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Encyclopedia > Nevirapine

Nevirapine chemical structure
Nevirapine Image File history File links Nevirapine. ...

1-cyclopropyl-5,11-dihydro-4-methyl
-6H-dipyrido [3,2-b:2',3'-e][1,4] diazepin-6-one
IUPAC name
CAS number
129618-40-2
ATC code
J05AG01
PubChem
4463
DrugBank
APRD00705
Chemical formula C15H14N4O
Molecular weight 266.298 g/mol
Bioavailability 93% ± 9%
Metabolism Hepatic
Elimination half-life 45 hours
Excretion Renal: <6% (Parent drug)
Biliary <5% (Parent drug)
Pregnancy category C: (USA)
Legal status
Routes of administration Oral

Nevirapine, with trade name of Viramune®, is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) used to treat HIV infection and AIDS. IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules . ... DrugBank is a database available at the University of Alberta that provides information about thousands of products. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The gram or gramme, symbol g, is a unit of mass. ... The mole and its simple conversions into different units of measurements. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ... The liver is one of the largest internal organs of the human body. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted by the liver of most vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother. ... The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Human immunodeficiency virus (commonly known as HIV, and formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus) is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... The Red Ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with the human...


As with other antiretroviral drugs, HIV may develop resistance if nevirapine is used alone, so recommended therapy consists of combinations of three or more anti-retrovirals. Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ...

Contents


History

Nevirapine was the first NNRTI approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States. It was approved Jun 21, 1996 for adults and Sep 11, 1998 for pediatrics. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


It was twice rejected in Canada, in 1996 and again in 1998, due to its high toxicity and lack of evidence of its effectiveness [citation needed]. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


When used with specific combinations of other antiretroviral drugs, nevirapine has been shown to significantly reduce viral load.[citation needed] A single dose of nevirapine given to both mother and child has been shown to reduce the rate of HIV transmission by 50% as compared with AZT, another antiretroviral drug [citation needed]. Viral load is a measure of the severity of a viral infection, and can be estimated by calculating the amount of virus in an involved body fluid, e. ... Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir® and Retrovis®, and as an ingredient in Combivir® and Trizivir®. It is an analog of thymidine. ...


Side effects

The main known side effect of nevirapine is the development of a rash. [1]


Nevirapine may cause potentially lethal side effects including liver damage when taken in multiple doses over time.[2] In 2000, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a black box label on nevirapine, warning that it could cause liver damage or rupturing of the blood and flesh [citation needed]. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In the United States, a black box warning is a type of warning that appears on prescription drugs that may cause serious side effects. ...


Controversy in Africa

After the negative assessment by the FDA, the drug's manufacturer, Boehringer Ingelheim, removed the drug from the intended market of pregnant American women. They moved the drug, instead, to the African market. Evidence of the drugs negative effects was found and buried in subsequent experimentation of the drug in Uganda.[3] Boehringer Ingelheim is a global pharmaceutical company based in Germany. ...


U.S. President George W. Bush's $500 million plan to help combat the African AIDS epidemic includes nevirapine, among other medications and programs. It has also been tested in trials in Africa, some of which have been highly controversial. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States and former governor of Texas. ...


Recently, South African President Thabo Mbeki accused the United States of using Africans as "guinea pigs" [4] Questions regarding the efficacy of the antiretroviral nevirapine when compared with its side effects were the main stated reason for President Mbeki's concern. Until recently, however, Mbeki endorsed claims by some scientists that HIV is not the cause of AIDS--findings which are considered unfounded by the mainstream scientific community [5] President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942, in Idutwa, South Africa) is the President of the Republic of South Africa. ... The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ...


During this period, President Mbeki refused international offers of help for South Africa's AIDS epidemic, insisting instead on "African solutions...for African problems." [6] This inaction has itself been blamed the deaths of tens of thousands of people. [7] Mbeki has since backed down from his position that it is poverty, not HIV, that is the primary cause of AIDS, and has opened country to aid from the international community. [8]


References

  1. Facts sheet from the AIDS Treatment Data Network. URL accessed on 2006-01-16.
  2. Associated Press (2006-01-04). Whistleblower says government bungled AIDS study. USA Today. URL accessed on 2006-01-16.
  3. Out of Control – Celia Farber's article in Harper's Magazine on nevirapine drug trials in Uganda
  4. . Nevirapine Controversy. URL accessed on 2006-01-16.
  5. . AEGiS-M&G: Mbeki's Aids Letter Defies Belief. URL accessed on 2006-04-12.
  6. P.O.V. - State of Denial . "The AIDS Rebel". PBS. URL accessed on 2006-04-12.
  7. SOUTH AFRICA: Mbeki's AIDS stance slammed. URL accessed on 2006-04-12.
  8. Mbeki's Aids pledge.


2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Celia Farber is a writer and journalist who has been chronicling HIV and AIDS since 1987. ... An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly general-interest magazine covering literature, politics, culture, and the arts. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ...

Antivirals (ATC J05A) edit
Anti-herpesvirus agents   Aciclovir · Cidofovir · Docosanol · Famciclovir · Foscarnet · Fomivirsen · Ganciclovir · Idoxuridine · Penciclovir · Trifluridine · Tromantadine · Valaciclovir · Valganciclovir · Vidarabine
Anti-influenza agents Amantadine · Oseltamivir · Peramivir · Rimantadine · Zanamivir
 
Antiretroviral drugs   NRTIs Zidovudine · Didanosine · Stavudine · Zalcitabine · Lamivudine · Abacavir · Tenofovir
NNRTIs   Nevirapine · Efavirenz · Delavirdine
PIs Saquinavir · Indinavir · Atazanavir · Ritonavir · Nelfinavir · Amprenavir · Lopinavir · Tipranavir
 
Other antiviral agents Fomivirsen · Enfuvirtide · Imiquimod · Interferon · Ribavirin · Viramidine

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nevirapine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (551 words)
Nevirapine, with trade name of Viramune®, is a controversial non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) meant to treat HIV and AIDS.
Nevirapine was the first NNRTI (tenth antiretroviral) approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Nevirapine is a key component of HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy) used clinically to treat AIDS patients in the U.S. and elsewhere.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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