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Encyclopedia > New Covenant
Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). Depicted is his famous Sermon on the Mount in which he commented on the Law. Some scholars (see Antithesis of the Law) consider this to be an antitype of the proclamation of the Ten Commandments or Old Covenant by Moses from Mount Sinai.
Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). Depicted is his famous Sermon on the Mount in which he commented on the Law. Some scholars (see Antithesis of the Law) consider this to be an antitype of the proclamation of the Ten Commandments or Old Covenant by Moses from Mount Sinai.
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The term New Covenant (Hebrew: ברית חדשה, berit hadashah ; Greek: διαθήκη καινή, diatheke kaine) is used in the Bible (both in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament) to refer to an epochal relationship of restoration and peace following a period of trial and judgment. As are all covenants between God and man described in the Bible, it is "a bond in blood sovereignly administered by God." [1] New Covenant can mean: New Covenant — the biblical and theological concept — the primary use of the term New Covenant (politics) — the comparatively recent and minor use of the term in American politics New Covenant Theology — a particular theological view of redemptive history; comparable to Covenant Theology and Dispensationalism. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Messianic Age is a theological term referring to a future time of peace and brotherhood on the earth, without crime, war and poverty. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible, thus it is important to all Abrahamic religions. ...

Contents

Key Text: Jeremiah 31:31-34

This is the only line in the Hebrew bible that uses the wording "new covenant," but there are many other passages in the Hebrew Scriptures that speak about the same epochal relationship, without using this exact wording. Some passages speak of a "covenant of peace;" others use other constructions; some simply say "covenant," but in context it is clearly the New Covenant at issue; and some use metaphorical descriptions, like "Mount Zion," referring to the New Covenant. The key text at issue here is quoted in full in Hebrews 8:8-12 in the New Testament, with an interpretation in the surrounding text. That full quotation, with partial quotations of the same text in other New Testament passages, reflects that the authors of the New Testament and Christian leaders generally, consider Jeremiah 31:31-34 to be a central Old Testament prophecy of the New Covenant. Here is the key text: Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...

"Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day [that] I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD: But this [shall be] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more."Jeremiah 31:31-34 KJV [2] The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

The 1988 New JPS version of Jeremiah 31:34 is: The New Jewish Publication Society of America Version of the Jewish Bible (i. ...

No longer will they need to teach one another and say to one another, "Heed the LORD;" for all of them, from the least of them to the greatest, shall heed Me—declares the LORD. ...

Outline of the New Covenant

Based on a general, non-denominational, non-interpretive, reading of the text of Jeremiah 31:31-34, the following points are discernible: Denominationalism is the division of a religion into separate religious denominations. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ...

  • The New Covenant is established by God himself.[3]
  • The New Covenant is made with the "house of Israel" and the "house of Judah".[4]
  • The New Covenant is not like the broken covenant made with Moses at Mount Sinai.
    • Unlike the broken covenant (Jer 11), the New Covenant is kept by its members.[5]
  • Characteristics of the members of the New Covenant:[6]
    • The law of God is written in their thinking and their affections.
    • The LORD, i.e. YHVH, will be their God, and they will be his people.[7]
    • Every single member of the New Covenant "knows the LORD" in an intimate way.[8]
    • The sins of the members of the New Covenant are forgiven by God, and will never be recalled.

Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... This page is about sin in the context of religion. ...

Key Interpretive Texts in the New Testament

In English translations of the Greek New Testament, the use of the phrase "New Covenant" varies, however, for example, it occurs in the NIV translation at Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6, Hebrews 8:8, 9:15, and 12:24 as a translation of some form of διαθήκη (Strong's G1242) and καινός (Strong's G2537) or νέας (Strong's G3501). Luke 22:17-20 is disputed, six forms of the text have been identified, for example the Western text-type such as Codex Bezae omit verses 19b-20, see Bruce M. Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament for details. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Western text-type is a diverse group of manuscripts of the New Testament whose text is similar to that of early Christian writers in Rome and Gaul, including Justin Martyr and Irenaeus. ... A sample of the Greek text from the Codex Bezae The Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis (Gregory-Aland no. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ...


Different Views on the New Covenant

Different Views on the Covenant Recipients

There are two basic understandings of the New Covenant. The difference between them revolves around mutually-exclusive understandings of the nature of Israel, to whom the covenant was given in prophecy. The difference between these two views is largely the difference between a Jewish view of the world and a Christian view of the world, see also World view, Christian worldview. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It implies a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

  • Jewish view [9] — Israel includes primarily those who can trace their physical ancestry to the Biblical patriarch Jacob (renamed Israel by an unnamed wrestler, see Gen 32:22-32, 35:9-15), i.e. the children of Israel or Israelites, see also Strong's H3478. Since the New Covenant was prophetically made with "the house of Israel and the house of Judah," it cannot be understood apart from the united nation of Israel, i.e. the group of all people who are naturally related to Jacob, i.e. Israel, Judah's father (note that the modern political nation-state of Israel is not directly in view here). For many this is matrilineally determined. While proselytes have had a place in Judaism from early times, and most Jewish leaders advocate that non-Jews obey the Noahide laws (because all modern people are a part of the covenant made with Noah, see also B'nei Noah), and the prophets speak of the time as coming when the proselytes shall share in all the privileges of Israel (Ezekiel 47:22; Isaiah 2:2; 11:10; 56:3-7; Micah 4:1), even still, the closest a non-Jew (or non-convert) can come to the covenant is to be considered a ger toshav, or sojourning foreigner. In this view, Gentiles are not required to keep the Ten Commandments, per se, because they are not of the Israel which was forever bound by the covenant which the Decalogue described in stone. While many Jews await the coming of the Jewish Messiah, few Jewish scholars have explored, or developed a theology of, the New Covenant. The New Covenant has never been a significant feature of Jewish eschatology, other than the belief that eventually all Jews will know and follow the Torah without the need to study (Jer 31:32-33). For example, the article Jewish Encyclopedia: New Testament states: "The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jer. xxxi. 31-34 (comp. Heb. viii. 6-13, x. 16). That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel (Jer 31:35-36; comp. 33:25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people."
  • Christian view [10] — Before the advent of Dispensationalism in the 1820s, the almost universal Christian view of the nature of Israel is that it is, according to Jesus and his Apostles (most notably John and Paul, see also Pauline Christianity), primarily a spiritual nation (considered so especially since the coming of Jesus), composed of (1) the faithful remnant of the Jews (understood as those claiming Jesus as their Messiah, see also Jewish Christians), and (2) believers from among the Gentiles, who have been grafted into the promises made to the nation of Israel, including the New Covenant. According to Christian theology, this spiritual Israel is composed of only and all Jews and Gentiles who are genuinely of the faith of Abraham,[11] before he was circumcised,[12] which is understood to be a type for the Christian faith of believing Jesus to be Christ and Lord. The Apostle Paul says that "it is not the children of the flesh (i.e. the natural descendants of Abraham), who are the children of God, but the children of the promise (i.e. the spiritual descendants of Abraham)."

    Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they [are] not all Israel, which are of Israel: Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, [are they] all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these [are] not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.Romans 9:6-8 KJV [13] Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Wrestling can be: Sport wrestling Professional wrestling Another term for grappling This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i. ... The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible, thus it is important to all Abrahamic religions. ... Bnei Noah or Children of Noah is an ancient concept in Jewish Tradition. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Conversion to Judaism (Hebrew גיור, giur, conversion) is the religious conversion of a previously non-Jewish person to the Jewish religion and to the Jewish people. ... Ger toshav (pl. ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... This article is about a list of ten religious commandments. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Tawrat be merged into this article or section. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια, which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oi on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ... Typology is a theological doctrine or theory of types and their antitypes found in scripture. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

The New Covenant is not like the covenant made with Abraham which Israel broke. The "Seed Promise" promised Abraham innumerable heirs, ([2]Genesis 12:7, [3] Genesis 13:15), but also one specifically from his own body [4]Genesis 15:4. The Christian view says the greatest "seed" was Christ, [5]Galatians 3:16, through whom multitudes — not only Hebrews but also Gentiles, [6]Revelation 7:4,9 — have become children of Abraham, [7]Galatians 3:29. The "Land Promise" ([8]Genesis 15:13, [9]Exodus 12:40) promised Abraham's heirs a specific place to live, stretching from Egypt to Assyria. God gave Israel the land, which they possessed and lived in [10]Joshua 21:43, [11]Joshua 23:14. See also [12]Judges 2.3, and [13]1Kings 4:21. Premillennialism doesn't seem to know these promises were already fulfilled.

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about Premillennialism in Christian...

Different Views on Covenant Membership

Among Christians, there also exists significant differences on the question of membership in the New Covenant. These differences can be so serious that they form a principal reason for division i.e., denominationalism. Christian denominations exist because of their answer to this question. The first major split is between those that believe that only believers are members of the New Covenant, the credobaptist view, and those that believe that believers and their children[14] are members of the New Covenant, the paedobaptist view. Secondarily, there are differences among paedobaptists as to the nature of the membership of children in the covenant. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ...

  • Credobaptist view — text
  • Paedobaptist view — text
    • Covenantal view of infant baptism — text
    • Immediate regeneration view of infant baptism — text
    • Mediate regeneration view of infant baptism — text

Different Views on the New Covenant Knowledge of God

Another difference is between those who believe the New Covenant has already substantially arrived, and that this knowledge of God that the member of the New Covenant has is primarily salvific knowledge; and those that believe that the New Covenant has not yet substantially arrived, and that this knowledge is more complete knowledge, meaning a member of the New Covenant no longer has to be taught anything. This division does not just break down along Jewish v. Christian lines (as the previous difference did). In general, those that are more likely to lean toward the "already view", or salvific knowledge view, are those Christians that do not believe in the invisible Church (e.g. Roman Catholics), and Christians that practice believer's baptism, because both believe the New Covenant is more present reality than future reality. Also in general, those that lean toward the "not yet view", or complete knowledge view, are Jews, and Christians that practice infant baptism for covenantal reasons, and Dispensationalistic Christians (even though they tend to practice believer's baptism), because they believe the New Covenant is more future reality than present reality. For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Salvific Knowledge view — text
  • Complete Knowledge view — text

The New Covenant and the Kingdom of God

The New Covenant and the Kingdom of God are two very related concepts. So much so, that they are often considered interchangeable synonyms. While Jesus was much more likely to refer to the Kingdom of God (perhaps his favorite topic, as understood from the New Testament), he was not unknown to refer to the New Covenant. In the following passage reported by Luke, Jesus uses both terms to refer to the very same upcoming event, his death and resurrection, being represented in the Last Supper. The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek: - Basileia tou Theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci. ...

And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide [it] among yourselves: For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup [is] the new testament [i.e. new covenant] in my blood, which is shed for you. But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me [is] with me on the table. And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed! And they began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.Luke 22:14-23 KJV [15] The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

John the Evangelist recorded Jesus as saying: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ...

Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.John 18:36 KJV For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

Luke the Evangelist recorded Jesus as saying: Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ...

And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation: Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you.Luke 17:20-21 KJV This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

The New Covenant and Supersessionism

Main article: Supersessionism

Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall...

Criticism of the New Covenant

Part of the series on
Jewish Christians

Figures
Jesus
John the Baptist
Simon Peter
Pillars of the Church
Twelve Apostles
James the Just
Simeon of Jerusalem
Jude
Paul of Tarsus
Desposyni
Patriarchs of Jerusalem
Symmachus the Ebionite
This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... St. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Pillars of the Church, in the first Christian century, seems to have referred to the leaders of the Nazarenes, as the Jerusalem Jesus movement was called, principally, the Family of Jesus, later known as the Desposyni, including his bothers James, Joses or Joseph, Simon or Simeon, and Jude or Judas... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Simeon of Jerusalem, son of Cleophas was the leader of the church of Jerusalem, sometimes called the Jewish Christians, and according to most Christian traditions the second Bishop of Jerusalem. ... Jude (alternatively Judas or Judah) is the third of the brothers of Jesus appearing in the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Desposyni (from Greek (desposunos) of or belonging to the master or lord[1]) was a sacred name reserved only for Jesus blood relatives. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Symmachus the Ebionite (late 2nd century CE), was the author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament that were included by Origen in his Hexapla and Tetrapla, which compared various versions of the old Testament side by side with the Septuagint. ...

Ancient sects
Cerinthians
Ebionites
Elcesaites
Nasoraeans
Nazarenes
Nazoraeans
Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be... This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Elcesaites, Elkasites, or Helkesaites were a sect of followers of Jesus, whose religion was a syncretism of Gnosticism and Jewish Christianity. ... Nasoraean or Nasaraean (Grk: Nasaraioi) is the name of a pre-christian Jewish sect described by Epiphanius. ... The Nazarenes (Hebrew: Netzarim, נצרים) were a group of early followers of Jesus of Nazareth who, like the Ebionites, were noteworthy for refusing to follow Christianity in its complete break with Judaism. ... Nazoraean is the designation given to a first century offshoot of Nazarene Judaism by Epiphanius. ...

Modern sects
Ebionite Jewish Community
Messianic Jews
This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Messianic Judaism is any of a group of loosely related religious movements, all claiming a connection with Judaism but predominantly evangelical Christian in their beliefs, believing Jesus to be the Messiah, and using the New Testament as scripture. ...

Adversity
Antinomianism
Christian anti-semitism
Bar Kokhba Revolt
Aelia Capitolina
Emperor Constantine
Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια, which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... This article is about the history of Christianity and anti-Semitism. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... Constantine. ...

Writings
Clementine literature
Didache
Gospel of Matthew
Epistle of James
Gospel of the Ebionites
Gospel of the Hebrews
Gospel of the Nazoraeans
Liturgy of St James
Clementine literature (also called Clementia, Pseudo-Clementine Writings, The Preaching of Peter etc. ... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... The Gospel of the Ebionites is a text sharing an affinity with the Gospel of the Hebrews and the Gospel of the Nazarenes. ... The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ... The Gospel of the Nazarenes is a book of the New Testament Apocrypha. ... // Overview The Liturgy of Saint James is based on the traditions of the ancient rite of the Early Christian Church at Jerusalem, as the Mystagogic Catecheses of St Cyril of Jerusalem imply. ...

Issues
Aramaic of Jesus
Aramaic name of Jesus
Background of Jesus
Christian Torah-submission
Council of Jerusalem
Early Christianity
Expounding of the Law
Sabbath
Quartodecimanism
Sermon on the Mount
Seven Laws of Noah
Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ... For the article on the person, teaching, and acts of Jesus Christ, see the Jesus article. ... This article — a part of the Jesus and history series of articles — discusses the cultural and historical background of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, without regard to his divinity, or to his existence as an actual historical figure. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Ten Commandments on... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Book of Acts, Chapter 15 Council of Jerusalem is a title applied in retrospect to an unnamed meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter . ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, the Sabbath... Quartodecimanism (fourteenism, derived from Latin) refers to the practice of fixing the celebration of Passover for Christians on the fourteenth day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (for example Lev 23:5, in Latin quarta decima). This was the original method of fixing the date of the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon on the... The Rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ...

Pejoratives
Judaizers
Legalists
Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... Legalism, in Christian theology, is a term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ...

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Marc Zvi Brettler in his book, How To Read the Bible, argues that:

This prophecy offers a radical solution to this dilemma: "a new covenant" (v.31). The text gives no sign that this covenant will be new in content. Rather, God will now "put" and "inscribe" it inside the people themselves (v.33). In other words, they will be preprogrammed with the covenant (as firmware, in the parlance of computers), unable to break it. As a result, there will be no more need for the prophets to harangue the people (v.34). Stated differently, God will take away free choice from Israel. They will automatically abide by God's wishes, assuring divine blessing. The exile will not recur because Israel will not sin again-it cannot. Only in this way will the people's special relationship with God be established as a lasting fact (v.33). (pp.180-81)

From Brettler's analysis, it is deduced that the New Covenant in Jeremiah is a continuation of the Mosaic Law, rather than introducing new content. Thus, the only way that Jeremiah's New Covenant differs from the covenant at Sinai is that the Israelites are not going to be given the choice of following it or not, they will be forced to. This conclusion reflects one of several views on the hotly debated topic of Free will in theology. Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Free Will in Theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general. ...


See also

Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... New Wine into Old Wineskins is a saying of Jesus found in the Gospel of Matthew , Gospel of Mark and Gospel of Luke . ... Christian nonviolence is supported by peace churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Ten Commandments on... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... PRAISE GOD FOR ZIONISM AND THAT HIS WORD WILL BE FULLFILLED, WHETHER MOCKERS LIKE WIKI DENY IT OR NOT!!!! Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... The Law of Christ is mentioned only once in the Bible, in the Epistle to the Galatians: Bear one anothers burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      New Covenant Theology refers to a...

Notes

  1. ^ This definition of covenant is from O. Palmer Robertson's book The Christ of the Covenants. It has become an accepted definition among modern scholars. See this summary of his book by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon.
  2. ^ Scripture quotations marked "KJV" are taken from The Holy Bible, King James Version. Blue Letter Bible.
  3. ^ The New Covenant is clearly a future event from the point of view of the prophet Jeremiah. Judaism still ascribes it to the future. Christianity ascribes at least its inauguration to the time of Jesus, particularly ten days after his Ascension on the Day of Pentecost, Acts 2:1-42.
  4. ^ Understanding who is a member of the "house of Israel" is at the core of the difference between a Jewish and a Christian understanding of this prophecy. See Different Views of the New Covenant.
  5. ^ Indeed, this is the very stated purpose of the New Covenant. This unbroken nature of the New Covenant is understood by both Jewish and Christian scholars. Messiahtruth.com (a very anti-Christian pro-Jewish site) makes this point in their commentary on Jeremiah 31:31-34, maintaining that Christians do not understand this truth because Christians are claiming the advent of the New Covenant has already occurred with the death of Jesus, and yet they still do missionary work, though the prophecy entails universal knowledge of God. The difference is explained in the differing understandings of who Israel is, and therefore who the recipients of the New Covenant are. The difference is also related to the "already and not yet" principle in Christian theology, see also Kingdom of God. See these sections in this article on these topics.
  6. ^ These characteristics of the New Covenant's members are the content of the covenant. The New Covenant is changed hearts and minds, etc.
  7. ^ A four-letter word, Y (yodh) H (heh) V (vav) H (heh), is the covenantal name of the God of the Bible. It is a Hebrew word. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, translates YHVH as kurios, which means Lord in English. The New Testament does the same. The New Testament also ascribes the name to Jesus, who most Christians believe is YHVH incarnate. See Romans 10:5-13, where the name YHVH from the quoted passage in Joel 2:32 (quoted in Romans 10:13) is equated with Jesus Christ.
  8. ^ Why "intimate" knowledge? Even beyond a word-study of the Hebrew word translated "know" (which does suggest intimate knowledge, see also Strong's H03045), simple context of this very passage shows that the knowledge in reference cannot be bare knowledge of God's existence, or something similar. To "know" God in Jeremiah (as in all the prophets) is primarily about obedience to him in the covenant (e.g. Jer. 22:16). So, again, the new covenant is a promise of covenantal fidelity: the very thing lacking among the people in the view of the prophet Jeremiah.,
  9. ^ The Jewish view of Israel is also held by Christian Dispensationalists, which has become a major view among Evangelicals and Christian Fundamentalists, since its inception in the 1820s.
  10. ^ The Christian view of Israel has been almost universally held among Christians (to the extent that it has been pondered), from the beginning, until Dispensationalism began to replace that view, among its adherents, with the Jewish view.
  11. ^ While many religions can be considered "Abrahamic religions," what is meant in this context is the Christian faith.
  12. ^ Romans 4:9-12
  13. ^ Scripture quotations marked "KJV" are taken from The Holy Bible, King James Version.Blue Letter Bible.
  14. ^ The reference here is to children that have not themselves made a profession of Christian faith. For those that hold the paedobaptist view, the reception of believers' children into the covenant, via baptism, typically happens before the child is even able to express faith (usually as an infant, hence the name).
  15. ^ Scripture quotations marked "KJV" are taken from The Holy Bible, King James Version. Blue Letter Bible[1].

This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek: - Basileia tou Theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Baptism in early Christian art. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
40 Bicycles (4235 words)
The new covenant era is an age in which the unbelief that generally characterized the individuals within the old covenant is superseded by a covenant in which all of the members are faithful.
Although old covenant history was a history that was determined by disobedience and growing rebellion, in the promise of the new covenant in Jeremiah 31, God is promising that He will break this vicious cycle of rebellion and exile and put an end to the problem of national apostasy once and for all.
The humanity of the new covenant is determined by the principle of faithfulness in Christ.
New Covenant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2454 words)
That full quotation, with partial quotations of the same text in other New Testament passages, reflects that the authors of the New Testament and Christian leaders generally, consider Jeremiah 31:31-34 to be a central Old Testament prophecy of the New Covenant.
The New Covenant is made with the house of Israel and the house of Judah.
Since the New Covenant was prophetically made with "the house of Israel and the house of Judah", it cannot be understood apart from the nation of Israel, i.e.
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