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Encyclopedia > New France
Nouvelle-France
French colony
1655 – 1763
Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Quebec
Language(s) French
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Monarchy
King See List of French monarchs
Governor See list of Governors
Legislature Sovereign Council of New France
Historical era Ancien Régime in France
 - Royal Control 1655
 - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759
 - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760
 - Treaty of Paris (1763) February 10, 1763
Succeeded by
British Quebec
Nova Scotia
Rupert's Land
Newfoundland
Louisiana (New Spain)

New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. At its peak in 1712 (before the Treaty of Utrecht), the territory of New France extended from Newfoundland to Lake Superior and from the Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. The territory was then divided in five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and Louisiana. France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 378 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (495 × 785 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/png) Royal Arms of France 1594 add transparency to image Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, kept at the National Library of France See also List of Queens and Empresses of France The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... The Governor of New France was the head of state representing the King of France in North America. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Sovereign Council of New France was a political body appointed by the King of France and consisting of a Governor General, an intendant and a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses of the term, see Ancien Régime. ... The Articles of Capitulation of Quebec were agreed upon between Jean-Baptiste-Nicolas-Roch de Ramezay, Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, and General George Townshend on behalf the French and British crowns during the French and Indian War. ... The Articles of Capitulation of Montreal were agreed upon between the Governor General of New France, Pierre de Cavagnal, Marquis de Vaudreuil, and Major-General Jeffrey Amherst on behalf of the French and British crowns. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nova_Scotia. ... Ruperts Land Ruperts Land was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, most of it now part of modern Canada. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_España(1748-1785). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... TheSaint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Scotland, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom see British Isles (terminology). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... The Treaty of Utrecht comprised a series of peace treaties signed in Utrecht in March and April 1713 that helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario and Minnesota to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded The Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ...

Contents

Early exploration

In 1536, larry Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King joe Francis I. However, joe was initially not interested in backing up these claims with settlement. French fishing fleets, however, continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with First Nations that would become important once France began to occupy the land. French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur, especially of the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe, as the European beaver had almost been driven to extinction. Eventually, the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in America. The Gaspé Peninsula or just the Gaspé (la Gaspésie in French) is a North American peninsula on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, in Quebec. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada are indigenous peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982 as the Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Binomial name Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820 A taxidermied American Beaver The American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is a large semi-aquatic rodent native to Canada, most of the United States and parts of northern Mexico. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Binomial name Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 The European Beaver (Castor fiber) is an endangered aquatic mammal which was hunted almost to extinction in Europe, both for fur and for castoreum, a secretion of its scent gland believed to have medicinal properties. ...


Acadia and Canada(sucks) were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonkian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples. These lands were full of unexploited and valuable natural riches which attracted all of Europe. By the 1580s, French trading companies had been set up, and ships were contracted to bring back furs. Much of what has transpired between the natives and their European visitors around that time is not known for lack of historical records. A Hupa man, 1923 The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ...


Early attempts at establishing permanent settlements were failures. In 1598, a trading post was established on Sable Island, off the coast of Acadia, but was unsuccessful. In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac, but only five settlers survived the winter. In 1604, a settlement was founded at Île-Saint-Croix on Baie François (Bay of Fundy) which was moved to Port-Royal in 1605, only to be abandoned in 1607, reestablished in 1610, and destroyed in 1613, after which settlers moved to other nearby locations. Sable Island from space, April 1994. ... Tadoussac was Frances first trading post on the mainland of New France (now in Quebec, Canada). ... See also Saint Croix an island in the United States Virgin Islands Saint Croix Island, or Dochet Island as it is called today, is a small uninhabited island in Maine located at 45° 07′ 42″ N 067° 08′ 02″ W, near the mouth of the Saint Croix River that forms... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... The Habitation at Port-Royal is a National Historic Site located at Port Royal in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ...


In 1608, sponsored by Henry IV of France, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec with sex families totalling 28 people, the second successful French settlement in what is now Canada. (The first was Port Royal, Acadie - now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia - established in 1604.) Colonization was slow and difficult. Many settlers died early, because of harsh weather and diseases. In 1630, there were only 100 colonists living in the settlement, but, by 1640, there were 359. Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Samuel de Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, was born around 1580 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on Frances west coast. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation...


Champlain quickly allied himself with the Algonquin and Montagnais peoples in the area, who were at war with the Iroquois. He established strong bonds with the Hurons in order to keep the fur trade alive. He also arranged to have young French men live with the natives, to learn their language and customs and help the French adapt to life in North America. These men, known as coureurs de bois (such as Étienne Brûlé), extended French influence south and west to the Great Lakes and among the Huron tribes who lived there. This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Innu flag Innu communities of Québec and Labrador The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of what Canadians refer to as eastern Québec and Labrador, Canada. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... Meaning It is a French word meaning Runners of the woods True Definition When the French Colonized in the new world, they were abundant in the trade of beaver skins. ... Étienne Brûlé (c. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Huron redirects here. ...

Map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612.
Map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612.

For the first few decades of Québec's existence, there were only a few dozen settlers there, while the English colonies to the south were much more populous and wealthy. Cardinal Richelieu, adviser to King Louis XIII, wished to make New France as significant as the English colonies. In 1627, Richelieu founded the Company of One Hundred Associates to invest in New France, promising land parcels to hundreds of new settlers and to turn Québec into an important mercantile and farming colony. Champlain was named Governor of New France. Richelieu then forbade non-Roman Catholics from living there. Protestants were required to renounce their faith to establish themselves in New France; many chose instead to move to the English colonies. The Roman Catholic Church, and missionaries such as the Recollets and the Jesuits, became firmly established in the territory. Richelieu also introduced the seigneurial system, a semi-feudal system of farming that remained a characteristic feature of the St. Lawrence valley until the 19th century. Download high resolution version (2512x1544, 847 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2512x1544, 847 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... The Company of One Hundred Associates was a business enterprise created at a time when all territories explored by the French and seized as a part of the French colonial empire were the property of the King of France. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... The Governor of New France was the head of state representing the King of France in North America. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Recollets (English: Recollects) were a French branch of the Roman Catholic order, the Franciscans (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Minorum), first established in France about 1570. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The seigneurial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land distribution used in the colonies of New France. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the same time, however, the English colonies to the south began to raid the St. Lawrence valley, and, in 1629, Québec itself was captured and held by the British until 1632. Champlain returned to Québec that year, and requested that Sieur de Laviolette found another trading post at Trois-Rivières, which he did in 1634. Champlain died in 1635. Des Forges boulevard at night. ...


The French Catholic Church, which after Champlain’s death was the most dominant force in New France, wanted to establish a utopian Christian community in the colony. In 1642, they sponsored a group of settlers, led by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, who founded Ville-Marie, precursor to present-day Montreal, farther up the St. Lawrence. Throughout the 1640s, Jesuit missionaries penetrated the Great Lakes region and converted many of the Huron natives. The missionaries came into conflict with the Iroquois, who frequently attacked Montreal. By 1649, both the Jesuit mission and the Huron society were almost completely destroyed by Iroquois invasions (see Canadian Martyrs). Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve Paul Chomedey, sieur de Maisonneuve (1612 & ndash; 1676) was a French military officer and the founder of Montreal. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) commonly refer to a brutal series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America, in which the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between... The Canadian Martyrs were eight Jesuit missionaries from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, who were martyred in the 17th century in Canada and Upstate New York. ...


The transport infrastructure in New France was all but nonexistent with few roads and canals. Thus people used the waterways, especially the St. Lawrence River as the main form of transportation, by canoes. In the winter, when the lakes froze, both the poor and the rich travelled by sleds pulled by dogs or horses. The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... A wood-and-canvas canoe evokes the heritage of canoeing in North America. ... Scene from winter nearly anywhere snow may fall on a handy hill—Children at play sledding. ...


Royal takeover

Great Seal of King Louis XIV used in New France after the colony was reformed as a province of France in 1663.
Great Seal of King Louis XIV used in New France after the colony was reformed as a province of France in 1663.

In the 1650s, Montreal still had only a few dozen settlers and a severely underpopulated New France almost fell completely to the Iroquois attempts to drive out the French. In 1660, settler Adam Dollard des Ormeaux led a Canadian and Huron militia against a much larger Iroquois force; none of the Canadians survived, but they succeeded in turning back the Iroquois invasion. In 1663, New France finally became more secure when Louis XIV made it a province of France. In 1665, he sent a French garrison, the Carignan-Salières Regiment, to Quebec. The government of the colony was reformed along the lines of the government of France, with the Governor General and Intendant subordinate to the Minister of the Marine in France. In 1665, Jean Talon was sent by Minister of the Marine Jean-Baptiste Colbert to New France as the first Intendant. These reforms limited the power of the Bishop of Quebec, who had held the greatest amount of power after the death of Champlain. Image File history File links LouisXIV.gif‎ Pavillon de Louis XIV File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): New France History of Quebec Monarchy in Quebec ... Image File history File links LouisXIV.gif‎ Pavillon de Louis XIV File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): New France History of Quebec Monarchy in Quebec ... Adam Dollard des Ormeaux, (1635 – May, 1660), usually known simply as Dollard des Ormeaux, was a colonist of New France who, as garrison commander, led his companions from the fort of the newly founded town of Ville Marie (also known as Montreal) in 1660 to ambush a larger force of... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... The Carignan-Salières Regiment was a French military unit formed by merging the Carignan Regiment and the Salières Regiment in 1659. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ... Jean Talon. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from... The Diocese of Quebec is the oldest Catholic see in the New World north of Mexico. ...


The 1666 census of New France was conducted by France's intendant, Jean Talon, in the winter of 1665-1666. It showed a population of 3215 habitants in New France, many more than there had been only a few decades earlier. But the census showed a great difference in the number of men (2034) and women (1181). As a result, and hoping to make the colony the centre of France's colonial empire, Louis XIV decided to dispatch more than 700 single women, aged between 15 and 30 (known as les filles du roi) to New France. At the same time, marriages with the natives were encouraged and indentured servants, known as engagés, were also sent to New France. One such engagé, Etienne Trudeau, was the ancestor of future Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Elliott Trudeau. The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and indeed in North America). ... -1... “Sun King” redirects here. ... The Kings Daughters (in French: filles du roi) were between 700 and 900 Frenchwomen (accounts vary as to the exact numbers) who immigrated to New France (now part of Canada) between 1663 and 1673 under the monetary sponsorship of Louis XIV, as an attempt to rectify the numerical inequality... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Etienne Trudeau was an engagé or Indentured servant from France and settle New France. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28...


Talon also tried to reform the seigneurial system, forcing the seigneurs to actually reside on their land, and limiting the size of the seigneuries, in an attempt to make more land available to new settlers. These schemes were ultimately unsuccessful. Very few settlers arrived, and the various industries established by Talon did not surpass the importance of the fur trade.


Since Henry Hudson claimed Hudson Bay, James Bay and surrounding territory for the English, they began expanding their boundaries across what is now the Canadian north beyond the French-held territory of New France. In 1670, with the help of French coureurs des bois, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, the Hudson's Bay Company was established to control the fur trade in all the land that drained into Hudson Bay. This ended the French monopoly on the Canadian fur trade. To compensate, the French extended their territory to the south, and to the west of the American colonies. In 1682, René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle explored the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, and claimed the entire territory for France as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. He named this territory Louisiana. Although little colonization took place in this part of New France, many strategic forts were built there, under the orders of Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac. Forts were also built in the older portions of New France that had not yet been settled. No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... James Bay in summer 2000 James Bay (French, Baie James) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. ... The coureurs des bois (runners of the woods) or voyageurs (travellers) is the name given to the men who engaged in the fur trade directly with the Amerindians in North America from the time of New France up through the 19th century, when much of the continent was still mostly... Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636 – 1710) was a French-born explorer and fur trader. ... Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada. ... The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Engraving of La Salle René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French cleric and explorer. ... Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded The Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Frontenac Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (May 22, 1622 – November 28, 1698) was a French courtier and Governor of New France from 1672 to 1682 and from 1689 to his death in 1698. ...

Map of North America in 1681
Map of North America in 1681

In 1689, the English and Iroquois began a major assault on New France, after many years of minor skirmishes throughout the English and French territories. This war, known as King William's War, ended in 1697, but a second war (Queen Anne's War) broke out in 1702. Québec survived the English invasions of both these wars, but Port Royal and Acadia fell in 1690. In 1713, peace came to New France with the Treaty of Utrecht. Although the treaty turned Newfoundland and part of Acadia (peninsular Nova Scotia) over to Britain, France remained in control of Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) and Fortress Louisbourg, as well as Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and part of what is today New Brunswick. Download high resolution version (3946x3697, 6352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3946x3697, 6352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Fortress Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The Small Protected By The Great) Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th - Total 5... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in...


After the treaty, New France began to prosper. Industries, such as fishing and farming, that had failed under Talon began to flourish. A "King’s Highway" (French:Chemin du Roi) was built between Montreal and Québec to encourage faster trade. The shipping industry also flourished as new ports were built and old ones were upgraded. The number of colonists greatly increased, and, by 1720, Canada had become a self-sufficient colony with a population of 24,594 people. The Church, although now less powerful than it had originally been, had control over education and social welfare. These years of peace are often referred to by the French as New France's "Golden Age", but the aboriginal peoples regarded it as a time of continued decimation of their nations[citation needed].


Peace lasted until 1744, when William Shirley, governor of Massachusetts, led an attack on Louisbourg. Both France and New France were unable to relieve the siege, and Louisbourg fell. France attempted to retake the fortress in 1746 but failed. It was returned to France under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, but this did not stop the warfare between the British and French in North America. In 1754, the French and Indian War began as the North American phase of the Seven Years' War (which did not technically begin in Europe until 1756), with the defeat of a Virginia militia contingent led by Colonel George Washington by the French troupes de la marine in the Ohio valley. William Shirley (1694-1771) William Shirley (1694-1771) was the British governor of Massachusetts from 1741 to 1759. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... There were two Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... Combatants Prussia Great Britain Hanover Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Austria France Russia Sweden Spain Saxony Naples and Sicily Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763), incorporating the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War enveloped both European and colonial theatres. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake...


The fall of New France and British rule

New France now had over 50,000 inhabitants, a massive increase from earlier in the century, but the British American colonies greatly outnumbered them, with over one million people (including a substantial number of French Huguenots). It was much easier for the British colonists to organize attacks on New France than it was for the French to attack the British. In 1755, General Edward Braddock led an expedition against the French Fort Duquesne, and although they were numerically superior to the French militia and their Indian allies, Braddock's army was routed and Braddock was killed. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... General Edward Braddock General Edward Braddock (1695? – July 13, 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed British attempt... An artist’s rendering of Fort Duquesne Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...


In 1758, British forces again captured Louisbourg, allowing them to blockade the entrance to the St. Lawrence River. This proved decisive in the war. In 1759, the British besieged Québec by sea, and an army under General James Wolfe defeated the French under General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in September. The garrison in Québec surrendered on September 18, and by the next year New France had been completely conquered by the British. The last French governor-general of New France, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, surrendered to British Major General Jeffrey Amherst on September 8, 1760. France formally ceded Canada to the British in the Treaty of Paris, signed on February 10, 1763. General Jim Wolfe, *www. ... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal (22 November 1698 – 4 August 1778) was a Canadian-born French colonial governor in the Americas. ... Jeffrey Amherst by Joshua Reynolds Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 - August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British army Born in Sevenoaks, England, he became a soldier aged about 14. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


French culture and religion remained dominant in most of the former territory of New France, until the arrival of British settlers led to the later creation of Upper Canada (today Ontario) and New Brunswick. The Louisiana Territory, under Spanish control since the end of the Seven Year's War, remained off-limits to settlement from the thirteen American colonies. Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative Assembly Historical... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in... The United States in 1810, following the Louisiana Purchase. ...


Twelve years after the British defeated the French, the American Revolution broke out in Britain's lower thirteen colonies. Many Quebeckers would take part in the war, including Major Clément Gosselin and Admiral Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil. After the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781, the Treaty of Paris in 1783 gave all former British claims in New France below the Great Lakes into the possession of the nascent United States. A Franco-Spanish alliance treaty returned Louisiana to France in 1801, allowing Napoleon Bonaparte to sell it to the United States in 1803. This sale represented the end of the French colonial empire in North America, except for the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, which are still controlled by France today. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Clément Gosselin (June 12, 1747 – March 9, 1816) was a revolutionary soldier in Moses Hazen regiment Revolutionary War // Clément Gosselin was born in 1747, so at the time of the British invasion of 1759 Clément was twelves years old. ... Louis-Philippe Rigaud Marquis de Vaudreuil (October 28, 1724 – December 14, 1802) was second in command of the french navy during the american Revolutionary War // Louis-Philippe father, of the same name, was born in Québec city of Philippe de Vaudreuil, and his acadian wife Soulange, so his grand... Combatants Britain Colonial America France Commanders Charles Cornwallis George Washington Comte de Rochambeau Strength 7,500 8,845 Americans 7,800 French Casualties 156 killed 326 wounded 7,018 captured Americans: 20 killed, 56 wounded French: 52 killed, 134 wounded The Battle of Yorktown (1781) was a victory by a... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... -1... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


The portions of the former New France that remained under British rule became directly administered by Great Britain as Lower Canada from 1791-1837, and then as the Province of Canada from 1837-1867, when the passage of the British North America Act of 1867 instituted home rule for most of British North America and established French-speaking Quebec as one of the original provinces of the Confederation of Canada. Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ...


See also

Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... The Sovereign Council of New France was a political body appointed by the King of France and consisting of a Governor General, an intendant and a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. ... A few acres of snow (in the original French, Quelques arpents de neige) is a quotation from Voltaire popularly understood to be a sneering evaluation of New Frances — and, by extension, Canadas — lack of mercantile value and strategic importance to France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... -1... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... Quebec has played a special role in Canada, and its history has taken a somewhat different path from the rest of Canada. ... Codex canadiensis, the name of an illustrated book on the subject of the native peoples and wildlife in Canada, was written in or about 1700 by a French missionary priest called Louis Nicolas. ... The Louisiana Purchase. ... French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ... French language spread in the United States. ... This is a list of the timelines for the history of New France beginning with the first exploration of North America by France and as part of the French colonial empire. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

Selected bibliography

  • Choquette, Leslie. Frenchmen into peasants : modernity and tradition in the peopling of French Canada. Cambridge MA : Harvard University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-674-32315-7. Translated into French as: De France à paysans : modernité et tradition dans le peuplement du Canada français. Sillery, Québec : Septentrion, 2001. ISBN 2894481969
  • Eccles, William John. The French in North America 1500-1763. East Lansing : Michigan State University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-87013-484-1.
  • Havard, Gilles et Vidal, Cécile. Histoire de l'Amérique française. Paris : Flammarion, 2003. ISBN 2-08-210045-6.
  • Lahaise, Robert et Vallerand, Noël. La Nouvelle-France 1524-1760. Outremont, Québec : Lanctôt, 1999. ISBN 2-89485-060-3.
  • Moogk, Peter N. La Nouvelle-France : the making of French Canada : a cultural history. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-87013-528-7.
  • Trigger, Bruce. The Children of Aataentsic. A history of the Huron People to 1660. Montréal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1976.
  • Trudel, Marcel. Histoire de la Nouvelle-France. 10 vol., Paris and Montréal, Fides, 1963 to 1999.

Bruce Graham Trigger (June 18, 1937–December 1, 2006) was a Canadian archaeologist. ... Marcel Trudel (born May 29, 1917) is a Canadian historian and author. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
New France (2178 words)
France was a colonial power in North America from the early 16th century, the age of great European discoveries and fishing expeditions, to the early 19th century, when Napoléon Bonaparte sold Louisiana to the US.
France became interested in the New World later than the other Western Christian powers - England, Spain and Portugal - and after the trips made by Christopher Columbus in 1492, John CABOT in 1497 and the CORTE-REAL brothers in 1501 and 1502.
France yielded its colony to England in the TREATY OF PARIS (1763).
New France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2377 words)
New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763.
The government of the colony was reformed along the lines of the government of France, with the Governor General and Intendant subordinate to the Minister of the Marine in France.
The 1666 census of New France was conducted by France's intendant, Jean Talon, in the winter of 1665-1666.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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