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26–28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico...


The campaign is part of the backdrop for the fictional battle in the 1967 motion picture The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo) is a 1966 Spaghetti Western film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood (the Good), Lee van Cleef (the Bad), and Eli Wallach (the Ugly). ...


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New Mexico Campaign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (581 words)
The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California.
The campaign is regarded by historians as the most ambitious attempt by the Confederates to establish control of the West, and to open an additional theater in the war.
The new strategy called for an invasion along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, seizing the Colorado Territory (then at the height of the Colorado Gold Rush) and Fort Laramie (the most important United States Army garrison along the Oregon Trail) before turning westward to attack the mineral-rich states of Nevada and California.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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