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Encyclopedia > New Brunswick
New Brunswick
Nouveau-Brunswick
Flag of New Brunswick Coat of arms of New Brunswick
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Spem reduxit
(Latin: "Hope restored")
Map of Canada with New Brunswick highlighted
Capital Fredericton
Largest city Saint John
Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country)
Government
Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson
Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal)
Federal representation in Canadian Parliament
House seats 10
Senate seats 10
Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st)
Area  Ranked 11th
Total 72,908 km² (28,150 sq mi)
Land 71,450 km² (27,590 sq mi)
Water (%) 1,458 km² (563 sq mi) (2.0%)
Population  Ranked 8th
Total (2008) 751,250 (est.)[1]
Density 10.50 /km² (27.2 /sq mi)
GDP  Ranked 8th
Total (2006) $25.221 billion[2]
Per capita C$33,664 (12th)
Abbreviations
Postal NB
ISO 3166-2 CA-NB
Time zone UTC-4
Postal code prefix E
Flower Purple Violet
Tree Balsam Fir
Bird Black-capped Chickadee
Web site www.gnb.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, and is the only constitutionally bilingual province (French and English) in the federation.[3] The provincial capital is Fredericton. Statistics Canada estimates the provincial population in 2008 to be 751,250; a majority are English-speaking but there is also a large Francophone minority (35%), chiefly of Acadian origin. Nickname: Location of New Brunswick in Middlesex County Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Established December 30, 1730 Incorporated September 1, 1784 Government  - Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)  - Mayor James Cahill Area  - City  5. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Brunswick. ... Download high resolution version (500x651, 106 KB)Coat of arms of New Brunswick Source: Government of New Brunswick, fair use. ... The flag of New Brunswick Flag of New Brunswick (1950-1965) The flag of New Brunswick, Canada is a banner modelled after the provincial arms and was adopted by proclamation on February 24, 1965. ... The coat of arms of New Brunswick Officially known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of the Province of New Brunswick, New Brunswicks coat of arms was begun when the shield and motto in the achievement were granted on May 26, 1868 by Queen Victoria. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The following are the current provincial and territorial capitals of Canada: BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capitals of Canadas provinces and territories Category: ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Fredericpolis silvae filia noblis (Fredericton noble daughter of the forest) Established: {{{Established}}} Area: 131. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Lieutenant-Governors of New Brunswick prior to Confederation Lieutenant-Governors of New Brunswick post-Confederation Categories: Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick ... Herménégilde Chiasson, ONB, PhD, K.StJ (born 1946[1]) is a noted Acadian poet and playwright born in St-Simon, New Brunswick, Canada. ... The Premier of New Brunswick (fr: Premier ministre du Nouveau-Brunswick) is the first minister for the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Shawn Graham, MLA (born February 22, 1968 in Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) is a New Brunswick politician and is the current Premier of New Brunswick. ... The New Brunswick Liberal Association (NBLA), more popularly known as the New Brunswick Liberal Party or Liberal Party of New Brunswick, is one of the two major political parties in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Here is a list of Canadian provinces and territories ranked by area. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU This is a list of Canadian provinces and territories by population, based on Statistics Canada estimates as of July 1, 2007. ... BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU This article lists Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product. ... BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU This article lists Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product. ... This is a list of Canadian provincial and territorial postal abbreviations. ... ISO 3166-2 codes for Canada describe 10 Provinces and 3 Territories. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... ... A Canadian postal code is a string of six characters that forms part of a postal address in Canada. ... New Brunswick - 110 FSAs Categories: Canada Post ... Species List of Viola species Violets (Viola) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species throughout the world, mainly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere but also in Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes in South America. ... Binomial name Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. ... Binomial name Parus atricapillus Linnaeus, 1766 Synonyms Poecile atricapillus The Black-capped Chickadee, Parus atricapillus or Poecile atricapillus, is a small songbird, a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district of the same name, see Fredericton (electoral district). ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ...


The province's name comes from the archaic English translation for Braunschweig; a city in northern Germany, and the ancestral home of the Hanoverian King George III of the United Kingdom. Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Urban district City subdivisions: 20 Boroughs Lord Mayor: Gert Hoffmann (CDU) Governing parties: CDU / FDP Basic Statistics Area: 192. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ...

Contents

Geography

Physical geography

New Brunswick is bounded on the north by Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula and by Chaleur Bay. Along the east coast, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northumberland Strait form the boundaries. In the south-east corner of the province, the narrow Isthmus of Chignecto connects New Brunswick to the Nova Scotia peninsula. The south of the province is bounded by the Bay of Fundy, which has the highest tides in the world with a rise of 16 m. To the west, the province borders the American state of Maine. Road map of N.B. New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick) is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Gaspé Peninsula or just the Gaspé (la Gaspésie in French) is a North American peninsula on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, in Quebec. ... Chaleur Bay (baie des Chaleurs in French) is an arm of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence separating Quebecs Gaspé Peninsula from New Brunswicks North Shore. The wide mouth of the Restigouche River is formed at the western-most (upper) end of the bay. ... Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Northumberland Strait (French: détroit de Northumberland) is a strait in the southern part of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in eastern North America. ... The Isthmus of Chignecto is an isthmus bordering the Maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia which connects the mainland portion of Nova Scotia with North America. ... Map of Nova Scotia highlighting the Nova Scotia peninsula The Nova Scotia peninsula* is a peninsula on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


New Brunswick differs from the other Maritime provinces physiographically, climatologically and ethnoculturally. Both Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island are either wholly or nearly surrounded by water and oceanic effects therefore tend to define their climate, economy and culture. New Brunswick on the other hand, although having a significant seacoast, is sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean proper and has a large interior which is removed from oceanic influences. The climate therefore tends to be more continental in character rather than maritime. The settlement patterns and the economy of New Brunswick also is different from its Maritime neighbours, in that it is more based on the provinces river systems rather than on its seacoasts. The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The major river systems of the province include the St. Croix River, Saint John River, Kennebecasis River, Petitcodiac River, Miramichi River, Nepisiguit River and the Restigouche River. New Brunswick lies entirely within the Appalachian Mountain range. The New Brunswick Lowlands form the eastern and central portions of the province. The Caledonia Highlands and St. Croix Highlands extend along the Bay of Fundy coastal region, reaching elevations of more than 300 metres. The northwestern part of the province is comprised of the remote and more rugged Miramichi Highlands, as well as the Chaleur Uplands and the Notre Dame Mountains with a maximum elevation at Mount Carleton of 820 metres. The total land and water area of the province is 72,908 km², over 80% of which is forested. Agricultural lands are found mostly in the upper Saint John River valley, with lesser amounts of farmland in the southeast of the province, especially in the Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river valleys. The three major urban centres all are found in the southern third of the province. The St. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... The Kennebecasis River, pronounced ke-ne-buh-KAY-sis, is located in southern New Brunswick, Canada. ... The Petitcodiac River is located in southeastern New Brunswick,Canada, originating in the Caledonia Highlands and eventually courses through the city of Moncton before emptying into Shepody Bay on the Bay of Fundy. ... The Miramichi River is a Canadian river located in the east-central part of New Brunswick. ... Canoeing at the headwaters of the Nepisiguit River (the Nepisiguit Lakes of Mount Carleton Provincial Park), in New Brunswick, Canada (IR Walker 1988). ... The Restigouche River (fr. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Mount Carleton is the highest mountain in New Brunswick. ... “km” redirects here. ...


Urban areas

Metropolitan Moncton (Moncton, Riverview, Dieppe) with a population of 126,424 (Canada 2006 census) is the largest urban centre in the province. Saint John is the largest city and has a Metropolitan population (Saint John, Quispamsis, Rothesay) of 122,389. Greater Fredericton has a census agglomeration population of 85,000. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 162 pixel Image in higher resolution (985 × 199 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 162 pixel Image in higher resolution (985 × 199 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (1034x239, 213 KB)Saint John, New Brunswick. ... Download high resolution version (1034x239, 213 KB)Saint John, New Brunswick. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 165 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 330 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 165 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 330 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district of the same name, see Fredericton (electoral district). ... For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ... Riverview Town Hall, Winter 2003 Riverview is a town in south-eastern New Brunswick, Canada located on the south side of the Petitcodiac River, opposite the much larger city of Moncton. ... Dieppe (2005 population estimate 18,000) is a city on the Petitcodiac River in southeastern New Brunswick, Canada. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Quispamsis, New Brunswick, Canada, is a suburb of Saint John which sits beside the town of Rothesay. ... Motto: Quinque Iuncta In Uno (Five United In One), Country Canada Province New Brunswick County Kings County, Founded 1604 Incorporated January 1, 1998 Government  - Type Town Council  - Mayor William J. Bishop  - Deputy Mayor Bill Artiss  - Councillors Paul Barry, Scott Cochrane, Pat Gallagher Jette, Terry Kilfoil, Norma Mullett , Tom Young Area... For the Canadian federal electoral district of the same name, see Fredericton (electoral district). ...


Moncton is the fastest growing metropolitan area in the province, and amongst the top ten fastest growing urban areas in Canada. Its economy is principally based on the transportation, distribution, information technology,[4] commercial and retail sectors. Moncton has a sizeable francophone Acadian minority population (35%) and became the first officially bilingual city in the country in 2002. For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ...


Saint John is one of the largest shipping ports in Canada (in terms of gross tonnage) and is the home of Canada's largest oil refinery (with a second one planned). An LNG terminal is being constructed in the city and there are major oil-fired and nuclear power plants located in or near greater Saint John. Saint John is quickly becoming a major energy hub for the east coast. The retail, commercial and residential sectors are currently experiencing a resurgence.


Fredericton, the capital of the province, is home to the Beaverbrook Art Gallery and the University of New Brunswick. Canada's largest military base is located in suburban Oromocto. The economy of Fredericton is tied to the governmental, military and university sectors. The Beaverbrook Art Gallery is a small prestigious art gallery located in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada on the southwest bank of the Saint John River at the edge of the citys central business district. ... The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a Canadian university located in the province of New Brunswick. ... Oromocto is a town in west-central New Brunswick, Canada; approximately 20 kilometres southeast of Fredericton on the Saint John River. ...


History

N.B. in Canada today N.B. today New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick), is one of the three Maritime provinces in Canada, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. ...

4000 BC - 1 AD

The natives who settled the northern hemisphere probably crossed an ice bridge from Asia, and spread out to form many civilizations, including the Sáqwéjíjk, who settled the area around what is now New Brunswick. The Sáqwéjíjk begin calling themselves Míkmaq, a possessive form indicating awareness of their spiritual and collective unity. The concept roughly translates as "my kin friends".[5] The Augustine mound was built during this time, in 2500 BC, near Metepnákiaq (Red Bank First Nation). Ice bridges are temporary bridges formed by using frozen rivers and lake surfaces. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Miqmac, or priorly Micmac) are a First Nations or Native American people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Red Bank or Metepenagiag is a Mikmaq reservation west of Miramichi, New Brunswick, Canada. ...


Pre-European

The indigenous peoples of New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq (Micmac), Maliseet (Wolastoqiyik - "people of the good river" or St. John) and Passamaquoddy (Panwapskewiyik). The Mi'kmaq territories are mostly in the east of the province. The Maliseets are situated along the Wolastoq (St.John River) and the Passamaquoddy nation in the southwest, around Passamaquoddy Bay. Native Americans have occupied New Brunswick since about 4000 BC. The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Miqmac, or priorly Micmac) are a First Nations or Native American people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ...


French Colonial era (1604-1759)

The first known exploration of New Brunswick was by French explorer Jacques Cartier in 1534. The next French contact was in 1604, when a party led by Pierre Dugua (Sieur de Monts) and Samuel de Champlain set up a camp for the winter on St.Croix Island between New Brunswick and Maine. The colony was relocated the following year across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal. Over the next 150 years, other French settlements and seigneuries were founded along the St. John River, the upper Bay of Fundy region and in the Tantramar Marshes at Beaubassin, and finally at St. Pierre (the site of present day Bathurst). The whole Maritime region (as well as parts of Maine) were at that time proclaimed to be part of the French colony Acadia. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... Pierre Dugua, the Sieur de Monts, (1558 - 1628) was a merchant, explorer and colonizer. ... Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... See also Saint Croix an island in the United States Virgin Islands Saint Croix Island, or Dochet Island as it is called today, is a small uninhabited island in Maine located at 45° 07′ 42″ N 067° 08′ 02″ W, near the mouth of the Saint Croix River that forms... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... The seigneurial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land distribution used in the colonies of New France. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... A typical view of the Marsh The Tantramar Marshes are on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins Nova Scotia to New Brunswick and the Canadian mainland. ... The Tantramar Marshes are on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins Nova_Scotia to New_Brunswick and the Canadian mainland. ... Bathurst (2006 population 12,714; UA 18,154; CA population 31,424) is a Canadian city in Gloucester County, New Brunswick. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ...


One of the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 was the surrender of peninsular Nova Scotia to the British. The bulk of the Acadian population now found themselves residing in the new British colony of Nova Scotia. The remainder of Acadia (including the New Brunswick region) was only lightly populated and poorly defended. To protect their territorial interests in what remained of Acadia, France, in 1750, built two forts (Fort Beausejour and Fort Gaspareaux) along the frontier with Nova Scotia at either end of the Isthmus of Chignecto. A major French fortification (Fortress Louisbourg) was also built on Ile Royale, but the function of this fort was mostly to defend the approaches to the colony of Canada, and not Acadia. A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Year 1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fort Beauséjour is a Canadian national historic site in Aulac, New Brunswick. ... Fort Gaspareaux was a French fort at the head of Baie Verte, near the mouth of the Gaspareaux River and just southeast of the modern town of Port Elgin, New Brunswick, Canada. ... The Isthmus of Chignecto is an isthmus bordering the Maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia which connects the mainland portion of Nova Scotia with North America. ... Fortress Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. ...


As part of the Seven Years' War (1756-63), the British extended their control to include all of New Brunswick. Fort Beausejour (near Sackville) was captured by a British force commanded by Lt. Col. Robert Monckton in 1755. Acadians of the nearby Beaubassin and Petitcodiac regions were subsequently expelled in the Great Upheaval. Some of the Acadians in the Petitcodiac and Memramcook region escaped and under the leadership of Joseph Broussard continued to conduct guerrilla action against the British forces for a couple of years. Other actions in the war included British expeditions up the St. John River in both 1758 and 1759. Fort Anne (Fredericton) fell during the 1759 campaign and following this, all of present day New Brunswick came under British control. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Sackville Waterfowl Park Sackville (, AST) is a town in Westmorland County, located in South-Eastern New Brunswick, Canada, only eight km from the Nova Scotia border and 45 km from the regional city of Moncton. ... Robert Monckton (24 June 1726 – 21 May 1782) was an officer of the British army and a colonial administrator in British North America. ... Petitcodiac River is a river in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Deportation of Acadians order, read by Winslow in Grand-Pré church The Great Upheaval, also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation, the Acadian Expulsion, or to the deportees, Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced population transfer or ethnic cleansing of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755... Memramcook is a village in southeastern New Brunswick, 10 minutes from Moncton, located in the Memramcook River valley from which it takes its name. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


British Colonial era (1759-1867)

After the Seven Years' War, most of New Brunswick and parts of Maine were incorporated as Sunbury County into the colony of Nova Scotia. New Brunswick's relative location away from the Atlantic coastline hindered settlement during the post war period, although there were a few exceptions such as the coming of New England Planters to the Sackville region and the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch settlers in Moncton in 1766. Sunbury County (2001 population 25,776) is located in central New Brunswick, Canada. ...


The coming of the Revolutionary War had little effect on the New Brunswick region, aside from an attack on Fort Cumberland (the renamed Fort Beausejour) by rebel sympathizers led by Johnathon Eddy. Significant population growth would not occur in the region until Britain convinced refugee Loyalists from the United States to settle in the area following the war. With the arrival of these Loyalist refugees in Parrtown (Saint John) in 1783, the need to politically organise the territory became acute. The British colonial administrators in Halifax felt that the regions west of the Isthmus of Chignecto were too remote to allow for effective governance. As a result, the colony of New Brunswick was created by Sir Thomas Carleton on August 16, 1784. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... The Battle of Fort Cumberland resulted in the defeat of an American army trying to invade and inspire rebellion in the British colony of Nova Scotia during the American Revolutionary War. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Isthmus of Chignecto is an isthmus bordering the Maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia which connects the mainland portion of Nova Scotia with North America. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, some deported Acadians from Nova Scotia found their way back to "Acadie" where they settled mostly along the eastern and northern shores of the new colony of New Brunswick. Here they lived in relative (and in many ways self-imposed) isolation.


Other immigration to New Brunswick in the early part of the 19th century was from the west country of England and from Scotland, and also from Waterford, Ireland, often after first having come through or having lived in Newfoundland. A large influx of settlers arrived in New Brunswick after 1845 from Ireland as a result of the Potato Famine. Many of these people settled in Saint John or Chatham. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... For other uses, please see Great Famine. ... Chatham, New Brunswick, Canada, a former town on the south bank of the Miramichi River, was subsumed in 1995 into the new city of Miramichi. ...


The north-western border between Maine and New Brunswick had not been clearly defined by the Treaty of Paris (1783) that had ended the Revolutionary War. By the late 1830s, population growth and competing lumber interests in the area created the need for a definite boundary. In the winter of 1838-39, the situation quickly deteriorated, with both Maine and New Brunswick calling out their respective militias. The "Aroostook War" was bloodless, and the boundary was subsequently settled by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Combatants United States of America British Empire/British North America Strength 3,000–10,000 3,000–10,000 Casualties 38 incidental deaths The Aroostook War, also called the Pork and Beans War,the Lumberjacks War or the Northeastern Boundary Dispute, was an undeclared confrontation in 1838-39 between... The Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Great Britain and the shared use of the Great Lakes. ...


Throughout the 19th century, shipbuilding, both on the Bay of Fundy shore and also on the Miramichi River, was the dominant industry in New Brunswick. The Marco Polo, the fastest clipper ship ever built, was launched from Saint John in 1851. Resource-based industries such as logging and farming were also important components of the New Brunswick economy. Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... The Miramichi River is a Canadian river located in the east-central part of New Brunswick. ... The Marco Polo was a 3-masted wooden clipper ship, launched in 1851 at Saint John, New Brunswick. ...


New Brunswick in Canada (1867-present)

New Brunswick was one of the four original provinces of Canada and entered into the Canadian Confederation on July 1st, 1867. The Charlottetown Conference of 1864 that ultimately led to the confederation movement had only been intended originally to discuss a Maritime Union; but concerns over the American Civil War as well as Fenian activity along the border led to an interest in expanding the scope of the union. This interest arose from the Province of Canada (formerly Upper and Lower Canada, later Ontario and Quebec) and a request was made by the Canadians to the Maritimers to have the meeting agenda altered. Many residents of the Maritimes wanted no part of this larger confederation for fear that their interests and concerns would be ignored in a wider national union. Many politicians who supported confederation, such as Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley (New Brunswick's best-known Father of Confederation), found themselves without a seat after the next election, nevertheless backers of the wider confederation eventually prevailed. We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... A Maritime Union refers to a potential political union of the three Maritime provinces of Canada to form a single new province which would be the fifth largest in Canada by population. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Honourable Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley, PC (May 8, 1818 – June 25, 1896) was a Canadian politician. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ...


Following confederation, the fears of the anti-confederates were proven right as new national policies and trade barriers were soon adopted by the central government and this disrupted the historic trading relationship between the Maritime Provinces and New England. The situation in New Brunswick was exacerbated by the Great Fire of 1877 in Saint John and by the decline of the wooden shipbuilding industry. Skilled workers were thus forced to move to other parts of Canada or to the United States to seek employment. As the 20th century dawned however, the province's economy began to expand again. Manufacturing gained strength with the construction of several textile mills and, in the crucial forestry sector, the sawmills that had dotted inland sections of the province gave way to larger pulp and paper mills. The railway industry meanwhile provided for growth and prosperity in the Moncton region. Nevertheless, unemployment remained high throughout the province and the Great Depression would bring another setback. Two influential families, the Irvings and the McCains, emerged from the depression to begin to modernise and vertically integrate the provincial economy especially in the vital forestry, food processing and energy sectors. This article or section should include material from Saw mill A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... Pulp and Paper is the name of the largest United States-based trade magazine for the pulp and paper industry. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Kenneth Colin (K.C.) Irving (March 14, 1899-December 13, 1992) was born in Bouctouche, New Brunswick. ... McCain Foods Limited, a privately owned company established in 1957 by the McCain brothers in Florenceville, New Brunswick, Canada, is the worlds largest producer of french fries and other oven-ready frozen foods. ... It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ...


The Acadians in northern New Brunswick had long been geographically and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English speakers who lived in the south of the province. Government services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in predominantly francophone areas was noticeably less developed than in the rest of the province. This changed with the election of premier Louis Robichaud in 1960. He embarked on the ambitious Equal Opportunity Plan, in which education, rural road maintenance, and health care fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage of all areas of the province. County councils were abolished, and the rural areas came under direct provincial jurisdiction. The 1969 Official Languages Act made French an official language. The Honourable Louis Joseph Robichaud, PC , CC , QC , BA , LL.D (October 21, 1925 - January 6, 2005), popularly known as Little Louis or Ti-Louis (due both for his short height and his sharing a name with Uncle Louis St. ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ... Official Languages Act can refer to: the Official Languages Act of Canada or the Official Languages Act of Ireland. ...


Politics

NB Legislative Building, seat of New Brunswick Government since 1882

New Brunswick has a unicameral legislature with 55 seats. Elections are held at least every five years but may be called at any time by the Lieutenant Governor (the vice-regal representative) on consultation with the Premier. The Premier is the leader of the party that holds the most seats in the legislature. New Brunswick has a unicameral legislature with 55 seats. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning monarch since February 6, 1952. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Legislative_Assembly_of_New_Brunswick. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Legislative_Assembly_of_New_Brunswick. ... NB Legislative Building, seat of New Brunswick Government since 1882 The New Brunswick Legislative Building is the home to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, and is located in Fredericton, New Brunswick. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... The Premier of New Brunswick (fr: Premier ministre du Nouveau-Brunswick) is the first minister for the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ...


There are two dominant political parties in New Brunswick, the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party. While consistently polling approximately 10% of the electoral vote since the early 1980s, the New Democratic Party has elected few members to the Legislative Assembly. From time to time, other parties such as the Confederation of Regions Party have held seats in the legislature, but only on the strength of a strong protest vote. The New Brunswick Liberal Association (NBLA) is one of the two major political parties in the Canadian provice of New Brunswick. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick is a right-of-centre political party in New Brunswick, Canada. ... The New Brunswick New Democratic Party is a social democratic political party in New Brunswick, Canada that is linked with the federal New Democratic Party of Canada. ... The Confederation of Regions Party (CoR) was a right-wing Canadian political party founded in 1984 by Elmer Knutson. ...


The dynamics of New Brunswick politics are different from those of other provinces in Canada. The lack of a dominant urban centre in the province means that the government has to be responsive to issues affecting all areas of the province. In addition, the presence of a large francophone minority dictates that consensus politics is necessary, even when there is a majority government present. In this manner, the ebb and flow of New Brunswick provincial politics parallels the federal stage.


Since 1960, the province has elected a succession of young bilingual leaders. This combination of attributes has permitted recent premiers of New Brunswick to be disproportionately influential players on the federal stage. Former Premier Bernard Lord (Progressive Conservative) has been touted as a potential leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. Frank McKenna (premier, 1987 - 1997), had been considered to be a front-runner to succeed Prime Minister Paul Martin. Richard Hatfield (premier, 1970 -1987) played an active role in the patriation of the Canadian constitution and creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Louis Robichaud (premier, 1960 -1970) was responsible for a wide range of social reforms. Bernard Lord, LL.B., BA, MLA (born September 27, 1965 in Roberval, Quebec) is a Canadian politician. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Honourable Francis Joseph Frank McKenna, PC, ONB (born January 19, 1948, in Apohaqui, New Brunswick, Canada) is a Canadian politician and diplomat. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... Richard Bennett Hatfield, PC , ONB, BA , LL.B (April 9, 1931 – April 26, 1991) was a New Brunswick politician and long time Premier of the province (1970-1987). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... The Honourable Louis Joseph Robichaud, PC , CC , QC , BA , LL.D (October 21, 1925 - January 6, 2005), popularly known as Little Louis or Ti-Louis (due both for his short height and his sharing a name with Uncle Louis St. ...


On September 18, 2006, the Liberals won a majority with 29 out of 55 seats, making 38-year old Shawn Graham the new Premier of New Brunswick.[6] Shawn Graham, MLA (born February 22, 1968 in Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) is a New Brunswick politician and is the current Premier of New Brunswick. ...


Culture

Early New Brunswick culture was aboriginal in flavour, influenced by the native populations who made their home along the coast and riverbanks until the arrival of French-speaking settlers in the early 1600s and English-speaking settlers in the 1700s.


As described by Arthur Doyle,[7] in a paper written in 1976, an invisible line separated the two founding European cultures beginning on the eastern outskirts of Moncton and running diagonally across the province northwest towards Grand Falls. Franco-New Brunswick (Acadie) lay to the northeast of this divide and Anglo-New Brunswick lay to the southwest.


Mr Doyle's statement was made not long after government reforms by Hon. Louis J. Robichaud had significantly improved the status of French-speaking Acadians within the province and initiated their journey towards cultural recognition and equality with their English-speaking counterparts.

The Capitol Theater in Moncton
The Capitol Theater in Moncton

Nineteenth-century New Brunswick was influenced by colonial ties to France, England, Scotland and Ireland as well as by geographical proximity to New England and the arrival of about 40,000 Loyalists. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (766 × 1024 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)I Stu_pendousmat took this photo in the summer of 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (766 × 1024 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)I Stu_pendousmat took this photo in the summer of 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify...


Local society was founded in forestry and seaborne endeavours, thus a tradition of lumber-camp songs and sea chanties prevailed. Acadian cloggers and Irish and Scots step dancers competed at festivals to expressive fiddle and accordion music. The art of storytelling well known to the native populations passed on to the early settlers and poetry—whether put to music or not—was a common form of commemorating shared events, as the voice of a masterful poet or soulful musician easily conquered the province's language barriers.


Other cultural expressions were found in family gatherings and the church—both French and English cultures saw a long and early influence of ecclesiastical architecture, with Western European and American influences dominating, rather than any particular vernacular sense. Poets produced the first important literary contributions in the province. Cousins Bliss Carman and Sir Charles G. D. Roberts found inspiration in the landscape of the province, as would later writers as well. In painting, individual artists such as Anthony Flower worked in obscurity, either through design or neglect. Few nineteenth-century artists emerged but those who did often benefited from fine arts training at Mount Allison University in Sackville, which began in 1854. The program came into its own under John A. Hammond (serving from 1893 to 1916). Alex Colville and Lawren Harris later studied and taught art there. Both Christopher Pratt and Mary Pratt were trained at Mount Allison. The university’s art gallery, which opened in 1895 and is named for its patron John Owens of Saint John, is Canada’s oldest. (It actually opened in Saint John ten years earlier, but was moved to Sackville.) In French-speaking New Brunswick it would not be until the 1960s that a comparable institution was founded in the University of Moncton. Then, a cultural renaissance occurred under the influence of Acadian historians and such teachers as Claude Roussel; through coffee houses, music and through protest. An outpouring of Acadian art, literature and music has pressed on unabated since that time. Popular exponents of modern Acadian literature and music include Antonine Maillet and Edith Butler. The current New Brunswick Lieutenant Governor, Herménégilde Chiasson is a poet. (See also "Music of New Brunswick"). Bliss Carman , FRSC Bliss Carman, FRSC (April 15, 1861 - June 8, 1929) was a preeminent Canadian poet. ... Sir Charles George Douglas Roberts (January 10, 1860 - November 26, Canadian writer and poet, considered one of the most important figures in the development of a national Canadian literature. ... Anthony Flower (1792-1875) was a Canadian artist. ... Mount Allison University is a Canadian liberal arts university located in Sackville, New Brunswick. ... John H. Hammond (December 15, 1910 - July 10, 1987) was a record producer, musician and music critic from the 1930s to the early 1980s. ... Hon. ... Lawren Harris, 1926 Lawren Stewart Harris (October 23, 1885 – January 17, 1970) was a Canadian painter. ... John Christopher Pratt (born 1935 in St. ... Mary Frances Pratt (née West) (born 1935 in Fredericton, New Brunswick) is a Canadian painter specializing in still life paintings. ... The Université de Moncton is a French language university in Moncton, New Brunswick serving the Acadian community of Atlantic Canada. ... The Hon. ... Édith Butler O.C. (born Marie Nicole Butler 27 July 1942 in Paquetville, New Brunswick) is an Acadian singer-songwriter and folklorist. ... Herménégilde Chiasson, ONB, PhD, K.StJ (born 1946[1]) is a noted Acadian poet and playwright born in St-Simon, New Brunswick, Canada. ... New Brunswick is a Canadian province. ...

The Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton
The Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton

Dr. John Clarence Webster and Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook have made important endowments to provincial museums. Dr. Webster gave his art collection to the New Brunswick Museum in 1934, thereby endowing the Museum with one of its greatest assets. James Barry's Death of General Wolferanks as a Canadian national treasure. Courtesy of Lord Beaverbrook, the Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton has a collection of world-class art. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 244 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I Stu_pendousmat took this photo in the winter of 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 244 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I Stu_pendousmat took this photo in the winter of 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... The Beaverbrook Art Gallery is a small prestigious art gallery located in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada on the southwest bank of the Saint John River at the edge of the citys central business district. ... Dr. John Clarence Webster (1862-1950) was a Canadian-born physician pioneeering in obstetrics and gynecology who in retirement had a second career as an historian, specializing in the history of his native New Brunswick. ... Sir William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baronet, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC (May 25, 1879 – June 9, 1964) was a Canadian – British business tycoon, politician, and writer. ... The New Brunswick Museum is a Canadian museum and the provincial museum of New Brunswick. ... James Barry may refer to: James Barry, Irish-English painter James Barry, British surgeon This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Beaverbrook Art Gallery is a small prestigious art gallery located in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada on the southwest bank of the Saint John River at the edge of the citys central business district. ...


The performing arts have a long tradition in New Brunswick, dating back to travelling road shows and nineteenth-century opera in Saint John. The early crooner Henry Burr was discovered at the Imperial Theatre in Saint John. The most important proponent of theatre today is Theatre New Brunswickbased in Fredericton under the direction of Walter Learning, which tours plays around the province. Canadian playwright Norm Foster saw his early works premiere at TNB. Other live theatre troops include Theatre L'Escaouette in Moncton, the Théatre populaire d'Acadie in Caraquet and Live Bait Theatre in Sackville. All three major cities have significant performance spaces. The refurbished Imperial and Capitol theatres are found in Saint John and Moncton respectively. The more modern Playhouse is located in Fredericton. Henry Burr, sometimes called Irving Gillette and other pseudonyms, born Harry Haley McClaskey, (born 1882 died 1941), singer of popular songs from the early part of the early 20th century, early radio performer and producer. ... // Walter John Learning is a Canadian theatre director and actor, and founder of Theatre New Brunswick. ... Norm Foster (b. ...


In modern literature, the writers Alfred Bailey and Alden Nowlan dominated the New Brunswick literary scene in the latter third of the twentieth century. The world renowned literary critic Northrup Frye was influenced by his upbringing in Moncton. The expatriate British poet John Thompson, who settled outside Sackville, proved influential in his short-lived career. David Adams Richards, born in the Miramichi has become a well respected Governor-General's Award winning author. Dr. Alfred Goldsworthy Bailey, OC , Ph. ... Alden Nowlan (January 25, 1933 - June 27, 1983) was a Canadian poet. ... Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... John Thompson (March 17, 1938-April 26, 1976) was a Canadian poet. ... David Adams Richards (born 1950) is a Canadian author. ...


The Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada, based in Moncton, has recently flourished, features Russian and European trained dancers, and has started touring both nationally and internationally. Symphony New Brunswick, based in Saint John, also tours extensively in the province. For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ... Symphony New Brunswick is the largest classical music organization in New Brunswick Canada. ...


Economy

New Brunswick's urban areas have modern, service-based economies dominated by the health care, educational, retail, finance and insurance, sectors. These sectors are reasonably equitably distributed in all three principal urban centres. In addition, heavy industry and port facilities are found in Saint John, Fredericton is dominated by government services, universities, and the military and Moncton has developed as a commercial, retail, transportation, and distribution centre with important rail and air terminal facilities.


The rural primary economy is best known for forestry, mining, mixed farming and fishing. A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Fishermen in the harbor of Kochi, India. ...


Forestry is important in all areas of the province, but especially in the heavily forested central regions. There are many sawmills in the smaller towns and there are also several large pulp and paper mills, located in Saint John, Miramichi, Nackawic and Edmundston. Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Ritchie Wharf on the Newcastle waterfront in the City of Miramichi. ... The town of Nackawic is located 65 km west of the city of Fredericton on the north bank of the Saint John River in New Brunswick, Canada. ... Edmundston is a city at the junction of the Saint John and Madawaska Rivers in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada only a few kilometres from the border with Quebec. ...


Heavy metals including lead and zinc are mined in the north around Bathurst. One of the world's largest potash deposits is located in Sussex. A second potash mine, costing over a billion dollars, is in development in the Sussex region. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Bathurst (2006 population 12,714; UA 18,154; CA population 31,424) is a Canadian city in Gloucester County, New Brunswick. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... Sussex (2006 population: 4,241) is a Canadian town in Kings County, New Brunswick. ...


Farming is concentrated in the upper Saint John River valley (in the northwest portion of the province); where the most valuable crop is potatoes. Mixed and dairy farms are found elsewhere, but especially in the southeast, concentrated in the Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river valleys.


The most valuable fish catches are lobster, scallops and king crab. The farming of Atlantic salmon in the Passamaquoddy Bay region is an important local industry. Binomial name Homarus americanus H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Acantholithodes Cryptolithodes Dermaturus Glyptolithodes Hapalogaster Lithodes Lopholithodes Neolithodes Oedignathus Paralithodes Paralomis Phyllolithodes Placetron Rhinolithodes King crabs, also called stone crabs, are a family of crab-like decapod crustaceans chiefly found in cold seas. ... Binomial name Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 Atlantic salmon, known scientifically as Salmo salar, is a species of fish in the family Salmonidae, which is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the Atlantic. ... Passamaquoddy Bay is an inlet of the Bay of Fundy, between the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick, at the mouth of the St. ...


Tourism is an important income generator, especially in the Passamaquoddy region (dominated by the resort town of St. Andrews), and in the southeast of the province, centred on Moncton and Shediac. Tourist redirects here. ... St. ... The worlds largest lobster sculpture located in Shediac Shediac (46°13′N 64°32′W, AST) is a town located in Shediac Parish, Westmorland County, New Brunswick, Canada on the Northumberland Strait, about 20 km from the city of Moncton. ...


The largest employers in the province are the Irving group of companies, several large multinational forest companies, the government of New Brunswick, and the McCain group of companies.


Education

Sir Howard Douglas Hall on the UNB Fredericton campus. Currently the oldest university building still in use in Canada
Sir Howard Douglas Hall on the UNB Fredericton campus. Currently the oldest university building still in use in Canada
Convocation Hall from the swan pond, Mount Allison University.
Convocation Hall from the swan pond, Mount Allison University.

New Brunswick has a comprehensive parallel system of anglophone and francophone public schools providing education from kindergarten to grade 12. There are also several secular or religious private schools in the province, such as the university preparatory Rothesay Netherwood School. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1064 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Old Arts building on the University of New Brunswick Campus in Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1064 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Old Arts building on the University of New Brunswick Campus in Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (701x890, 818 KB) Summary Convocation Hall, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (701x890, 818 KB) Summary Convocation Hall, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada. ... Rothesay Netherwood School is a Canadian private boarding and day university-preparatory school (grades 6-12) located in Rothesay, New Brunswick Canada. ...


The New Brunswick Community College system has campuses in all regions of the province. This comprehensive trade school system offers roughly parallel programs in both official languages at either francophone or anglophone campuses. Each campus however, tends to have areas of concentration to allow for specialisation. There are also a number of private colleges for specialised training in the province, such as the Moncton Flight College; one of the top pilot-training academies in Canada. The New Brunswick Community College (NBCC) is comprised of campuses in Miramichi, Moncton, Saint John, St. ... The Moncton Flight College (MFC) is a pilot training school based at the Greater Moncton International Airport (YQM) in Dieppe, New Brunswick, Canada. ...


There are four publicly funded secular universities and four private degree granting religious institutions in the province. The two comprehensive provincial universities are the University of New Brunswick and Université de Moncton. These institutions both have extensive post graduate programs and Schools of Law. Mount Allison University in Sackville consistently ranks as one of the best liberal arts universities in Canada and has produced 47 Rhodes Scholars, more than any other liberal arts university in North America. The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a Canadian university located in the province of New Brunswick. ... The Université de Moncton is a French language university in Moncton, New Brunswick serving the Acadian community of Atlantic Canada. ... Mount Allison University is a Canadian liberal arts university located in Sackville, New Brunswick. ... Sackville can refer to several different things: Named individuals Baron Sackville Lionel Edward Sackville-West, 3rd Baron Sackville Edward Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville (1901-1965), writer and musicologist. ...


Publically funded provincial comprehensive universities

Publically funded undergraduate liberal arts universities The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a Canadian university located in the province of New Brunswick. ... The Université de Moncton is a French language university in Moncton, New Brunswick serving the Acadian community of Atlantic Canada. ...

Private religious undergraduate liberal arts university St. ... Mount Allison University is a Canadian liberal arts university located in Sackville, New Brunswick. ...

Private degree granting religious training institutions Atlantic Baptist University is a small Christian university located in Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. ...

St. ... The Bethany Bible College is a small Christian university in the Wesleyan faith in the town of Sussex, New Brunswick, Canada. ...

Tourism

See also: List of New Brunswick parks

The province has a number of other outstanding tourist attractions. These include the New Brunswick Museum, Kouchibouguac National Park, Mactaquac Provincial Park, the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, King's Landing Historical Settlement, Village Historique Acadien, Les Jardins de la Republique, Parlee Beach, Hopewell Rocks, La Dune de Bouctouche, Saint John Reversing Falls, Magnetic Hill Zoo, Crystal Palace, Magic Mountain Water Park, Cape Jourimain National Wildlife Preserve, Sackville Waterfowl Park, Fundy National Park and the 41 km Fundy Hiking Trail. List of parks in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. ... The New Brunswick Museum is a Canadian museum and the provincial museum of New Brunswick. ... Kouchibouguac National Park is located on the east coast of New Brunswick, north of the town of Richibucto. ... Mactaquac Provincial Park is a 525-hectare (1,300-acre) Canadian provincial park, located on the Saint John River 15 kilometres west of Fredericton New Brunswick in the community of Mactaquac. ... Kings Landing is a recreation of a New Brunswick town from the period of 1780 - 1910. ... Caraquet is a town in northern New Brunswick, Canada, on the Baie des Chaleurs. ... Edmundston is a city in Madawaska County at the junction of the Saint John and Madawaska Rivers in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada only a few kilometres from the border with Quebec and on the border with the United States, opposite the town of Madawaska, Maine. ... Parlee Beach is in New Brunswick, Canada. ... Out of view, a staircase affords access so that visitors can hike down from the cliffs into the bay during low tide. ... The Reversing Falls Rapids (also referred to as Reversing Falls) are located in Saint John, New Brunswick in a narrow gorge where the Saint John River empties into the Bay of Fundy. ... The Magnetic Hill is an optical illusion created by rising and descending terrain, located at the northern edge of the city of Moncton in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Crystal Palace is an indoor amusement park adjacent to the Champlain Place shopping mall in the city of Dieppe, New Brunswick, Canada. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Cape Jourimain is a headland in the western part of the Northumberland Strait on its southern shore, 3 kilometres west of New Brunswicks easternmost point at Cape Tormentine. ... Sackville Waterfowl Park Sackville (, AST) is a town in Westmorland County, located in South-Eastern New Brunswick, Canada, only eight km from the Nova Scotia border and 45 km from the regional city of Moncton. ... Fundy National Park is located on the Bay of Fundy near the village of Alma, New Brunswick. ...


Media outlets

New Brunswick has four daily newspapers, three of which are anglophone: the largest is Times & Transcript (40,000 daily) based in Moncton and serving Eastern New Brunswick, the The Telegraph Journal (37,000 daily), which serves Saint John and is distributed throughout the province, and the provincial capital daily The Daily Gleaner (25,000 daily) based in Fredericton. The French-language daily is L'Acadie Nouvelle (12,000 daily), based in Caraquet. There are also a number of weekly newspapers which are local in scope and based in the province's smaller towns and communities. The Times & Transcript is New Brunswicks largest daily newspaper. ... The Telegraph-Journal is a daily newspaper serving Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. ... The Daily Gleaner, often just The Gleaner, is a morning daily newspaper serving the city of Fredericton, New Brunswick and upper St. ... Caraquet, New Brunswick is a town in New Brunswick, a Canadian province. ...


The three English-language dailies and the majority of the weeklies are owned and operated by Brunswick News, privately owned by J.K. Irving. The other major media group in the province is Acadie Presse, which publishes L'Acadie Nouvelle. Brunswick News is a Canadian newspaper publishing company located in New Brunswick. ...


The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has various news bureaus throughout the province, but its main anglophone television and radio operations are centred in Fredericton. The CBC French service is based in Moncton. Global Television has its New Brunswick base in Saint John with news and sales bureaus in Fredericton and Moncton. CTV(ATV) Maritime is based in Halifax and has offices in Moncton, Fredericton and Saint John as well. Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Global Television is an Australian independent television production facility, responsible for producing many Australian TV series such as Australian Idol, Big Brother, Hi-5, MTV Australias Total Request Live, Neighbours, Rove Live and the former TV show, Good Morning Australia as GMA With Bert Newton. ... This article is about the Broadcast Television Network CTV, for the broadcasting television company see CTVglobemedia. ... For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian federal electoral district of the same name, see Fredericton (electoral district). ...


There are many private radio stations in New Brunswick with each of the three major cities having a dozen or more stations. Most smaller cities and towns also have one or two stations.


Demographics

Ethnicity

First Nations in New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet). The first European settlers, the Acadians, are today survivors of the Great Expulsion (1755) which drove several thousand French residents into exile in North America, Britain, and France for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George III during the French and Indian War. American Acadians, who were deported to Louisiana, are referred to as Cajuns. New Brunswick is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Miqmac, or priorly Micmac) are a First Nations or Native American people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ...


Much of the English-Canadian population of New Brunswick is descended from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution. This is commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope was restored"). There is also a significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John and the Miramichi Valley. People of Scottish descent are scattered throughout the province with higher concentrations in the Miramichi and in Campbellton. The Miramichi Valley is a Canadian river valley located in the east-central part of New Brunswick. ...


In the 2001 Canadian census the most commonly reported ethnicities were 193,470 French (26.9%); 165,235 English (23.0%); 135,835 Irish (18.9%); 127,635 Scottish (17.7%); 27,490 German (3.8%); 26,220 Acadians (3.6%), 23,815 "North American Indian" (First Nations) (3.3%); 13,355 Dutch (Netherlands) (1.9%); and 7,620 Welsh (1.1%). It should be noted that 242,220 people (33.7%) identified themselves as simply "Canadian" or "Canadien" while 173,585 (24.1%) also selected another ethnicity, for a total of 415,810 (57.8%) identifying as Canadian. (Each person could choose more than one ethnicity.)[8] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The number of Canadians who are of English descent is largely unknowable given the propensity of many Canadians to use the term English Canadian or English-Canadian to mean anglophone Canadian. ... Scottish-Canadians are Scottish people or people of Scottish descent living in Canada. ... German-Canadians are those Canadians of German decent. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ...

Population since 1851
Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
Provinces
1851 193,800 n/a n/a 4
1861 252,047 n/a 30.0 4
1871 285,594 n/a 13.3 4
1881 321,233 n/a 12.5 4
1891 321,263 n/a 0.0 4
1901 331,120 n/a 3.1 4
1911 351,889 n/a 6.3 8
1921 387,876 n/a 10.2 8
1931 408,219 n/a 5.2 8
1941 457,401 n/a 12.0 8
1951 515,697 n/a 12.7 8
1956 554,616 7.5 n/a 8
1961 597,936 7.8 15.9 8
1966 616,788 3.2 11.2 8
1971 634,560 2.9 6.9 8
1976 677,250 6.7 9.8 8
1981 696,403 2.8 9.7 8
1986 709,445 1.9 4.8 8
1991 723,900 2.0 3.9 8
1996 738,133 2.0 4.0 8
2001 729,498 -1.2 0.8 8
2006 729,997 0.1 -0.1 8

Source: Statistics Canada[9][10] Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ...

Languages

The 2006 Canadian census showed a population of 729,997.
Of the 714,490 singular responses to the census question concerning 'mother tongue' the most commonly reported languages were: The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ...

1. English 463,190 64.83%
2. French 232,975 32.61%
3. Mi'kmaq 2,515 0.35%
4. Chinese 2,160 0.30%
5. German 1,935 0.27%
6. Dutch 1,290 0.18%
7. Spanish 1,040 0.15%
8. Arabic 970 0.14%
9. Korean 630 0.09%
10. Italian 590 0.08%
11. Malecite 490 0.07%
12. Persian (Farsi) 460 0.06%

In addition, there were also 560 responses of both English and a 'non-official language'; 120 of both French and a 'non-official language'; 4,450 of both English and French; 30 of English, French, and a 'non-official language'; and about 10,300 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave some other unenumerated response. New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.[11]


Notes

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (1) English and French are the official languages of Canada and have the equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliamnet and government of Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ...

References

  • L. W. Bailey and D. R. Jack, Woods and Minerals of New Brunswick, (Fredericton, 1876)
  • William H Benedict. New Brunswick in history (2001)
  • S. D. Clark; Movements of Political Protest in Canada, 1640-1840 University of Toronto Press. 1959.
  • Tim Frink. New Brunswick: A short history (1997)
  • W. Reavley Gair and Reavley W. Gair. A Literary and Linguistic History of New Brunswick (1986)
  • James Hannay, History of New Brunswick, (St. John, 1909)
  • William Kingsford, History of Canada, (London, 1887-98)
  • Greg Marquis; "Commemorating the Loyalists in the Loyalist City: Saint John, New Brunswick, 1883-1934" Urban History Review, Vol. 33, 2004
  • M. H. Perley, On the Early History of New Brunswick, (St. John, 1891)
  • A. R. C. Selwyn and G. M. Dawson, Descriptive Sketch of the Physical Geography and Geology of the Dominion of Canada, (Montreal, 1884)
  • Robert Summerby-Murray; "Interpreting Deindustrialised Landscapes of Atlantic Canada: Memory and Industrial Heritage in Sackville, New Brunswick" The Canadian Geographer, Vol. 46, 2002
  • William Menzies Whitelaw; The Maritimes and Canada before Confederation Oxford University Press, 1934
  • A. B. Willmott, The Mineral Wealth of Canada, (London, 1898)

Photo Gallery

See also

Communities of the Province of New Brunswick, Canada See also: List of parishes in New Brunswick Incorporated municipalities Alma, New Brunswick Aroostook, New Brunswick Atholville, New Brunswick Baker Brook, New Brunswick Balmoral, New Brunswick Bas Caraquet, New Brunswick Bath, New Brunswick Bathurst, New Brunswick Belledune, New Brunswick Beresford, New Brunswick... This is a list of the counties in the Canadian province of New Brunswick: (county seat) Albert County, New Brunswick, formed in 1845 from part of Westmorland County (Hopewell Cape) and a small part of Saint John County Carleton County, New Brunswick, formed in 1833 from part of York County... Number of seats won by major parties at each election This article provides a summary of results for the general elections to the Canadian province of New Brunswicks unicameral legislative body, the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick. ... The Province of New Brunswick, Canada gave the world: William Maxwell Aitken, aka Lord Beaverbrook, Fleet Street publishing baron Richard Bedford Bennett, Canadian Prime Minister W. A. C. Bennett, British Columbia politician Henry A. Braithwaite, noted woodsman and guide Thomas Storrow Brown businessman, journalist, officer of the 1837 Rebellion Bliss... Lieutenant-Governors of New Brunswick prior to Confederation Lieutenant-Governors of New Brunswick post-Confederation Categories: Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick ... This is a complete list of airports, water aerodromes and heliports in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... New Brunswick is a Canadian province. ... The Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick is located in Fredericton. ... Government leaders prior to responsible government. ... List of rivers in the province of New Brunswick, Canada Atlantic Watershed Gulf of Saint Lawrence Watershed Bay of Fundy Watershed Alphabetical List: Anagance River Aroostook River Barnaby River see Miramichi River Bartibogue River see Miramichi River Bartholomew River Cains River see Southwest Miramichi River Caraquet River Dungarvon River Green... The following is a list of public schools in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, organized by school district and grade level. ... Scouting in New Brunswick has a long history, from the 1900s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
New Brunswick Tourism & Travel Guide: Tourism New Brunswick Canada (234 words)
On the southern coast of New Brunswick is the Bay of Fundy, which is surrounded with sandstone cliffs and warm sandy beaches, and is home to Fundy National Park and Grand Manan Island.
Saint John is New Brunswick's largest city and a popular port of call for cruise liners.
While in New Brunswick be sure to visit the world's largest lobster in Shediac and tour the grand Victorian homes of Miramichi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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