FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > New Economic Policy
For the Malaysian New Economic Policy, see Malaysian New Economic Policy.
Silver Ruble 1924
Silver Ruble 1924
Gold Chervonetz (1979)
Gold Chervonetz (1979)

The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Russian: Новая экономическая политика - Novaya Ekonomicheskaya Politika or НЭП) was officially decided in the course of the 10th Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party. It was promulgated by decree on March 21, 1921, "On the Replacement of Prodrazvyorstka by Prodnalog" (i.e., on the replacement of foodstuffs requisitions by fixed foodstuffs tax). In essence, the decree required the farmers to give the government a specified amount of raw agricultural product as a tax in kind.[1] Further decrees refined the policy and expanded it to include some industries. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputra are given discounts on real estate. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (183x747, 273 KB) Rubel 1944 USSR File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the Soviet Union New Economic Policy ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (183x747, 273 KB) Rubel 1944 USSR File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the Soviet Union New Economic Policy ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1752x1743, 481 KB) Bildbeschreibung: Tscherwonetz Quelle: eigen Fotograf/Zeichner: Rene Adrian König Datum: 26. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1752x1743, 481 KB) Bildbeschreibung: Tscherwonetz Quelle: eigen Fotograf/Zeichner: Rene Adrian König Datum: 26. ... The 10th Congress of the RCP(b) was held during March 8-16, 1921 in Moscow. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Prodrazvyorstka (prodovolstvennaya razvyorstka) (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка in Russian, or food apportionment) was... Prodnalog (Prodovolstvenniy nalog) (Продналог, продовольственный налог in Russian, or food tax) was a fixed food tax in Soviet Russia, introduced by the...

Contents

Policies

Under the policy of NEP, private ownership was restored to small parts of the economy, especially farming (but not to the land itself). It replaced the policy of "War Communism" which was introduced by Vladimir Lenin in 1918 as an emergency plan to help the Bolsheviks win the Civil War in Russia fought against the White Army. To explain the NEP, Lenin had said "We are not civilized enough for socialism", referring to the fact that Russia was still a primarily agrarian nation, with a very small urban population and a weak industrial base, and thus it did not meet the economic criteria necessary for full socialism. Lenin further justified the introduction of the NEP by declaring that the "commanding heights" of industry, that is, the large factories producing coal, iron, electricity etc., would still be under state control. The NEP also loosened trade restrictions, and tried to regain alliances with foreign countries. The NEP did improve the efficiency of food distribution and especially benefited the peasants. However, many urban workers resented the profits made by private traders. Joseph Stalin announced the abolition of the NEP in January, 1929 and replaced it with the first of his Five-Year Plans. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1920. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Trotsky first proposed the NEP in 1920, but the idea was dismissed.[citation needed] In the following year, Lenin proposed the NEP, and the policy was adopted. This allowed peasants to lease and hire labor, which is more capitalistic than socialistic and they were allowed to keep a surplus after paying a certain proportion of their tax to the government.[1] This has also led to the Fundamental Law of the Exploitation of Land by the Workers, which ensured that the peasants have a choice of land tenure. Capitalism generally refers to in philosophy and politics, a social system based on the principle of individual rights, including property rights. ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism, For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ...


Results of NEP

Agricultural production increased greatly. Instead of the government taking all agricultural surpluses with no compensation, the farmers now had the option to sell their surplus yields, and therefore had an incentive to produce more grain. This incentive coupled with the break up of the quasi-feudal landed estates not only brought agricultural production to pre-Revolution levels, but further improved them. While the agricultural sector became increasingly reliant on small family farms, the heavy industries, banks and financial institutions remained owned and run by the state. Since the Soviet government did not yet pursue any policy of industrialization, this created an imbalance in the economy where the agricultural sector was growing much faster than the heavy industry. To keep their income high, the factories began to sell their products at higher prices. Due to the rising cost of manufactured goods, peasants had to produce much more wheat to purchase these consumer goods. This fall in prices of agricultural goods and sharp rise in prices of industrial products was known as the Scissor crisis (from the shape of the graph of relative prices to a reference date). Peasants began withholding their surpluses to wait for higher prices, or sold them to "NEP men" (traders and middle-men) who then sold them on at high prices, which was opposed by many members of the Communist Party who considered it an exploitation of urban consumers. To combat the price of consumer goods the state took measures to decrease inflation and enact reforms on the internal practices of the factories. The government also fixed prices to halt the scissor effect. Surplus means the quantity left over, after conducting an activity; the quantity which has not been used up, and can refer to: budget surplus, the opposite of a budget deficit economic surplus Surplus product or surplus value in Marxian economics physical surplus in the economic theory of Piero Sraffa Operating... The Scissor Crisis was a name given during the New Economic Policy (NEP) in Russia in 1923 to the problem that the NEP was improving agricultural production faster than industrial production, leading to a disparity in prices (the name was coined by Trotsky after the scissors-shaped price/time graph). ...


The NEP succeeded in creating an economic recovery after the devastating effects of the First World War, the Russian Revolution and the Russian civil war. By 1928, agricultural and industrial production had been restored to the 1913 (pre-WWI) level.[1] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel...


End of NEP

By 1925, the year after Lenin's death, Nikolai Bukharin had become the foremost supporter of the NEP. It was abandoned in 1928 by Joseph Stalin, in favor of the First Five-Year Plan due to the Grain Crisis, and the need to rapidly accumulate capital for industrialization to the level of capitalist countries in the West (as Stalin famously proclaimed: "Either we do it, or we will be crushed."). Stalin proposed that the grain crisis was caused by the NEPmen, to which grain was often sold by the peasants, selling their agricultural products to the urban populations at a high price. Explanations for the grain crisis which are more popular among western historians revolve around the terms of trade being in favour of non-rural industries and a significant goods shortage which meant peasants had nothing to spend their resources on and thus held onto them. Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9, 1888 [O.S. September 27] – March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ... The First Five-Year Plan was a list of economic goals that was designed to strengthen the USSRs economy between 1928 and 1932, making the nation both militarily and industrially self-sufficient. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ...


The NEP was generally believed to be intended as an interim measure, and proved highly unpopular with the ardent Marxists in the Bolshevik party because of its compromise with some capitalistic elements.[1] They saw the NEP as a betrayal of communist principles, and they believed it would have a negative long-term economic effect, so they wanted a fully planned economy instead. In particular, the NEP benefitted the Communists' so-called "class enemies", the traders (NEPmen), while being detrimental to the workers, whom the Party claimed to represent. On the other hand, Lenin is quoted to have said "The NEP is in earnest and long-term" (НЭП - это всерьез и надолго), which has been used to surmise that if Lenin were to stay alive longer, NEP would have continued beyond 1929, and the controversial collectivization would have never happened, or it would have been carried out differently. In contrast, Lenin had also been known to say about NEP: "We are taking one step backward to later take two steps forward", suggesting that Stalin's five year plan was a fulfillment of Lenin's testament. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


Lenin's successor, Stalin, eventually introduced full central planning (although a variant of public planning had been the idea of the Left Opposition, which Stalin purged from the Party), re-nationalised the whole economy, and from the late 1920s onwards introduced a policy of rapid industrialization. Stalin's collectivization of agriculture has been his most notable, and most destructive departure from the NEP approach. It is often argued that industrialization could have been achieved without any collectivization just by taxing the peasants more, much like it has happened in Meiji Japan, Bismarck's Germany, and in post-war South Korea and Taiwan. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... This box:      A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ... The Left Opposition was a faction within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1923-1927. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d Service, Robert (1997). A History of Twentieth-Century Russia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 124-5. ISBN 0-074-40348-7. 

External links

  • Vladimir Lenin: About Natural Tax (Text of speech in the Russian, Record )

Image File history File links Lenin_-_About_Natural_Tax. ...

Further reading

Davies, R. W. (ed.) (1991). From tsarism to the new economic policy: continuity and change in the economy of the USSR. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801426219. u suck!!! this is the green giant!!!


  Results from FactBites:
 
The New Economic Policy (2409 words)
The essence of the New Economic Policy which he adopted soon afterwards was acceptance of a compromise with the peasantry.
The Bolshevik theoretician Riazanov labeled the NEP "the peasant Brest," that is to say, a temporary truce was concluded with the peasant adversary, as with the German Empire at Brest-Litovsk.
Nevertheless the economic motive was not the crucial one; as Lenin said, the question of the new tax was ''pre-eminently a political question, since it is essentially a question of the relation of the working class to the peasantry''.
New Economic Policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (852 words)
The New Economic Policy (NEP; in Russian Новая экономическая политика - Novaya Ekonomicheskaiya Politika or НЭП) was officially decided in the course of the 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party.
To explain the NEP, Lenin had said "We are not civilized enough for socialism", referring to the fact that Russia was still a primarily agrarian nation, with a very small urban population and a weak industrial base, and thus it did not meet the economic criteria necessary for full socialism.
The NEP was generally believed to be intended as an interim measure, and proved highly unpopular with the strong Marxists in the Bolshevik party because of its compromise with some capitalistic elements.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m