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Encyclopedia > New Amsterdam
New Netherland series
Colonies:
Fortresses:
The Patroon System

Rensselaerwyck
Colen Donck (Yonkers, New York)
New Amsterdam may refer to: New Amsterdam, the colonial settlement in the New Netherland colony that became New York City New Amsterdam, Indiana New Amsterdam, Guyana Nieuw Amsterdam, Netherlands, in the Dutch municipality of Emmen Nieuw Amsterdam in Suriname New Amsterdam Brewing Company in New York City New Amsterdam Theatre... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Apollo Theater on 125th Street; the Hotel Theresa is visible in the background. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... Beverwyck was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was to become Albany, New York when the English took control of the colony in 1664. ... Kingston is a city in Ulster County, New York, United States. ... Several landmarks from two New York Worlds Fairs still stand in Flushing Meadows, including the US Steel Unisphere Flushing is a neighborhood within the borough of Queens in New York City, New York. ... Middleburgh is a village located in Schoharie County, New York. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Major Mark Park Jamaica is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. ... Afternoon by the Sea (Gravesend Bay), a pastel by William Merritt Chase, ca 1888 shows traditional catboats in the bay and the Navesink Highlands across Lower New York Bay. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Flatlands is a neighborhood in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... Midwood has a substantial population of Haredi Jews and Modern Orthodox Jews, many of whom live and worship in the side streets around Kings Highway Midwood is a neighborhood located in the south central part of the Borough of Brooklyn, New York, USA, roughly halfway between Prospect Park and Coney... New Utrecht New Utrecht is a neighborhood in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... Bushwick is a neighborhood in the northeastern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... Zwaanendael was a settlement established in 1631 by Dutch settlers in the area of present-day Lewes, Delaware. ... Old New Castle Courthouse. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Fort Amsterdam was the name of the Dutch fort that was constructed on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1625. ... Fort Nassau (North) was a Dutch fort constructed on an island in the Hudson River near present day Albany in 1614. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Fort Casimir was a Dutch settlement in New Netherland, located in what is now New Castle County, Delaware. ... Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. ... A patroon was a proprietor of a tract of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland in North America. ... Rensselaerwyck is the name of a colonial estate that was located in what is now New York, USA. The estate was land purchased by Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a Dutch merchant and investor in the Dutch West India Company. ... Colen Donck was the title of a large Dutch-American owned estate of of 24,000 acres (a patroonship) originally owned by Adriaen van der Donck in New Netherland, located in present day New York City on the mainland north of Manhatten. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Directors-General of New Netherland:

Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (1620-1625)
Willem Verhulst (1625-26)
Peter Minuit (1626-33)
Wouter van Twiller (1633-38)
Willem Kieft (1638-47)
Peter Stuyvesant (1647-64)
This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland (Nieuw Nederland in Dutch) in North America. ... Cornelis Jacobsz May, sometimes spelled Mey or Meij was a Dutch explorer, captain and fur trader, and namesake of Cape May, Cape May County, and the city of Cape May, New Jersey, so named first in 1620. ... Willem Verhulst was the second director of the Dutch West India Company. ... Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (1589–August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. ... Wouter Van Twiller was an employee of the Dutch West India Company and the director-general of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1633 until 1638. ... Willem Kieft (1597-1647) was a Dutch merchant and director-general of New Netherland (of which New Amsterdam, later New York City, was the primary settlement), from 1638 until 1647. ... Pieter Stuyvesant is also the name of a Dutch cigarette brand from Imperial Tobacco. ...

Influential people

Adriaen van der Donck
Kiliaen van Rensselaer
Brant van Slichtenhorst
Cornelis van Tienhoven
Portrait of Adriaen van der Donck Adriaen Cornelissen van der Donck (ca. ... Kiliaen Van Rensselaer (1585 - 1643) was a Dutch merchant who was heavily involved in the Colonial American trade market. ...

Councils

Council of twelve men
Council of eight men
A Council is a group of people who usually possess some powers of governance. ... The Council of Twelve Men was a group of 12 men chosen in 1641 by the residents of New Amsterdam to advise the Director-General of New Netherland at the time, Willem Kieft, on relations with the Native Americans due to the murder of Claes Swits. ... The Council of eight men was an early representational democracy in New Amsterdam. ...

New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the 17th century Dutch colonial town that later became New York City. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The town developed outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1664) which was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic from 1624. Provincial possession of the territory was accomplished with the first settlement which was established on Governors Island in 1624. A year later, in 1625, construction of a citadel comprising Fort Amsterdam was commenced. Earlier, the harbor and the river had been discovered, explored and charted by an expedition of the Dutch East India Company captained by Henry Hudson in 1609. From 1611 through 1614, the territory was surveyed and charted by various private commercial companies on behalf of the States General of the Dutch Republic and operated for the interests of private commercial entities prior to official possession as a North American extension of the Dutch Republic in the form of an overseas province in 1624. Fort Amsterdam was the name of the Dutch fort that was constructed on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1625. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) are the parliament of the Netherlands. ...


The town of New Amsterdam became a city when it received municipal rights in 1653 and was unilaterally reincorporated as New York City in June 1665, making it the oldest incorporated city in the United States. The town was founded in 1625 by New Netherland's second director, Willem Verhulst who, together with his council, selected Manhattan Island as the optimal place for permanent settlement by the Dutch West India Company. That year, military engineer and surveyor Cryn Fredericksz van Lobbrecht laid out a citadel with Fort Amsterdam as centerpiece. To secure the settlers' property and its surroundings according to Dutch law, the third director, Peter Minuit, created a deed with the Manhattan Indians in 1626 which officially authorized legal possession of Manhattan according to Dutch Laws. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Willem Verhulst was the second director of the Dutch West India Company. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (1589–August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ...


The city, situated on the strategic, fortifiable southern tip of the island of Manhattan was to maintain New Netherland's provincial integrity by defending river access to the company's fur trade operations in the North River, later named Hudson River. Furthermore, it was entrusted to safeguard the West India Company's exclusive access to New Netherland's other two estuaries; the Delaware River and the Connecticut River. New Amsterdam developed into the largest Dutch colonial settlement in the New Netherland province, now the New York Tri-State Region, and remained a Dutch possession until August 1664, when it fell provisionally into the hands of the English. An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... The Tri-State Area The Tri-State Region is commonly used in the area surrounding New York City to unambiguously refer to the greater metropolitan area. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II...


The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 in the Treaty of Westminster. The Treaty of Westminster was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ...


The 1625 date of the founding of New Amsterdam is now commemorated in the Official Seal of the City of New York (formerly, the year on the seal was 1664, the year of the provisional Articles of Transfer, ensuring New Netherlanders that they "shall keep and enjoy the liberty of their consciences in religion", negotiated with the English by Petrus Stuyvesant and his council). Peter Stuyvesant, ca. ...

See also: Dutch colonization of the Americas and History of New York City

Contents

During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

History

Early 20th century Dutch Revival buildings on Pearl Street in lower Manhattan recall the Dutch origins of the city. The original 17th century architecture of New Amsterdam has completely vanished (aided by the fires of 1776 [8] and 1835 [9]), leaving only archaeological remnants
A map of the Hudson river valley c. 1635 (North is to the right)
A map of the Hudson river valley c. 1635 (North is to the right)

Dutch Revival buildings on Pearl Street in lower Manhattan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dutch Revival buildings on Pearl Street in lower Manhattan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Image File history File links Blaeu_-_Nova_Belgica_et_Anglia_Nova_(Detail_Hudson_Area). ... Image File history File links Blaeu_-_Nova_Belgica_et_Anglia_Nova_(Detail_Hudson_Area). ...

Early Settlement (1609–1625)

The first recorded exploration by the Dutch of the area around what is now called New York Bay was in 1609 with the voyage of the ship Halve Maen or "Half Moon", captained by Henry Hudson, in the service of the Dutch Republic, as the emissary of Holland's Lord-Lieutenant Maurits. Hudson named the river the Mauritius River and was covertly attempting to find the Northwest Passage for the Dutch East India Company. Instead, he brought back news about the possibility of exploitation of beaver pelts in the area, leading to private commercial interest by the Dutch who sent commercial, private missions to the area the following years. New York Bay is the collective term for the marine areas surrounding the entrance of the Hudson River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Halve Maen (Half Moon) was the name of a Dutch East India Company yacht which sailed in what is now New York harbor on September 11, 1609. ... No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... Northwest Passage routes For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Binomial name Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820 A taxidermied American Beaver The American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is a large semi-aquatic rodent native to Canada, most of the United States and parts of northern Mexico. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ...


At the time, beaver pelts were highly prized in Europe, because the fur could be "felted" to make waterproof hats. A by-product of the trade in beaver pelts was castoreum — the secretion of the animals' anal glands — which was used for its supposed medicinal properties. The expeditions by Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiansz in the years 1611, 1612, 1613 and 1614 resulted in the surveying and charting of the region from the 38th parallel to the 45th parallel. On their 1614 map, which gave them a four year trade monopoly under a patent of the States General, they named the newly discovered and mapped territory New Netherland for the first time. It also showed the first year-round, top-of-the-Hudson River, island-based trading presence in New Netherland, Fort Nassau, which 10 years later, in 1624, would be replaced by Fort Orange on the main land which grew into the town of Beverwyck, now Albany. World map showing the location of Europe. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Felting is the process by which wool fiber is matted into a fabric. ... Castoreum is the glandular secretion of the beaver. ... Blocks map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term New Netherland Adriaen Block (1567–1627) was a Dutch private fur trader and navigator who explored the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. ... Beverwyck was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was to become Albany, New York when the English took control of the colony in 1664. ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: , Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Government  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings (D) Area  - City  21. ...

Main article: New Netherland.

The territory of New Netherland, comprising the Northeast's largest rivers with access to the beaver trade, was provisionally a private, profit-making commercial enterprise focusing on cementing alliances and conducting trade with the diverse Indian tribes. They enabled the serendipitous surveying and exploration of the region as a prelude to anticipated official settlement by the Dutch Republic which occurred in 1624. Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ...


Immediately after the armistice period between the Dutch Republic and Spain (1609–1621), the founding of the Dutch West India Company took place in 1621. That year, as well as in 1622 and 1623, orders were given to the private, commercial traders to vacate the territory, thus opening up the territory to the transplantation of Dutch culture onto the North American continent whereon the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland would now apply. Previously, during the private, commercial period, only the law of the ship had applied. The mouth of the Hudson River was selected as the most perfect place for initial settlement as it had easy access to the ocean while securing an ice free lifeline to the beaver-rich, unexploited forests farther north where the company's traders could be in close contact with the American Indian hunters who supplied them with pelts in exchange for European-made trade goods for barter and wampum, which was soon being "minted" under Dutch auspices on Long Island. Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Barter is a type of trade that do not use any medium of exchange, in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... Map showing Long Island; to the north is Connecticut and to the west are New York City and New Jersey. ...


Thus in 1624 when the first group of families arrived on Governors Island to be followed by the second group of settlers to the island in 1625, in order to take possession of the New Netherland territory and to operate various trading posts, they were spread out to Verhulsten Island (Burlington Island) in the South River (Delaware River), to Kievitshoek (now Old Saybrook, Connecticut) at the mouth of the Verse River (Connecticut River) and at the top of the Mauritius or North River (Hudson River), now Albany. This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ... A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... Old Saybrook is a town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: , Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Government  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings (D) Area  - City  21. ...


Fort Amsterdam (1625)

The potential threat of attack from other interloping European colonial powers prompted the Directors of the Dutch West India Company to formulate a plan to protect the entrance to the Hudson River, and to consolidate the trading operations and the bulk of the settlers into the vicinity of a new fort. In 1625, most of the cattle and some settlers were moved from Noten Eylant, since 1784 named Governors Island, to Manhattan Island where a citadel to contain Fort Amsterdam was being laid out by Cryn Frederickz van Lobbrecht at the direction of Willem Verhulst who had been empowered by the Dutch West India Company to make that decision in his and his council's best judgment. Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ...


For the location of the fort, company director Willem Verhulst and Military Engineer and Surveyor Cryn Fredericks chose a site just above the southern tip of Manhattan. The new fortification was to be called Fort Amsterdam. By the end of the year 1625, the site had been staked out directly south of Bowling Green on the site of the present U.S. Custom House; west of the fort's site, later landfill has now created Battery Park. Willem Verhulst was the second director of the Dutch West India Company. ... Cryn Fredericks (first name sometimes spelled Kryn) was the chief engineer of the New Netherland colony in 1625 and 1626. ... Fort Amsterdam was the name of the Dutch fort that was constructed on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1625. ... Bowling Green, shown in a composite photograph taken from the steps of the U.S. Custom House looking north along Broadway. ... The central rotunda of the Alexander Hamilton Custom House The Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House (originally U.S. Custom House) is a building in New York City, built 1902 - 1907 by the federal government to house the duty collection operations for the port of New York. ... Albury landfill, Surrey, England A landfill, also known as a dump, is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. ... Battery Park (to New Yorkers, The Battery) is a 21-acre (8. ...


1625–1674

New Amsterdam in 1664
New Amsterdam in 1664
New Amsterdam c. 1674
New Amsterdam c. 1674

Willem Verhulst, with his council responsible for the selection of Manhattan as permanent place of settlement and situating Fort Amsterdam, was replaced by Peter Minuit in 1626. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x851, 157 KB) Gezicht op Nieuw York by Johannes Vingboons (1664) An early picture of New Amsterdam made in the year when it would swop ownership and become New York. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x851, 157 KB) Gezicht op Nieuw York by Johannes Vingboons (1664) An early picture of New Amsterdam made in the year when it would swop ownership and become New York. ... Image File history File links Allard_-Totius_Neobelgii_Nova_et_Accuratissima_Tabula_(Detail). ... Image File history File links Allard_-Totius_Neobelgii_Nova_et_Accuratissima_Tabula_(Detail). ... Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (1589–August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. ...


To legally safeguard the settlers' investments, possessions and farms on Manhattan island, Minuit negotiated the "purchase" of Manhattan from the Manahatta band of Lenape for 60 guilders worth of trade goods. The deed itself has not survived so the conditions causing the negotiation and validation of the deed are unknown. A textual reference to the deed became a foundation for the legend that Minuit had purchased Manhattan from the Native Americans for 24 dollars' worth of trinkets. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ISO 4217 Code NLG User(s) The Netherlands Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Legendary (disambiguation). ...


While the originally designed large fort, meant to contain the population as in a fortified city, was being constructed, the MohawkMahican War at the top of the Hudson led the company to relocate the settlers from there to the vicinity of the new Fort Amsterdam. As the settlers were at peace with the Manahatta Indians, the fact that no large scale foreign powers were imminently trying to seize the territory, and that colonizing was a prohibitively expensive undertaking, only partly subsidized by the fur trade, led a scaling back of the original plans. By 1628, a smaller fort was constructed with walls containing a mixture of clay and sand, like in Holland. See also Wall Street. Languages English, Mohawk Religions Christianity, Longhouse Related ethnic groups other Iroquoian peoples The Mohawk (Kanienkeh, Kanienkehaka or Kanien’Kahake, meaning People of the Flint) are an indigenous people of North America originally from the Mohawk Valley in upstate New York to Southern Quebec and Eastern Ontario. ... Mahicans settled the Hudson River south of the Mohawk River, moved east to Massachusetts, then to Wisconsin. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ...


Upon first settlement on Noten Eylant (now Governors Island) in 1624, a fort and sawmill was built. The latter was constructed by Franchoys Fezard. The New Amsterdam settlement had a population of approximately 270 people, including infants. A pen-and-ink view of New Amsterdam, drawn on-the-spot and discovered in the map collection of the Austrian National Library of Vienna in 1991, provides a unique view of Nieuw Amsterdam as it appeared from Capske (small Cape) Rock in 1648. Capske Rock was situated in the water close to Manhattan between Manhattan and Noten Eylant (renamed Governors Island in 1784), which signaled the start of the East River roadstead. New Amsterdam received municipal rights on February 2, 1653 thus becoming a city. On August 22, 1654, the first Ashkenazic Jews arrived with West India Company passports from Amsterdam to be followed in September by a sizable group of Sephardic Jews, without passports, fleeing from the Portuguese reconquest of Dutch possessions in Brazil. The legal-cultural foundation of toleration as the basis for plurality in New Amsterdam superseded matters of personal intolerance or individual bigotry. Hence, and in spite of certain persons private objections (including that of director-general Peter Stuyvesant), the Sephardim were granted permanent residency on the basis of "reason and equity" in 1655. Nieuw Haarlem was formally recognized in 1658. This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ... A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... A human infant In basic English usage, an infant is defined as a human child at the youngest stage of life, especially before they can walk or simply a child before the age of one. ... A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Pieter Stuyvesant is also the name of a Dutch cigarette brand from Imperial Tobacco. ... The Apollo Theater on 125th Street; the Hotel Theresa is visible in the background. ...


On August 27, 1664, in a surprise incursion when England and the Dutch Republic were at peace, four English frigates sailed in New Amsterdam’s harbor and demanded New Netherland’s surrender, whereupon New Netherland was provisionally ceded by director-general Peter Stuyvesant. This resulted in the Second Anglo-Dutch War, between England and the United Netherlands. is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Pieter Stuyvesant is also the name of a Dutch cigarette brand from Imperial Tobacco. ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


In 1667, the Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland (but did not relinquish them either) in the Treaty of Breda, in return for an exchange with the tiny Island of Run in North Maluku, rich in nutmegs and the guarantee for the factual possession of Suriname, that year captured by them. The New Amsterdam city was subsequently renamed New York, after the Duke of York (later King James II) — brother of the English King Charles II — who had been granted the lands with the kingly stroke of an armchair pen (similar to the Spanish claim to the entire western hemisphere). // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark. ... Run is one of the smallest islands of the Banda Islands which are a part of Indonesia. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... It has been suggested that Legal drugs#Nutmeg be merged into this article or section. ... NY redirects here. ... The title Duke of York is a title of nobility in the British peerage. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


However, in the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch recaptured New Netherland in August 1673 and installed Anthony Colve as New Netherland's first Governor (previously there had only been West India Company Directors), and the city was renamed "New Orange". After the signing of the Treaty of Westminster in November 1674 the city was relinquished to British rule and the name reverted to "New York"; Suriname became an official Dutch possession in return. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthony Colve was a Captain and the Governor of New York during a brief restoration of rule by the Netherlands. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... The Treaty of Westminster was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Maps of New Amsterdam

Redraft of the Castello Plan of New Amsterdam in 1660, drawn in 1916. Copyright New York Historical Society
Redraft of the Castello Plan of New Amsterdam in 1660, drawn in 1916. Copyright New York Historical Society

New Amsterdam's beginnings, unlike most other colonies in the New World, were thoroughly documented in maps. During the time of New Netherland's colonization the Dutch were Europe's pre-eminent cartographers. Moreover, as the Dutch West India Company's delegated authority over New Netherland was threefold, maintaining sovereignty on behalf of the States General, generating cash flow through commercial enterprise for its shareholders and funding the province's growth, its directors regularly required that censuses be taken. These tools to measure and monitor the province's progress were accompanied by accurate maps and plans. These surveys, as well as grassroots activities to seek redress of grievances, account for the existence of some of the most important of the early documents[1]. Image File history File links Castelloplan. ... Image File history File links Castelloplan. ...


There is a particularly detailed map called the Castello Plan. Virtually every structure in New Amsterdam at the time is believed to be represented, and by a fortunate coincidence it can be determined who resided in every house from the Nicasius de Sille List of 1660, which enumerates all the citizens of New Amsterdam and their addresses[2].


The map known as the Duke's Plan probably derived from the same 1660 census as the Castello Plan. The Duke's Plan includes the earliest suburban development on Manhattan (the two outlined areas along the top of the plan). The work was created for James (1633-1701), the duke of York and Albany, after whom New York City and New York State's capital Albany was named, just after the seizure of New Amsterdam by the British[3]. After that provisional relinquishment of New Netherland, Stuyvesant reported to his superiors that he "had endeavored to promote the increase of population, agriculture and commerce...the flourishing condition which might have been more flourishing if the now afflicted inhabitants had been protected by a suitable garrison...and had been helped with the long sought for settlement of the boundary, or in default thereof had they been seconded with the oft besought reinforcement of men and ships against the continual troubles, threats, encroachments and invasions of the English neighbors and government of Hartford Colony, our too powerful enemies." Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: , Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Government  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings (D) Area  - City  21. ...


The existence of these maps has proven to be very useful in the archaeology of New York. For instance, the excavation of the Stadthuys (City Hall) of New Amsterdam had great help in finding the exact location of the building from the Castello map[4]. It has been suggested that Town Hall be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

History of New York City

Periods
Lenape and New Netherland
New Amsterdam
British and Revolution
Federal and early American
Tammany and Consolidation
Early 20th century
Post–World War II
Modern and post-9/11
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The history of New York City (prehistory-1664) began with the geological formation of the peculiar territory of what is today New York City. ... The history of New York City (1665-1783) began with the establishment of British rule over formerly Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland. ... The history of New York City (1784-1854) started with the establishment of the city as the temporary capital of the new United States in 1785. ... The history of New York City (1855-1897) started with the inauguration in 1855 of Fernando Wood as the first mayor from Tammany Hall, an institution that would dominate the city throughout this period. ... The history of New York City (1898-1945) began with the formation of the consolidated city of the five boroughs in 1898. ... The history of New York City (1946–1977) saw the emergence of New York immediately after World War II as the unquestioned leading city of the world. ... The history of New York City (1978-present) has seen a modest boom and a bust in the 1980s, followed by a major boom in the 1990s, with mixed prospects since then. ...

New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland (Nieuw Nederland in Dutch) in North America. ... Peter Stuyvesant, ca. ... This table shows the descent of President Theodore Roosevelt and President Franklin D. Roosevelt from their common ancestor Claes van Roosevelt. ...

External links

The New Netherland Project is an attempt to translate and publish 17th century Dutch documents from the period of the Dutch colonization of New Netherland. ... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ...

References

  1. ^ Robert Augustyn, "Maps in the making of Manhattan" Magazine Antiques, September 1995. URL accessed on December 15, 2005.
  2. ^ Several repreductions of the Castello plan can be found on-line: [1], [2]. A colored version from 1916 can be found here: [3]. An interactive map (you can click on the buildings) can be found here: [4]. All URLs accessed on December 15, 2005.
  3. ^ An image of the Duke's map can be found on-line at the British Library site: [5]. URL accessed on December 15, 2005.
  4. ^ A slideshow of the famous Stadt Huys dig, a landmark archaeological excavation of one of the central blocks of New Amsterdam, can be found here: [6]. A 17-century picture of the Stadthuys can be found here: [7]. Both URLs accessed on December 15, 2005.
  • Hugh Morrison, Early American Architecture ISBN 0-486-25492-5 (Oxford University Press, 1952) [Dover Ed. 1987]
  • Russell Shorto, The Island at the Center of the World, The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony That Shaped America ISBN 0-385-50349-0 (New York, Doubleday, 2004)


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